Figure 1: Duerst’s Classification Habitus respiratory predominates aspect respiratory: rib cage, limbs and neck are long Habitus muscular predominates muscular aspect, harmony of forms. It’s the intermediate type between the respiratory and digestive Habitus digestive Abomen very developed, wide thorax, short neck, limbs ar short and robust

Figure 2: Hyper-Type & Type

Left: a subject that is hyper-typical (construction too heavy, lowered ventral line, axes skull/facial too convergent, short muzzle, nose backlog); Right: Cane Corso in type.

retracted

moderately retracted VENTRAL PROFILES

straight/rectilinear

basis of the Duerst classification (see Fig. 1), the Cane Corso must have muscular a habitus, he would be the intermediate type between respiratory (Greyhound) and digestive (Neapolitan Mastiff). Morsiani, regarding this part notes “with an almost imperceptible tendency to the respiratory habitus” Why did Morsiani feel the need to specify this, when he wrote “imper- ceptible”? The meaning can only be: if an example of Cane Corso, may move a bit from the central desired position in the muscular habitus, the tendency cannot be in the direction of digestive habitus. This topic is bit complex, but it’s important that it is explained well, because it is one of the inherent problems of the breed. To do so I am forced into a digression of canine zoog- nostic. Essentially the increase in the mass can be obtained in two ways: with the change of classification or with the change of the habitus. We find a good example of different classification in the Schnauzer breed. They have three formats or classifications; min- iature, standard and giant (Riesenschnau- zer), in this situation we are in front of an enlargement (like a photo). The range in the size fixed in the standard follows this approach. Completely different is the case of change to habitus, the mass increases, and the consequences result in changes

in the construction of the dog. One of the biggest mistakes committed by the breeder (and often not penalized by the judges) is to use this wrong way to increase the bone structure and the mass. They not only cre- ate the hyper-type (incorrect over typey Cane Corsos, see Fig. 2), but in this man- ner they also warp other characteristic of breed. In the end I have serious doubts whether to consider them poor examples of a Cane Corso or another breed entirely). In fact, the brilliant insights of Duerst were recently borne out by studies of constitu- tionalists. Digestive situations connected to Habitus can occur, penalizing from a functional point of view the endocrine system to which the subjects are hypo- oxidative and hypo-thyroid. These situa- tions have the consequence of less capabil- ity to utilize the muscular energy and less reactivity—vivacity. In fact Morsiani also there refers to normal build (“or slightly hyper-oxidative”). The increase in mass, which seems the fancy of many Cane Corso lovers, has other drawbacks related to the functional nature of a working dog. In animal mechanics; canines includ- ed, there are passive organs of move- ment (skeleton and viscera) and active ones (muscles). Since the latter are linked to the external body; as size increases,

their growth in proportion to body weight is lower. This means that dogs of a smaller size (in proportion) are faster and have more resistance than larger breeds. There is a brilliant demonstration of this by Professor Giuseppe Solaro in his book (see Fig. 3). For those that are not convinced, here is another clarifying example in the case of attack of a man or another animal-the force of impact, the kinetic energy (Ec) expressed in kilogram- meters causes the subject to be influ- enced more by the speed than the weight. This is calculated using the formula for kinetic energy Ec: • Ec = ½ W x S ² x 9,81 • Ec = kinetic energy, S = speed in m/ sec, W = weight in kg, • 9.81 = conversion coefficient J ( Joule) to kgm (kilogram-meter) With reference to the formula we can deduce that a subject weighing 50kg launched at a speed of 40 km/h (equal to m/s 11,111) will have an impact force equal to 314 Kgm (kilogram-meters), whereas a subject with a weight of 40 kg and a speed of 50 km (equal to m/s 13.890) will have a higher impact force; equal to 393 Kgm. The extreme example would be that of the bullet, its devastating strength comes from its impact velocity; its weight is in fact a few grams.

Figure 3: Solaro’s Cubes

Superimposing the 8 small cubes you will get a larger cube equal weight of 8 kg, but with a surface area lower than the sum of the individual small cubes, because only half (3) of the faces are external. Whereby:

8 small cubes of 1 kg weight, they have the side 1 cm, each with 6 faces. Each face is 1 cm, for which each cube has a surface area of 6 cm 2 . Whereby:

B = surface 48 cm 2 (the sum of the areas 8 cubes x 6 cm 2 )

B = total weight of 8 kg (8 cubes x 1 kg) unvaried

A = 8 kg (the total weight 8 cubes x 1 kg)

A = surface 24 cm 2 (8 cubes x 3 cm 2 )

+ mass = – liveliness and speed

S HOW S IGHT M AGAZINE , J ULY 2015 • 207

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