Showsight Presents the Newfoundland

NEWFOUNDLAND

Let’s Talk Breed Education!

SUBMITTED BY THE NEWFOUNDLAND CLUB OF AMERICA NEWFOUNDLAND History

T he origin of the Newfoundland dog will always remain a matter of speculation. There are several theories to explain the appearance of the large black dogs on their native island of Newfoundland, off the eastern shore of Canada. One theory holds that the Boethuck Indians’ dogs evolved from the American black wolf, now extinct, or from the Tibetan Mastiff, which could have entered North America from Asia. Another theory maintains that the breed developed from dogs brought to the New World and left by the Vikings in 1000 AD. It is agreed only that he is one of the older breeds of dogs in exis- tence today. He may not have originated in Newfoundland, though skeletons of giant dogs have been discovered in Indian gravesites in Newfoundland dating from the 5th century, AD. One of the more appealing speculations rests on the legend that when Leif Erikson discovered North America about 1000 AD, he had aboard his boat a large black dog, resembling a Newfoundland, called “Oolum.” The first record of the Newfoundland dog on the island whose name he bears dates from 1732 when an unknown author wrote, “The Bear Dog of a very large size is very watchful, his business is to guard a court or house, and has a thundering voice.” It is possible, too, that some Great Pyrenees were bred to this Newfoundland dog by the Basque fishermen sailing between Newfoundland and their home- land. The Newfoundland is an ancestor of the present-day Labrador and Chesapeake Bay Retrievers, which follow the Newfoundland in their natural swimming ability. The rough-coated St. Bernard owes its coat to the Newfoundland. In the Canadian province of Newfoundland, the Newfoundland was used as a working dog to pull nets for the fishermen and to haul wood from the forest. Elsewhere, he patiently did heavy labor of all kinds, powering the blacksmith’s bellows and the turner’s lathe. The 17th and 18th century English settlers on the island of Newfoundland were impressed with the native dogs’ great size and strength, their natural swimming ability, and their gentle dis- positions. Traders brought the dogs back to England where they were bred with the large estate dogs. Thus, the North American

Newfoundland evolved gradually, first by natural selection, and later by selective breeding in Britain. The breed was first given its name around 1775. In the journals of Lewis and Clark are stories of the dog, “Seaman,” who accompanied their expedition through the Louisiana Territory in 1804-1809. Seaman was credited with saving the life of the explorers when he headed off a buffalo charging through the camp toward their tent. Newfoundlands were used for draft purposes in their native land, and in England they became popular as ship dogs. In the 18th and 19th centuries, few ships sailed the oceans of the Western Hemisphere without a Newfoundland on board as a lifesaver; such was the reputation for heroic water rescues. In the mid-19th century, white and black Newfoundlands became very popular as a result of their depictions in paintings by Sir Edwin Landseer. These dogs became known as Land- seer Newfoundlands. Newfs became the darlings of Victorian households; they were also valued as children's guardians and as family companions. The modern American Newfoundland can trace its lineage to a dog named “Siki,” who was shown in England in the early 1920s. He was the most famous show dog of his time, but more importantly, he was a prepotent stud dog. Newfoundland type, as defined by the breed standard, begins with Ch. Siki and the three Siki sons imported to North America. In the mid 1960s, the Canadian-bred dog, Ch. Newton, was successfully campaigned in Canada and the US. In addi- tion to winning the US National Specialties in 1965 and 1966, he was very successful in all-breed competition. His excellent type could rival any of the currently exhibited Newfoundlands. In general, it can be said that in the past thirty years, type has been stabilized and the breed has become more structurally sound. The Newfoundlands of today are as capable of hauling loads and of water rescue as were their ancestors.

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*AKC STATS AS OF 7/31/21

© Kim Griffith

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NEWFOUNDLAND

LIVING WITH THE NEWFOUNDLAND

SUBMITTED BY THE NEWFOUNDLAND CLUB OF AMERICA

T he Newfoundland is a large, strong, heavy-coated, active dog, equally at home in the water and on land. While at first the Newf may appear somewhat placid, he is actually a fairly active dog that enjoys and needs daily exercise. Despite his size, he can reside comfortably in a small home or apartment, provided he is given ample oppor- tunities for exercise. Newfoundlands are renowned for their unique gentle- ness, even temperament, loving nature, and devotion. Historically, they have displayed a keen sense of responsibility and life-saving instincts, and their acts of heroism, both on land and at sea, are recorded in history, myths, and legends. These attributes make a Newf a good choice as a companion for children and adults alike. While Newfs are well-known for their gentle disposition, personality and temperament can vary throughout this breed—just as with humans. While the Newf has strong guardian instincts, he is not a watchdog, and harsh treat- ment and inattention will produce resentment and poor behavior in any dog. In addition, one should see that a Newf (or any dog) is not abused or harassed by children or adults. A growing puppy may be more subject to injury than his size would lead you to believe. Never allow a child to climb on a growing puppy or ride on an adult Newf. The oily nature of the Newfoundland’s double coat effectively keeps him from getting wet to the skin, and combined with his webbed feet, deep, broad chest, and well-sprung ribs, contributes to his swimming ability. Despite this heavy coat, he adapts to warm as well as cool climates. In warm climates, the long outer coat remains but the undercoat thins out to some degree. The warmer the weather, the more careful you must be to avoid overheating. Also, provide a Newf with plenty of shade and fresh water, and do not leave him in the sun or unattended. Love does seem to be a warm puppy, but slow down and see if an adult Newfoundland is what you want to live with for the next ten years or so. In addition to their size, Newfs also come with drool and lots of shedding. Newfoundlands, like all purebred dogs, are vulnerable to some extent to particular health problems, most of which also occur in other large and

giant breed dogs. Since these major health problems are not always outwardly evident in young dogs, and have a genetic component, responsible breeders test their breeding stock prior to breeding. Most Newfoundlands enjoy swimming. It is excel- lent exercise that strengthens muscles without putting weight on the joints. It is quite common to hear those who do not know the breed say, “My, but he must eat a lot.” Probably because he is so placid, the full-grown Newf is a com- paratively small eater. However, when he is growing most rapidly, between the ages of three and 18 months, the Newf is a heavy eater. Be aware, however, that the amount of food suggested on dog food labels is generally excessive for large breeds. Overfeeding will not make your puppy larger than his genetic makeup intended him to be. At any age, you should be able to feel a Newfoundland’s ribs without exerting undue pressure. Excess weight reduces the life- span and may provide fertile ground for other problems. An untrained dog, no matter its size, is a liability in modern society. For their own safety, all dogs require some form of obedience training. Being intelligent canines, most Newfs are readily trained.

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NEWFOUNDLAND

ARTICLE, PHOTOS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS PROVIDED BY THE NEWFOUNDLAND CLUB OF AMERICA NEWFOUNDLAND JUDGING THE IT IS ALL ABOUT THE BALANCE

T he Newfoundland is a swimmer, a hauler, and a gentle companion. The Breed Standard is built around these traits. Type comprises those physical characteristics that distinguish the Newfoundland from other breeds. The original Newfoundland Standard is over 100 years old, and while modifications have been made in the interest of clarity, its essentials remain unchanged. The intention is to keep the New- foundland as it has been over the years—large, strong, and active; at home in water and on land; a multi-purpose dog with natural life- saving instincts, capable of heavy work as well as a devoted compan- ion for both child and adult. The following excerpts from the work, This is the Newfoundland , were written by the late Mr. & Mrs. Major B. Godsol. “Remember that type, balance, and general appearance are of the utmost importance. As a breeder, shun those faults that are hard to breed out. As a judge, remember that any dog can gait soundly, but no matter how well he moves, unless he looks like a Newfoundland, he is not typical of the breed. Type is the embodiment of a Standard’s essentials.” We put much emphasis on conditioning and handling in the show ring in America today. To be sure, fine conditioning and good han- dling of dogs are things we all like to see at shows. When it comes to judging an individual dog, only the degree to which it measures up to the Breed Standard counts. In other words, “All the grooming and skillful handling cannot change a mediocre dog into a top one, nor are beauty treatments transmitted.” TEMPERAMENT IS THE HALLMARK OF THE BREED TEMPERAMENT IS OF PRIMARY IMPORTANCE The Newfoundland is a sweet-dispositioned dog that acts neither dull nor ill tempered. They are devoted companions. A multi-purpose

dog, at home on land and in water, the Newfoundland is capable of draft work and possesses natural lifesaving abilities. A sense of dignity, strength, and power are softened by a benevolent demeanor. Any indication of ill temper is especially to be guarded against. LARGE, WELL BALANCED, MUSCULAR SIZE, PROPORTION & SUBSTANCE The Newfoundland is a large, heavily coated, well-balanced dog that is deep-bodied, heavily boned, muscular, and strong. A good specimen of the breed has dignity and a proud head carriage. Average height for adult dogs is 28 inches; for adult bitches, 26 inches. Approximate weight of adult dogs ranges from 130 to 150 pounds; adult bitches from 100 to 120 pounds. These are not minimums or maximums. Large size is desirable, but never at the expense of balance, structure, and correct gait. The New- foundland is slightly longer than tall when measured from point of shoulder to point of buttocks, and from withers to ground; a dog of considerable substance, which is determined by spring of rib, strong muscle, and heavy bone. It is helpful in judging to have an idea of the proportions of an animal. In the Newfoundland, the following proportions are approximate: 1) They are slightly longer than tall. 2) The skeletal structure, measured from the withers to the lowest part of the chest (brisket), should be at least 50% of the dog’s total height. However, skin, muscle, and coat make this distance appear pro- portionally greater so that, in profile, it appears to be approxi- mately 55%. 3) The distance from withers to elbow is approxi- mately 50% of the total height, and from elbow to ground, about 50%. Variations in these proportions become apparent when the dog moves and appears to be “running downhill.”

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JUDGING THE NEWFOUNDLAND

“EXPRESSION IS SOFT AND REFLECTS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BREED; BENEVOLENCE, INTELLIGENCE, AND DIGNITY.”

© Photo By Wesseltoft

SOFT EXPRESSION

A Newfoundland should not be sway-backed, hollow-backed or soft in the back. They should be neither roached nor camel-backed. The natural coat, or grooming, may make a soft or hollow back appear level, or it can make a level back appear roached or high in rear. So, the back must be felt to determine its true conformation and musculature. The croup may also be distorted by coat and should be felt to determine its true slope. A flat croup makes for a high tail set. A too sloping croup throws the hindquarters under the dog and tends to destroy the power that should be developed there. Both conditions spoil the general outline of the dog. The croup should never be higher than the withers. Shoulders are muscular and well laid back. Elbows lie directly below the highest point of the withers. Forelegs are muscular, heavily boned, straight, and parallel to each other, and the elbows point directly to the rear. Pasterns are strong and slightly sloping. Feet are proportionate to the body in size, webbed, and cat foot in shape. Dewclaws may be removed. Bone should be in proportion to the size of the dog. A heavy coat can add false visual dimension to bone, so it should be felt for size and comparison. A standard location to assess bone is the forearm, just above the pastern. A Newfoundland should never be faulted for having too much bone. The rear assembly is powerful, muscular, and heavily boned. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight and parallel. Viewed from the side, the thighs are broad and fairly long. Stifles and hocks are well bent, but not so as to give a crouching appearance. The line from hock to ground is perpendicular. Hocks are well let down. Well-bent stifles and hocks provide flexibility. One should be able to see the entire pads of the rear feet of a dog as they move away.

HEAD The head is massive, with a broad skull, slightly arched crown, and a strongly developed occipital bone. Cheeks are well-developed. Eyes are dark brown; they are relatively small, deep-set, and spaced wide apart. Eyelids fit closely, with no inversion. Ears are relatively small and triangular with rounded tips. They are set on the skull level with, or slightly above, the brow, and lie close to the head. When the ear is brought forward, it reaches to the inner corner of the eye on the same side. Expression is soft and reflects the characteristics of the breed; benevolence, intelligence, and dignity. Eyes that are prominent, bulgy, set too close together, and/ or light-colored serve to spoil the soft, sweet Newfoundland expression. The shape of the eyes is a major factor in the desir- able sweet expression. Light eyes in browns and grays are not penalized, per se, but a poor expression, whether due to eye color, shape, or placement, should be penalized in dogs of any coat color. The eyelids must fit closely, to give good protection to the eyes from water and brush. The muzzle should be in balance with the head of the individual animal, never excessively long, pointed, or snipey. The top of the muzzle is rounded. Level and scissors bites are equally acceptable. Dropped lower incisors are found in many specimens of the breed and should be considered only a minor deviation. DEEP-BODIED, HEAVY BONE NECK, TOPLINE, BODY The neck is strong and well set on the shoulders, and is long enough for a proud head carriage. The back is strong, broad, and muscular, and is level from just behind the with- ers to the croup. The chest is full and deep, with the brisket reaching at least down to the elbows. Ribs are well sprung, with the anterior third of the rib cage tapered to allow elbow clearance. The flank is deep. The croup is broad and slopes slightly. Tail set follows the natural line of the croup. The tail is broad at the base and strong. It has no kinks, and the distal bone reaches to the hock. When the dog is standing relaxed, its tail hangs straight or with a slight curve at the end. When the dog is in motion or excited, the tail is carried out, but does not curl over the back.

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JUDGING THE NEWFOUNDLAND

HEAVILY COATED

COAT The adult Newfoundland has a flat, water-resistant, double coat that tends to fall back into place when rubbed against the nap. The outer coat is coarse, moderately long, and full, either straight or with a wave. The undercoat is soft and dense, although it is often less dense during the summer months or in warmer climates. Hair on the face and muzzle is short and fine. The backs of the legs are feathered all the way down. The tail is covered with long, dense hair. COLOR Color is secondary to type, structure, and soundness. Recognized Newfoundland col- ors are black, brown, gray, and white and black. Solid colors may appear as solid colors or solid colors with white at any, some, or all of the following locations: Chin, chest, toes, and tip of tail. Any amount of white found at these locations is typical and is not penalized. Also typical are a tinge of bronze on a black or gray coat, and lighter furnish- ings on a brown or gray coat. ANY amount of white on a black dog is permissible. ANY amount of white on a brown or grey dog is permissible, and is penalized only to the extent that white appears to be the base color. Landseer: A white base coat with black markings. Where the predominant color is white, any amount of black is acceptable. Clear white or white with minimal ticking is preferred.

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JUDGING THE NEWFOUNDLAND

EFFORTLESS POWER

GAIT The Newfoundland in motion has good reach, strong drive, and gives the impression of effortless power. The gait is smooth and rhythmic, covering the maximum amount of ground with the minimum number of steps. Forelegs and hind legs travel straight forward. As the dog’s speed increases, the legs tend toward single tracking. When moving, a slight roll of the skin is characteristic of the breed. Essential to good movement is the balance of correct front and rear assemblies. Strength and coordination are valued over speed. A Newfoundland is properly shown at a moderate trot. The correct level topline of the dog must not be lost in motion. It is important to distinguish good, ground-covering drive from an exaggerated rear action with considerable lift and flexing of the stifle, which lacks actual ground-covering forward motion. Newfoundlands have strong, well cushioned, compact feet, which hold up well over distances. Strong, slightly slop- ing pasterns will not break down under a day’s work. The webbing of the feet helps in propelling strokes while swim- ming. It has been suggested that the quite common toeing- in of the forelegs can be excused in Newfoundlands, “Since they are swimming dogs.” There is no good evidence that this deviation from the standard is in any way an aid in swimming or in hauling.

“OUR STANDARD IS SPECIFIC: ‘LARGE SIZE IS DESIRABLE, BUT NEVER AT THE EXPENSE OF BALANCE, STRUCTURE AND CORRECT GAIT.’ IT IS ALL ABOUT THE BALANCE.”

SWEET DISPOSITION

TEMPERAMENT The Newfoundland is typically friendly. Since sweetness of temperament is the most important single characteristic of the breed, shyness, fearfulness, and suspicion are unaccept- able traits and should be penalized severely. Chapter 14, Sec- tion 8-a of the AKC rules provides for excusal or disqualifi- cation for dogs that menace or attack humans. Furthermore, it is not acceptable for a Newfoundland to menace or attack other dogs, and any Newfoundland doing so should also be severely penalized. DISQUALIFICATIONS Any colors or combinations of colors not specifically described are disqualified: Any color other than white on a black, brown or grey dog; any color other than black on a Landseer. Note that there is no mention of markings. With respect to disqualifications, markings are considered only when they are the wrong color. TRENDS For many years, we have talked about proportions in the Newfoundland and a hands-on evaluation of those propor- tions. The Newfoundland of thirty years ago did not have enough leg to balance out the appropriate proportions. Short front legs were very apparent at that time, but are not seen as often today. However, we are seeing many tall, narrow dogs that are slab-sided and lacking the substance that is desired in a Newfoundland. As a true working dog, the standard is specific. The Newfoundland is a dog of considerable sub- stance, which is determined by spring of ribs, strong muscle, and heavy bone. Our standard is specific: “Large size is desir- able, but never at the expense of balance, structure and cor- rect gait.” It is all about the balance.

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THE NEWFOUNDLAND

LINDA BERBERICH

I continued my love of training in obedience and then began showing in conformation and breeding under the Kilyka prefix. I was fortunate with my foundation bitch. She was the top-producing Newfoundland bitch for over 30 years. The current top Register of Merit bitch was co-bred (from Kilyka parents) and co-owned with Dejah Petsch. Ch. Mol- lybrook Absolute Kilyka became the foundation for the well-respected Tempest Kennel. As the Newfoundland Club developed rules and regulations for water rescue and draft work, I participated as a trainer, handler and later as a judge of these working activities. Many of my Newfs earned the coveted versatility title, and I earned utility titles on 18 breed champions. I served the NCA as a Board member for 18 years as well as President and Vice-President. I chaired the Judges’ Education Committee and helped in the writing of three revisions of the standard and of the Illustrated Guide to the Standard . I started judging in 1995, and I have been honored to judge at two National Specialties and in nine European countries. JOAN ZIELINSKI

I live in New Jersey and I live closely with dogs—five Rottweilers—but love being outside and my tropical plants. I’ve been in the dog world all my life; as a professional handler in Working and other breeds, I showed for over 20 years and have been judging for 12 years. As far back as I can remember I’ve always had a dog of some type, starting with a Fox Terrier and German Shepherds as a child. Growing up my love for dogs

did not diminish, and became very interested in learning how to train them. My tastes always went in the direction of large Working and Herding breeds, and I purchased my first Rottweiler in the early 1970s. This dog was an import and I obtained a CD with her, also going High in Trial. As time went on I purchased other Rottweilers and began han- dling them myself. I had also owned Dobermans and German Shepherds, prior to the Rottweilers, which I did competitive obedience with. I’ve been judging a bit over 10 years now. I’m currently permitted to judge the entire Working Group, Parson Russell Terrier, Vizslas and juniors. I’ve judged many Working breeds’ specialties, some as far away as Alaska. I also judged the Rottweiler National in 2015—what an experi- ence! I would also like to add how deeply grateful I am to the Newfoundland community for their valuing my opinion for this survey. BETTY MCDONNELL

We live in Auburn, Washington, just south of Seattle. Outside of dogs, we spend time with friends and fam- ily including our fourteen grandkids and great grandkids, travel, gardening, read- ing. and going to movies. We’ve been in dogs 51 years; showing for 48 years and judging for 35 years. I’ve been in dogs

since 1965 with my husband, Stan. We have raised and bred many champion Saints over the years, about 175 of them, as well as many performance dogs and foreign titleholders. We did all this while raising our four children and Stan being an engineer at Boeing while I taught school, running home many short lunchtimes to check up on litters of puppies and their dams. I began judging in 1983, but put advancing in my judging career on hold for quite a period while I taught school. Judging on the East Coast on a Sunday did not fit with teaching school Monday morning on the West Coast. I’ve trav- eled all over the world and have admired so many breeds of dogs worldwide. I’ve seen some remarkable Newfoundlands in Italy and Scandinavia. I’m currently the president of the St. Bernard Club of America and emphasize advances in health and temperament. How can one have giant dogs without these characteristics?

I live in Mahwah, New Jersey on “pre- served farmland” where I have a Christ- mas tree farm and a private nature pre- serve. I have always lived with dogs and as a young teenager I earned a CD on a German Shepherd from the famous Long- worth Kennels. In 1964 after college, marriage and three daughters, I found the perfect family dog in the Newfoundland.

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newfoundland Q&A WITH LINDA BERBERICH, BETTY MCDONNELL AND JOAN ZIELINKSKI

1. Describe the breed in three words. LB: Sweet expression, clean moment and well balanced. BM: 1) Fabulous temperament: sweet, smart and biddable, 2) large size with considerable substance and 3) balanced athlete. JZ: Massive, benevolent and sweet natured. 2. What are your “must have” traits in this breed? LB: Muzzles with equal depth and length are very hard to find, but I have—also, sweet expression and dignity. BM: Must have traits in the breed: 1) typical sweet and confi- dent temperament that brings many to the breed. 2) Sound of body—natural athletes capable of water res- cue and draft work. (Not all Newfs are instinctive natural swimmers, but most can be taught with patience.) 3) Balanced, well angulated dogs with strong toplines. JZ: A beautiful expression, heavy bone, sound and able to perform his historic tasks as a water rescue dog. 3. Are there any traits in this breed you fear are becoming exaggerated? LB: Head pieces that are not as standard states, lack of sweet expression, bug eyes and exaggerated crown. BM: I prefer the moderate ideal head type described in the standard. There is a tendency to breed for an exaggerated Saint Bernard-like head with more than a moderate stop and the depth of muzzle greater than the length. (But I certainly do not want a longer-muzzled, Setter-like head- piece.) There has been an exaggeration in rear angulation that is not always in balance with front angulation. These dogs are often raced around the show rings with exaggerated, inefficient movement. Although unintended, many specimens are straight shouldered and narrow through the chest. JZ: Yes, over angulated rears not matching the fronts result- ing in sickle hocks. 4. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are better now than they were when you first started judging? Why or why not? LB: Absolutely, I see more breed type that I didn’t see when I first began and I do enjoy really having to dig through my entries until I find my ideal. BM: The dogs of today are far better in consistent type than they were when I got started in the breed over 50 years ago. Although movement today is not as good as it was 15 years ago, it certainly is better than the unsound dogs of the early 50s and 60s. Dedication in health examina- tions among breeders has definitely improved soundness. When OFA began registering hip clearances, it was a rare champion that could x-ray normal. Newfs of an earlier time were often long in body, short of leg and many toed in and were out at the elbow. Unfortunately tempera- ments are not always sterling. I’ve known some dog-to- dog aggression as well as unstable dogs afraid of environ- mental situations. These dogs should never be rewarded or bred—no matter how beautiful. JZ: Yes, I do. Why or why not? I believe there are more qual- ity dogs on average in the ring than when we first began.

It’s a pleasure to be able to choose from amongst a group of quality dogs.

5. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? LB: They are a breed that was meant to work and save humans, they must have the strength an ability to swim and rescue people and have a sweet disposition; as they are for saving people, they love their humans. BM: I would like judges to not emphasize speed or flashiness. Instead, look for the correct structure and functional movement. Look for the correct, benevolent expression in the eyes that says, ‘I am confident and sweet natured.’ A correct coat should never be color enhanced, but coat should be healthy, clean and tidied up to reveal the cor- rect structure of the dog. Dogs must be felt for structure; underneath the fluffed-out coat must be heavy bone, proper substance and strong toplines. Remember that although Newfoundlands are known for their great size, they should not be judged by the pound. The giant dog is not always the best dog. Judge the total dog, looking for excellence—not just the gorgeous head or the fasted dog in the ring. JZ: Bigger does not make for a better Newfoundland. 6. Is there anything else you’d like to share about the breed? LB: I so love this breed, I’m not a judge who wants to judge a hundred or so breeds, I feel I educate myself every time I walk into the ring. I love seeing a breed develop and talk- ing with exhibitors about their beloved breed. This breed is so exceptional, with dignity, but in the same account would sit on your lap if given the opportunity—which I wouldn’t mind in a minute. I’m the type of judge who loves all dogs, and if naughty, even better! JZ: I do not see bad-tempered Newfoundlands. I never have, though there must be some. I see some that are mischie- vous and more difficult to train than others, but never mean nor nasty. I admire that about the breed. 7. And, for a bit of humor: What’s the funniest thing you’ve ever experienced at a dog show? LB: Well, many years back when I was a handler, I went to move a dog around the ring and my shoe came flying off, slid under the ring into the next ring and stopped right in front of the judge. I was mortified, and everyone had a good laugh, when I made it back to my place and my shoe was handed back to me, from the other judge and steward! It turned out well though, I went WD and we all had a good laugh. JZ: Regarding Newfoundlands, I watched a female breeder a very long time ago walking her Newfie from the bench- ing area toward the ring. I was behind her. She had black hair, was wearing an all black outfit, sweater, shoes and pants and she was quite substantial in build. Next to her on a lead was her very large, black male Newfoundland. Both were walking in the same manner, swaying from side to side like large black bears. I thought to myself, ‘Here we have the perfect example of a person who matches her dog.’

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THE NEWFOUNDLAND W e have been asked to write about the New- foundland Dog. My name is Kim Griffith, be frantic and jump in after the child or swim around them the entire time. by KIM GRIFFITH

a strong, powerful working dog, with events such as Water Rescue and Draft- ing being a part of the parent club’s activities. Their early history as fishing boat dogs in Newfoundland show them towing boats, or taking a line from a boat to someone on shore to bring the boat in through rocky shoals. They also have an innate lifesaving instinct and are today trained to dive off of boats and pull someone in, and history states that this was one of the other reasons they were taken on the fishing boats, despite their great size. Anyone who has a New- foundland dog around the water knows that your dog does not think you can swim, and will swim with or watch you tirelessly. And if you have young chil- dren, without training they will often

These dogs are athletes and must be well balanced. They should move forward with ease and agility. To carry out their work, they are large, double coated dogs with large bones, strong feet, and built to the Standard. I could repeat the Standard, but I won’t…every- one can read it, but it’s more important to understand the purpose of the Stan- dard. A dog without the correct angu- lation in the front cannot take strong, powerful strokes in the water, and a dog without strong pasterns and good feet cannot pull carts over terrain for any length of time without breaking down. The double coat and texture are important as they were bred to swim in

Owner, Breeder, and Handler of New- foundlands for over 50 yrs. My wife and best friend, Gigi, has lived with the Newfoundland for nearly 40 yrs. I am a member of the Newfoundland Judges Education committee, and we are both mentors. This breed is dear to our hearts, and our experience in the breed is both in working events and in conformation. The Newfoundland is first and fore- most a “people” dog. These dogs love to rest or work beside their owners. They are great caregivers and nurturers of the small and the weak. They are also

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frigid Northern waters, with the insu- lation of the proper undercoat to keep them warm. The right texture of both serves to shed the water as opposed to getting more soaked and weighing the dog down. This is an amazing dog to watch doing its work, and that pow- er, strength, and conditioning should reflect in the show ring. The Newfoundland Dog is also a soft dog. Its expression should invite you in. The eyes are dark and almond shaped, set into a headpiece with broad cheeks and muzzle. If you’ve known a Newfoundland or two, this soft expres- sion and expressiveness of the dog is part of it’s calling as a “Gentle Giant”. It’s also true in the Newfoundland nature. These are not aggressive dogs, but they will protect in their gentle way

by putting themselves between you and danger. A story was told about a young child and a bike. A couple of young bul- lies took the bike away from the child. The “sleeping” Newf on the porch got up and put himself in front of the bike, and the bullies ran away. The child remounted his bike and the Newf went back to his spot on the porch. Now had more been needed, the next step would have been to knock the bully down, and if needed, to stand on them, but the last choice would have been to bite! For these reasons and many more, the Newfoundland dog is a cherished friend and companion. Yes, he needs to be protected from heat. Yes, there is a coat that needs to be maintained, but all in all, this is a dog that makes his way into your heart and stays there.

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Official Standard of the Newfoundland

Forequarters: Shoulders are muscular and well laid back. Elbows lie directly below the highest point of the withers. Forelegs are mus- cular, heavily boned, straight, and parallel to each other, and the elbows point directly to the rear. The distance from elbow to ground equals about half the dog's height. Pasterns are strong and slightly sloping. Feet are proportionate to the body in size, webbed, and cat foot in type. Dewclaws may be removed. Hindquarters: The rear assembly is powerful, muscular, and heav- ily boned. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight and parallel. Viewed from the side, the thighs are broad and fairly long. Stifles and hocks are well bent and the line from hock to ground is perpen- dicular. Hocks are well let down. Hind feet are similar to the front feet. Dewclaws should be removed. Coat: The adult Newfoundland has a flat, water-resistant, double coat that tends to fall back into place when rubbed against the nap. The outer coat is coarse, moderately long, and full, either straight or with a wave. The undercoat is soft and dense, although it is often less dense during the summer months or in warmer climates. Hair on the face and muzzle is short and fine. The backs of the legs are feath- ered all the way down. The tail is covered with long dense hair. Excess hair may be trimmed for neatness. Whiskers need not be trimmed. Color: Color is secondary to type, structure, and soundness. Recognized Newfoundland colors are black, brown, gray, and white and black. Solid Colors -Blacks, Browns, and Grays may appear as solid colors or solid colors with white at any, some, or all, of the following loca- tions: chin, chest, toes, and tip of tail. Any amount of white found at these locations is typical and is not penalized. Also typical are a tinge of bronze on a black or gray coat and lighter furnishings on a brown or gray coat. Landseer -White base coat with black markings. Typically, the head is solid black, or black with white on the muzzle, with or without a blaze. There is a separate black saddle and black on the rump extending onto a white tail. Markings, on either Solid Colors or Landseers, might deviate con- siderably from those described and should be penalized only to the extent of the deviation. Clear white or white with minimal ticking is preferred. Beauty of markings should be considered only when com- paring dogs of otherwise comparable quality and never at the expense of type, structure and soundness. Disqualifications - Any colors or combinations of colors not specifically described are disqualified. Gait: The Newfoundland in motion has good reach, strong drive, and gives the impression of effortless power. His gait is smooth and rhythmic, covering the maximum amount of ground with the mini- mum number of steps. Forelegs and hind legs travel straight for- ward. As the dog's speed increases, the legs tend toward single track- ing. When moving, a slight roll of the skin is characteristic of the breed. Essential to good movement is the balance of correct front and rear assemblies. Temperament: Sweetness of temperament is the hallmark of the Newfoundland; this is the most important single characteristic of the breed. Disqualifications: Any colors or combinations of colors not specif- ically described. Approved May 8, 1990 Effective June 28, 1990

General Appearance: The Newfoundland is a sweet-dispositioned dog that acts neither dull nor ill-tempered. He is a devoted compan- ion. A multipurpose dog, at home on land and in water, the Newfoundland is capable of draft work and possesses natural life- saving abilities. The Newfoundland is a large, heavily coated, well balanced dog that

is deep-bodied, heavily boned, muscular, and strong. A good specimen of the breed has dignity and proud head carriage. The following description is that of the ideal Newfoundland. Any deviation from this ideal is to be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural and movement faults common to all working dogs are as undesirable in the Newfoundland as in any

other breed, even though they are not specifically mentioned herein. Size, Proportion, Substance: Average height for adult dogs is 28 inches, for adult bitches 26 inches. Approximate weight of adult dogs range from 130 to 150 pounds, adult bitches from 100 to 120 pounds. The dog's appearance is more massive throughout than the bitch's. Large size is desirable, but never at the expense of balance, structure, and correct gait. The Newfoundland is slightly longer than tall when measured from the point of shoulder to point of buttocks and from withers to ground. He is a dog of considerable substance which is determined by spring of rib, strong muscle, and heavy bone. Head: The head is massive, with a broad skull, slightly arched crown, and strongly developed occipital bone. Cheeks are well developed. Eyes are dark brown. (Browns and Grays may have lighter eyes and should be penalized only to the extent that color affects expression.) They are relatively small, deep-set, and spaced wide apart. Eyelids fit closely with no inversion. Ears are relatively small and triangular with rounded tips. They are set on the skull level with, or slightly above, the brow and lie close to the head. When the ear is brought forward, it reaches to the inner corner of the eye on the same side. Expression is soft and reflects the characteris- tics of the breed: benevolence, intelligence, and dignity. Forehead and face are smooth and free of wrinkles. Slope of the stop is mod- erate but, because of the well developed brow, it may appear abrupt in profile. The muzzle is clean-cut, broad throughout its length, and deep. Depth and length are approximately equal, the length from tip of nose to stop being less than that from stop to occiput. The top of the muzzle is rounded, and the bridge, in profile, is straight or only slightly arched. Teeth meet in a scissors or level bite. Dropped lower incisors, in an otherwise normal bite, are not indicative of a skeletal malocclusion and should be considered only a minor deviation. Neck, Topline, Body: The neck is strong and well set on the shoul- ders and is long enough for proud head carriage. The back is strong, broad, and muscular and is level from just behind the withers to the croup. The chest is full and deep with the brisket reaching at least down to the elbows. Ribs are well sprung, with the anterior third of the rib cage tapered to allow elbow clearance. The flank is deep. The croup is broad and slopes slightly. Tail-Tail set follows the natural line of the croup. The tail is broad at the base and strong. It has no kinks, and the distal bone reaches to the hock. When the dog is standing relaxed, its tail hangs straight or with a slight curve at the end. When the dog is in motion or excited, the tail is carried out, but it does not curl over the back.

S HOW S IGHT M AGAZINE , J ULY 2017 • 277

a survey on the NEWFOUNDLAND

LINDA BERBERICH

BETTY MCDONNELL

I live in New Jersey and I live closely with dogs—five Rottweilers—but love being outside and my tropical plants. I’ve been in the dog world all my life; as a professional handler in Working and other breeds, I showed for over 20 years and have been judging for 12 years. As far back as I can remember I've always had a dog of some type, starting with a Fox Terrier & German Shepherds as a child. Growing up my love for dogs did not diminish, and became very inter-

I live in Mahwah, NJ on “Preserved Farmland” where I have a Christmas tree farm and a private nature preserve. I have always lived with dogs and as a young teenager I earned a CD on a German Shepherd from the famous Longworth Kennels. In 1964 after college, marriage and three daughters, I found the perfect

family dog in the Newfoundland. I continued my love of train- ing in obedience and then began showing in conformation and breeding under the Kilyka prefix. I was fortunate with my foundation bitch. She was the top-producing Newfound- land bitch for over 30 years. The current top Register of Merit bitch was co-bred (from Kilyka parents) and co-owned with Dejah Petsch. Ch. Mollybrook Absolute Kilyka became the foundation for the well-respected Tempest Kennel. As the Newfoundland Club developed rules and regulations for Water Rescue and Draft work, I participated as a trainer, han- dler and later as a judge of these working activities. Many of my Newfs earned the coveted Versatility title, and I earned Utility titles on 18 breed champions. I served the NCA as a Board member for 18 years as well as President and Vice-Pres- ident. I chaired the Judges’ Education Committee and helped in the writing of three revisions of the standard and of the Illustrated Guide to the Standard . I started judging in 1995, and I have been honored to judge at two National Specialties and in nine European countries. JOAN ZIELINSKI

(Photo © dave Mccurley)

ested in learning how to train them. My tastes always went in the direction of large Working and Herding breeds, and I purchased my first Rottweiler in the early 1970s. This dog was an import and I obtained a CD with her, also going High in Trial. As time went on I purchased other Rottweilers and began handling them myself. I had also owned Dobermans and German Shepherds, prior to the Rottweilers, which I did competitive obedience with. I've been judging a bit over 10 years now. I'm currently permitted to judge the entire Work- ing Group, Parson Russell Terrier, Vizslas and juniors. I've judged many Working breeds’ specialties, some as far away as Alaska. I also judged the Rottweiler National in 2015—what an experience! I would also like to add how deeply grateful I am to the Newfoundland community for their valuing my opinion for this survey. MEREDITH CAVENNA I am lucky enough to live in the San Francisco Bay area in the East Bay about 35 minutes east of San Francisco. Out- side of dogs: I used to be an avid snow and water skier until my knees betrayed me and had one knee replacement. Since high school I have collected and refinished antiques. I am an antique junky. My husband has a lovely 1800s farmhouse in Ohio, and recently I have been into shopping for antique lighting for the farmhouse. As it is an 1800s farmhouse, they only had gas lamps, but I have found several wonderful chan- deliers and lights that we had refurbished. It is a new passion for me. Having owned Malamutes for over 40 years, I get to “re-do” a lot of my landscaping. I started showings dogs in 1972. I have been judging since 1992.

We live in Auburn, WA, just south of Seattle. Outside of dogs, we spend time with friends and family including our fourteen grandkids and great grand- kids. Travel. Gardening. Reading. Going to movies. We've been in dogs 51 years; showing for 48 years and judging for 35 years. I've been in dogs since 1965 with

my husband, Stan. We have raised and bred many champion Saints over the years, about 175 of them, as well as many per- formance dogs and foreign titleholders. We did all this while raising our four children and Stan being an engineer at Boe- ing while I taught school, running home many short lunch- times to check up on litters of puppies and their dams. I began judging in 1983, but put advancing in my judging career on

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q&a newfoundland

with Linda BerBerich, Meredith cavenna, Betty McdonneLL & Joan ZieLinski

hold for quite a period while I taught school. Judging on the east coast on a Sunday did not fit with teaching school Monday morning on the west coast. I've traveled all over the world and have admired so many breeds of dogs world- wide. I've seen some remarkable Newfoundlands in Italy and Scandinavia. I'm currently the president of the St. Bernard Club of America and emphasize advances in health and temperament. How can one have giant dogs without these characteristics? 1. Describe the breed in three words. LB: Sweet expression, clean moment and well balanced. BM: 1) Fabulous temperament: sweet, smart and biddable, 2) large size with considerable substance and 3) balanced athlete. JZ: Massive, benevolent and sweet natured. 2. What are your "must have" traits in this breed? LB: Muzzles with equal depth and length are very hard to find, but I have—also, sweet expression and dignity. MC: I look for large, well-balanced dogs with a massive heads, correct outline and proportions that have 4 good legs and are in condition. Breed type must always come first, therefore I will forgive faults for excellent breed type. There are no perfect dogs. I always try to judge on virtues, and not on faults. There are faults in every great dog. I am an admitted “front freak” so always look for correct shoulders/upper arm and chest development, which results in good reach when moving. Correct front- end assembly is by far the hardest thing to breed and the easiest thing to lose. I also love a good head with a pleas- ing expression. You have to look at them on the couch every day and who wants to look at a head and expres- sion every day that is not pleasing? BM: Must have traits in the breed: 1) Typical sweet and con- fident temperament that brings many to the breed. 2) Sound of body—natural athletes capable of water res- cue and draft work. (Not all Newfs are instinctive natural swimmers, but most can be taught with patience.) 3) Balanced, well angulated dogs with strong toplines. JZ: A beautiful expression, heavy bone, sound and able to perform his historic tasks as a water rescue dog. 3. Are there any traits in this breed you fear are becoming exaggerated? LB: Head pieces that are not as standard states, lack of sweet expression, bug eyes and exaggerated crown. MC: As with many breeds, the tendency for “long and low” seems to be more of a problem than in the past. Toeing in the front while moving has always been a problem in the breed. Yes, they are swimmers. No, this does not give them permission to have bad fronts. BM: I prefer the moderate ideal head type described in the standard. There is a tendency to breed for an exaggerated Saint Bernard-like head with more than a moderate stop and the depth of muzzle greater than the length. (But I certainly do not want a longer-muzzled, Setter-like head- piece.) There has been an exaggeration in rear angulation that is not always in balance with front angulation.

These dogs are often raced around the show rings with exaggerated, inefficient movement. Although unintend- ed, many specimens are straight shouldered and narrow through the chest. JZ: Yes, over angulated rears not matching the fronts result- ing in sickle hocks. 4. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are better now than they were when you first started judging? Why or why not? LB: Absolutely, I see more breed type that I didn’t see when I first began, and I do enjoy really having to dig through my entries until I find my ideal. MC: I think there were certain heydays of the breed and in particular, certain parts of the country. I still see many really good ones. It is a wonderful breed that I always love to judge. BM: The dogs of today are far better in consistent type than they were when I got started in the breed over 50 years ago. Although movement today is not as good as it was 15 years ago, it certainly is better than the unsound dogs of the early 50s and 60s. Dedication in health examina- tions among breeders has definitely improved soundness. When OFA began registering hip clearances, it was a rare champion that could x-ray normal. Newfs of an earlier time were often long in body, short of leg and many toed in and were out at the elbow. Unfortunately tempera- ments are not always sterling. I’ve known some dog-to- dog aggression as well as unstable dogs afraid of environ- mental situations. These dogs should never be rewarded or bred—no matter how beautiful. JZ: Yes, I do. Why or why not? I believe there are more qual- ity dogs on average in the ring than when we first began. It's a pleasure to be able to choose from amongst a group of quality dogs. 5. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? LB: They are a breed that was meant to work and save humans, they must have the strength an ability to swim and rescue people, and have a sweet disposition; as they are for saving people, they love their humans. MC: I do not feel that I should make any comments about my fellow judges. Each of us interprets the standard in our own way and we all have different priorities. As I always say, if the judges all liked and rewarded the same dogs, no one would enter dog shows. BM: I would like judges to not emphasize speed or flashiness. Instead, look for the correct structure and functional movement. Look for the correct, benevolent expression in the eyes that says, ‘I am confident and sweet natured.’ A correct coat should never be color enhanced, but coat should be healthy, clean and tidied up to reveal the cor- rect structure of the dog. Dogs must be felt for structure; underneath the fluffed-out coat must be heavy bone, proper substance and strong toplines. Remember that although Newfoundlands are known for their great size, they should not be judged by the pound. The giant dog is not always the best dog. Judge the total dog, looking for

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