Showsight Presents The Golden Retriever


Let’s Talk Breed Education!

Photo by Barb Loree




G olden Retriever enthusiasts from around the world will gather this July in the beauti- ful Cotswold town of Ciren- cester, England to celebrate the cente- nary (100th anniversary), of the Golden Retriever Club. From July 12th to 15th, the GRC will celebrate with two cham- pionship shows, two working tests, dis- plays from the archives, demonstrations of Goldens doing heelwork to music and a Golden drill team, all on the beautiful Bathhurst Estate. Th ere will be a Gala din- ner and a day of seminars and international networking, where noted judge and Gold- en Retriever historian, Valerie Foss, will speak, along with a panel of international breed experts and veterinarians. A highlight for many will be a sub- sequent pilgrimage to the highlands of Scotland, near Inverness. From July 16th to 19th, the Golden Retriever Club of Scotland will continue the celebration

with social events, a “scurry” (timed, singles retrieving test) and a champion- ship show, with many of the events at the ruins of the Guisachan estate, home from 1854 to 1894 of Sir Dudley Mar- joribanks, the first Lord Tweedmouth. He was the person largely responsible for the development of the Golden Retriever breed at this Scottish retreat. Th e Golden Retriever was regarded as a “gentleman’s” hunting dog and a com- panion to the aristocracy. Certainly, the Golden was not the working man’s dog, out to help him secure his dinner or earn his livelihood. But apparently some fan- cier’s idea of a gentleman is a jolly, fat man who leisurely strolls on a lawn simi- lar to those shown in photos of Blenheim, shooting a bird that lands twenty yards away. After spending a vigorous fifteen minutes or so, the dog and Gentleman retire to sit beside a blazing fire so the Gentleman can enjoy a hot toddy or two!

Th is description is far from reality, as the retriever was expected to expend a full day’s e ff ort in the field. Th e Scots were a tough people, and their working dogs had to be as well. Th e dogs all had to get along, as they worked with, and lived with, other dogs. Scottish breeds, including the Scottish Deerhound, Collie, Shetland Sheepdog, Cairn Terrier, West Highland White Ter- rier, and the Golden Retriever are hardy breeds whose conformation, coats and constitutions were developed to with- stand the climate and terrain in which they lived and worked. Like many of the gentry of this time, Marjoribanks was keenly interested in the breeding of sporting dogs and other livestock. He wanted to develop a retriev- er suited to the Scottish climate, terrain and type of available game. In 1868 and 1871, breedings between Nous, a yellow wavy-coated retriever, and Belle, a Tweed


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At the Guisachan Gathering in 2006, Golden Retriever enthusiasts enjoyed a picnic on the grounds of the ruins of Guisachan House. The Golden Retriever Club of Scotland asked Lynn Kipps to take a photograph and the result is this historic photograph of 188 Goldens at their ancestral home. Photo © Lynn Kipps. Used with Permission. Copies available for sale from Lynn Kipps (

Water Spaniel, (a breed now extinct), resulted in several yellow pups that became the foundation for a distinctive line of yellow retrievers. Th e breed was o ffi cially recognized by Th e Kennel Club in 1911 as “Retriever-Yellow or Golden” and finally, “Retriever-Golden” in 1920. Early Golden Retrievers were seen in Canada and the U.S. some years before their o ffi cial recognition by the Canadian Kennel Club in 1927 and the American Kennel Club in 1932. Th ose ‘gentlemen’ who visited the Highlands in the late 1800s took their sport very seriously indeed. As an example, the following is a list of the “head of game”

taken on the Guisachan estate in 1871. Th is is in the Guisachan record book, along with the information of the dogs and breedings: Total head of game: 4672. Th is included 37 stags (male red deer), 2458 grouse, 200 blackgame (blackcock, a Scot- tish bird), 191 ptarmigans, 118 partridges, 101 pheasants, 201 woodcocks, 14 snipes, 4 wild ducks, 328 hares, 977 rabbits, 13 roe deer (males) and 29 hinds (female deer), 1 capercaillie, 1 Reeves’ pheasant. Rabbits trapped were not included. Game was a crop, and managed for production as well as for sport. Yes, “the gentlemen” enjoyed a long weekend of sport (especially when entertaining visitors),

and one or two of the retrievers made it to house-dog status, but they were very defi- nitely hard working dogs, all of them. Many call Goldens “the gentleman’s hunting dog” with no real understanding of what the dogs actually did! Th ose dogs probably retrieved literally thousands of birds (and rabbits) in the hunting season, and did it in harsh ter- rain with tough cover—no pretty, cutover fields here. It took real endurance and sound athletic structure suited for traversing rocky mountainsides and rolling moors covered with tough, wiry heather and bracken, and a sensible waterproof coat to work in the Scot- tish climate, which is generally anything from damp to downpour.


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At the Guisachan Gathering in 2006, Golden Retriever enthusiasts enjoyed a picnic on the grounds of the ruins of Guisachan House. The Golden Retriever Club of Scotland asked Lynn Kipps to take a photograph and the result is this historic photograph of 188 Goldens at their ancestral home. Photo © Lynn Kipps. Used with Permission. Copies available for sale from Lynn Kipps (


Water Spaniel, (a breed now extinct), resulted in several yellow pups that became the foundation for a distinctive line of yellow retrievers. Th e breed was o ffi cially recognized by Th e Kennel Club

taken on the Guisachan estate in 1871. Th is is in the Guisachan record book, along with the information of the dogs and breedings: Total head of game: 4672. Th is included 37 stags (male red deer), 2458

and one or two of the retrievers made it to house-dog status, but they were very defi- nitely hard working dogs, all of them. Many call Goldens “the gentleman’s hunting dog” with no real understanding of what the dogs


Photo by Barb Loree

Photo by Nancy Talbot

Gerry Clinchy, author, Golden breeder and field enthusiast, commented on an online discussion group, O ff the Beaten Path : “I also would be of the opinion that those particular gentlemen took their hunting and their hunting dogs pretty seriously. Hunting back then was a sig- nificant addition to the larder, not just an occasional delicacy. I find it hard to believe that Lord Tweedmouth spent all that e ff ort just to produce a “sweet” hunting dog. Th e sweet temperament came along as proba- bly a pleasant bonus to the breed’s service- ability on the hunt. And the breed must have been serviceable or it would not have survived when there were always the Labs and Flat Coats and various other breeds to take up the slack if Lord Tweedmouth’s new “design” couldn’t keep up.” Marcia Schlehr, artist, author and breed authority, responded with “Gerry is quite right about the seriousness of the “gentlemen” and their “sport”. Th e Guisa- chan record book, where dogs are invento- ried and litters noted, also contains notes about the game acquired during the year. Th ere are many years where the numbers of pheasant, grouse, blackcock, hare, deer, etc. number into the thousands! And it was all used to feed people on the estates, along with the cattle and sheep raised there. Of course, the family got the pick of the lot, but counting family and guests, sta ff , workers, and their families housed on the estate, some 200 people altogether.”

“Before mechanical refrigeration, per- ishables were kept in a cool house or lar- der, with ice cut from the loch each win- ter and stored under sawdust insulation for future use. Meat could also be salted, or dried. Back in those days there were no “seasons’ for game and no bag limits. Th e landowner owned the game on his land (and Guisachan originally was some 20,000 acres) and had all rights to it. It was considered just as much a cash crop as the cattle and sheep. By the way, tracking wounded deer was another job the retriev- ers had to do. And that job required a fair amount of courage as well as bidability and an excellent nose.” At an earlier Guisachan Gathering in 2006, Golden Retriever breeder-judge Nancy Talbott took the time to walk the hillsides around Guisachan (and it’s nearly ALL hillsides and mountains). Nancy had an “epiphany” that occurred while travers- ing the lands where Goldens originally worked, a new understanding of what was required, physically, for a retriever to work in the dense, harsh, wiry heath- er and bracken on those rocky slopes, in the constant wet of this cool climate. Leg length, musculature, agility, coat texture and quality of undercoat suddenly took on considerable added importance. Nancy further related the following: “ Th e day at Guisachan did indeed firm up what I had believed for decades regarding Golden type, but those opinions had been

formed from reading and seeing still pho- tos only. I have spoken of my “epiphany” at each judging seminar since that summer, and continue to make it my mission to get that word out.” “One of the things that struck me about Northern Scotland was the fact that there is virtually no level ground, and where it is level it is strewn with large rocks and heavy cover. It rained every day that we were there, even during what the Scots called a “heat wave” (I think it got up into the 80s). When I watched the Goldens at the estate participate in a “scurry” (timed singles retrieving competition), it became achingly clear why a moderate dog with moderate coat would be ever so much more e ffi cient than either a weedy and fine boned dog or a clod with massive coat. I watched for hours, and the image etched itself into my memory. Up hills, running on ground that would turn the ankle of any humans who tried to run on it, dodging around boulders, and driving through heavy wet grasses. And the dogs were all entered in the conformation ring that day and the day following. It was delightful to see.” While it may not be realistic to expect most Golden owners, in this day and age, to hunt with their Goldens, it is realistic to expect them to know just what constitutes “hunting” and what is needed in a good hunting dog. When Goldens were devel- oped, they were expected to have the cour- age to bust through that dense, harsh, wiry


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Photo by Barb Loree

heather and bracken to retrieve their game. Th ey were expected to trail down crippled game using their nose and intelligence. Th ey had to be willing to swim across swift, icy streams or rivers to retrieve those pheasants which had set their wings and flew a considerable distance before going down. Th ey had to have the stamina and athletic ability to cover that steep and rocky terrain for long days spent in driving cold rain, snow flurries and harsh winds. Th ey needed the trainability to work with their handler as a team and not go into business for themselves. Th ey needed the tempera- ment to hunt with other dogs without the fear of fights developing. Th ey needed a strong work ethic and the drive and desire to pursue their game under the most adverse conditions. Th ey were expected to retrieve both fur (small game) and feather. If the dogs did not have these attributes, they were not used for reproduction.” To those who feel that there is no value in watching Goldens run in field trials or in hunt tests, when their only interest is in conformation competition, you are wrong! It is vitally important to see first-hand the structure and athleticism needed to cover the terrain and perform the functions for which the breed was intended. Too many judges and fanciers today see only the lovely expression, wagging tail and often over-groomed, beautiful specimen in the

conformation ring. Nothing can replace actually seeing this breed in action, ful- filling its historical purpose. Th e Golden Retriever’s athletic good looks must reflect his abilities, and nothing in the dog’s con- formation should interfere with, or detract from, the Golden’s working sporting char- acteristics. After all, the breed standard states, “Primarily a hunting dog.” Portions of this article originally appeared in the “Golden Retriever News”, Nov./Dec. 2008 Our appreciation to Marcia Schlehr, Nancy Talbott and Gerry Clinchy for sharing their cor- respondence. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Glenda Brown has been a member of the GRCA since 1976. She judged the 1992 Master National and the 2003 National Amateur. She has put Championship titles on Goldens in Obedience and Field Tri- als, and titled them in hunt tests (Master Ainslie Mills is Chair of the Golden Retriever Club of America Judges’ Educa- tion Committee, a CKC/AKC approved judge of six groups, Life Member of the CKC, GRCC and GRCBC and has been devoted to Golden Retrievers for nearly 40 years. She has judged the Golden National in 4 countries. Level) as well as Tracking tests. ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Glenda Brown and Luke running the National Amateur at age 10 ½ .

Ainslie Mills, Oriana Golden Retrievers (Perm. Reg.) She can be reached via


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M any of us have preferences when it comes to color; in our clothes, in our homes, in a variety of things, including our dogs. However, when it comes to judging Goldens, there should NOT be a preference. Our standard states the following concerning color: “Rich, lustrous golden of various shades.” What does this mean? You name it, from a very light cream to a dark golden red, the feather- ing is almost always a few shades lighter than the base shade. The key is the golden highlights. This is more easily seen in the sunlight than it is under the more common halogen lighting used in many indoor venues, but it is always there. From the very light golden to the much darker shades, there is a beautiful, natural golden sparkle. In the judge’s education seminar, we empha- size that the overall dog is most important and the shade of gold should not be a determining factor. Do they need to be gold? YES, it is in their name! If you get to the end and have two dogs of equivalent quality, then certainly choose your favorite shade of dog to win. (I can tell you, I have never heard of this happening.) From a judging perspective, it is more important that you do not dismiss out of hand a dog because it is not your favorite shade.

As I hear exhibitors lament ringside, they are not showing their dog because the judge has a reputation for not looking at dark or, more commonly, light dogs. There is a significant amount of time spent in the seminars discussing shades of gold with prospective judges, and it is frequently heard, “I don’t like that shade.” This is not really your call. It is our breed and we have provided the full range of shades that are acceptable. Please respect this and judge accordingly! As an exhibitor, I frequently had light dogs, and have had a judge move me to the end of the line and say, “I guess you know what shade I don’t like.” If the highlights are there and the dog is a shade of gold, then make your determination on overall struc- ture and balance. They don’t hunt on their coat shade; they can do their jobs if they are light cream or a dark reddish gold. The full range of gold shades available should not influence you, and you don’t want the reputation of only putting up medium gold dogs. (Below is a picture of the acceptable range.) To be blunt, it is our breed. Respect the fact that the shade of gold is not the most critical factor.

This photo illustrates the acceptable color range in the Golden Retriever.



This photo illustrates the extreme limits of the acceptable color range.


certain lines. If you question the age of the dog, have the steward look it up and let you know. These dogs should be considered in your overall assessment of the class. When it comes to judging Goldens, let me leave you with this from the standard: “Overall appearance, balance, gait and purpose to be given more emphasis than any of the component parts. Any departure from the described ideal shall be considered faulty to the degree to which it interferes with the breed’s purpose or is contrary to breed character.” No mention of color; it is a component in your overall judging of the dog. But remember, they are primarily a hunting dog and they don’t hunt on color! Happy Judging!

Inheritance of coat color is a whole different conversation. As a breeder, I can get all the colors within a litter. All pure- bred Golden Retrievers carry the double-recessive (e/e) gene, which prohibits black pigment in the hair. (Occasionally, a somatic mutation allows a patch of black, or black-tipped, hair that does not affect the genes passed on to the next generation.) Some Goldens also carry pattern genes on the A locus that can affect the shading on the coat. Coat color can be changed in a generation and produce either a rainbow of shades or a uni- formity of color within a litter. In general, when judging, most breeder-judges do not even notice color; there are so many other pieces of structure—and the overall dog—that are significantly more critical to the ability of the dog to perform its function. Although the extremes are not preferred, they are accepted, and if the best dog in the ring is within the acceptable shade range, go for it! In puppies, color develops over their first year or so. The ear color is the best indicator of the color the dog will be when reaching maturity. Their puppy coat is usually much lighter than it will be at maturity. The other thing related to color that you will see in the ring is a greying of the face. This is NOT an indicator of age. Many dogs can grey early, some as young as two years old. This seems to be more common in the lighter-colored dogs and in

ABOUT THE AUTHOR I have been breeding and showing Goldens for over 35 years, and judg- ing since 2008. I am an approved pre- senter and mentor for the GRCA. Any questions, please feel free to contact me at


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I have been showing and training Golden Retrievers since 1976, and even though I probably didn’t start out read- ing the standard at least once a month, there were many times when I read it more than once a month. Consequently, I have probably read the Golden Retriev- er standard hundreds of times and yet, every time I read it, I discover something new that somebody, somehow, snuck into the standard without me noticing. Usually, I find the hitherto unnoticed word in the middle of the standard. However, this time I found it in the very first sentence of the standard, right before I was getting ready to judge a very large entry of Goldens.



Topline should remain "strong and level... whether standing or moving."

The night before my assignment, I just hap- pened to turn on HBO in the hotel room and a really cute movie starring Golden Retrievers had just commenced. It featured a litter of dar- ling puppies who were surprisingly coordinated for their approximate four-month-old age range. There were occasional flashes to their “parents” who appeared to be very pretty, well-bred dogs from obvious show dog stock. Nevertheless, there was something “off ” about them that I couldn’t quite put my finger on. The next day, as I was reading the standard before my assignment, I realized what it was that had bothered me the night before. The handsome Golden couple was “clumsy,” a word in the first sentence of our stan- dard that I had apparently skipped over so many times. I didn’t recognize it as having always been there. As beautiful as the two adults were, they didn’t look like they could do a whole day’s work in the field. In fact, the puppies were more ath- letic than their parents. The parents looked like they had too much bone, too much coat, too much length of body, and too little agility. (In their defense, they were highly trained and were supposed to demonstrate emotional, humanistic traits for the movie, not hunting dog traits.) The above revelation made me start watching other Sporting breeds as they ran and played—a luxury afforded me by virtue of owning a boarding ken- nel. Obviously, different Sporting breeds move and hunt differently. But it is fairly easy to pick out the efficient, agile movers, and I started real- izing that some of the “show” dogs (of any Sport- ing breed) weren’t always in this category.




the word “clumsy,” I found myself worrying way too much about the “long in leg” aspect. Apparently, a lot of exhibitors felt the same way. Obviously, no one wants a “leggy” Golden (a Golden that is too tall for its body length) or a square Golden. But, unfortunately, there has been a tendency to go in the opposite direction: Low on leg or longer bodies and/or longer loins. Part of this trend ensued because of an effort to achieve the show dog “tremendous reach and drive” (TRAD) that isn’t really the way a Golden Retriever should be mov- ing. TRAD is frequently achieved at the expense of level toplines, “well developed forechest,” short loins, and length of leg. Rolling or dipping toplines, ewe necks, and shoulders set too far forward start to become the norm, all because of the quest for ultimate TRAD. However, Goldens were bred for stamina and endurance, and navi- gating rough terrain of the Scottish highlands—not for racing and sprinting across flat fields. So, even though it is not specifically stated in the standard, the Golden is a Retriever with a 50:50 leg-to-height ratio—the distance from the elbow to the ground should equal the distance from the elbow to the withers. And the proper gait for a Golden in the show ring is a working trot at a moderate speed on a loose lead. There are supporting articles on our GRCA Judges’ Edu- cation page, addressing leg length, judging suggestions, etc. We haven’t really addressed the other priorities the Judges’ Edu- cation Committee has come up with, but they will be addressed in our GRCA JEC Facebook page: • Functional Head with True Breed Characteristics • Coat—Wrap-Around, Water-Repellent Jacket with Undercoat • All Shades of Golden Acceptable (Please see the ShowSight article by Cindy Partridge in this issue.) • Endurance Gait—Effortless, Easy, on a Loose Lead In the meantime, extensive information can be found on the GRCA Judges’ Education page of the website. We have many down- loadable articles, including an Illustrated Standard, At A Glance brochure, and a Quick Study Guide. We also have several videos, including a Golden Retriever Conformation Judges Training Video. For those of you who are confused about the many styles of Golden Retrievers, the Conformation Judges Training Video has several examples of the different styles. As for the “not clumsy nor long in the leg,” our committee’s breed historian and Golden Retriever expert, Marcia Schlehr, says it is a “warning against clunky, overdone dogs on one hand, and racy sighthound types on the other. This phrase has been in our standard since recognition of the breed.”


In our effort to emphasize the “retriever” characteristics of the Golden Retriever, the Golden Retriever Club of America Judges’ Education Committee has recently come up with pri- orities/hallmarks of the Golden Retriever that we want judges to look for and emphasize while judging the Golden. The most important priority is actually contained in the very first “General Appearance” paragraph that refers to the Golden as “primarily a hunting dog.” In fact, almost everything you need to know about Goldens is contained in that paragraph. I’ve attended many breed seminars and webinars where the speaker has said almost the same thing, and yet, I read that first paragraph of everyone else’s breed standards and I still don’t always get the essence of their breed. Hopefully, with the emphasis on purpose in our “General Appearance” paragraph, the essence of our breed does not escape you—though you may be like me and just have to keep reading the breed standard to find and remember those elusive traits that are sometimes easy to miss. Another important hallmark/priority the committee came up with is proportion. The Golden is slightly longer than tall (12:11 as measured from breastbone to point of buttocks), i.e., slightly off-square. And yet, ironically, while I was skipping over

1. Judge’s Study Package for licensed and provisional judges. $25 2. NEW Golden Retriever Conformation Judges Training Video 3. The Golden Retriever: An Illustrated Study Guide 4. Golden Retriever Quick Study Guide (suitable for double-sided printing) 5. Golden Retriever-At a Glance (suitable for printing on legal paper and folding into a pamphlet) 1. De un Vistazo” Referencia para Jueces (en español) 6. Articles, and Letters to Judges

1. Breed Function: Food for Thought for Judges of Golden Retrievers 2. Letter to Judges regarding correct coat and grooming practice

3. Size Disqualification in Golden Retrievers 4. Suggestions for Judging the Golden Retriever 5. AKC Video on Measuring and Weighing

7. The Golden Retriever – Structure, Movement and Use (Video) 1. Part 1 – 2. Part 2 – 3. Part 3 – 8. IN REVIEW: JE Postings from GRCA Judge’s Education Facebook site 1. Backline in Review 2. Bite and Dentition in Review 3. Coat Color in Review 4. Length of Leg in Review 5. Profile Movement in Review 6. Upper Arm in Review

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Helen Dorrance has been showing and training Golden Retrievers since 1976 and has been judging Goldens since 2002. She is the current Chair of the GRCA Judges’ Education Committee.



1. Where do you live? What do you do “outside” of dogs? 2. How many years in dogs? Showing? Judging? 3. Describe the breed in three words. 4. What are your must-have traits in this breed? 5. Are there any traits in this breed you fear are becoming exaggerated? 6. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are better now than they were when you first started judging? Why and why not? 7. What do you think new judges misunderstand about this breed? 8. Some have suggested Goldens today are losing breed type, as compared to dogs in the past. Do you agree? If so, what are some key breed-type characteristics you feel breeders need to improve on? 9. How do you prioritize key Golden breed-type elements when judging the breed? What is most important to you? Least important? 10. When evaluating dogs in your ring, how do you go about assessing correct Golden breed character/attitude/tempera- ment? Do you think current breed judging is favoring “generic showdogs” with wound-up high energy, or dogs with a more workman-like, yet biddable attitude? 11. What about correct Golden Retriever outline and proportion? How would you characterize proportion of the majority of dogs you’re seeing? Do you feel breeders are doing a good job with length to height; or is this still a drag on the breed? What about short versus long back/loin length? Which areas of pro- portion do you think breeders still need to concentrate on? 12. What is the state of Golden Retriever heads today? What do you look for? What can be improved? 13. It seems that many dogs being shown today are moved at a fast pace. How do you assess adequate reach and drive versus effortless/efficient movement? 14. How do you prioritize correct Golden coat and color when considering breed type? 15. What do you think are important features of Golden Retriever type that are too often overlooked by conformation judges? 16. What advice would you give to a new judge of your breed. HELEN DORRANCE I have been showing, breed-

What are my must-have traits in this breed? Slightly off-square proportion; level, firm topline with correct tail carriage; well-devel- oped forechest; deep and wide muzzle, only slightly deeper and wider at the stop than the tip; well-defined stop; correct coat; bal- anced and symmetrical movement. Although not specifically stated in the standard (other than “muzzle straight”), parallel planes are also a must. Are there any traits in this breed that I fear are becoming exag- gerated? Yes—excessive grooming, longer body length, too much coat, and exaggerated and inefficient gait, frequently resulting in “kicking up” in the back or overreaching on the side. Do I think the dogs you see in this breed are better now than they were when I first started judging? I don’t think the dogs are better or worse than they have been since the mid-seventies when I started showing. Like any breed, Goldens wax and wane accord- ing to whatever the current influence is—usually dependent on the stud dog du jour . As in any breed, when you rush to fix something, like fronts, another part of the dog suffers. It’s impossible to fix everything at once. Goldens are particularly hard to breed because they have several genetic problems we screen for. Golden breeders are very conscientious and generally follow the code of ethics and don’t breed dogs that don’t pass OFA. Just as in breeding for type, when you suddenly have to concentrate on breeding dogs that can pass cardiac screenings or pass eye clearances at the age of eight, you may lose some of the other traits you spent a generation or more cultivating. What do I think new judges misunderstand about this breed? Coat, color and gait. Coat should not be as profuse as we are fre- quently seeing in the ring. (Profuse coat truly does slow down water retrievals and retrieving from heavy cover.) Neither should the coat be scissored all over to present what the exhibitor thinks is the cor- rect outline. Not only does the scissoring ruin the outline (the oppo- site effect of what the exhibitor is hoping for), it changes the texture of the coat so that it is no longer firm and resilient. Wavy coats are perfectly acceptable and, in many cases, are the correct texture and the least likely to hold burrs. Unfortunately, exhibitors frequently spend hours stripping out coat and/or trying to “straighten” the coat “for the judges,” thereby ruining the wrap-around jacket it is sup- posed to be. I think the majority of breeder-judges are truly color blind. What shade of gold a Golden is rarely factors into the decision- making process. Plus, color can change throughout the Golden’s life. Some dogs can look almost white at six months of age and be a medium shade at six years. Lastly, I sometimes feel it is easier for judges to focus on side gait instead of trying to remember all of the nuances of breed type. Goldens are supposed to have a powerful and well-coordinated gait commensurate with their body proportions. When we reward the dog with the “sweeping” side gait or tremendous reach and drive, we may be rewarding the dog that has no forechest to interfere with that tremendous reach; or we are inadvertently rewarding a longer- bodied or short-legged dog, or narrower and/or racier dog with an uncharacteristically longer neck and narrow head. Do today’s Goldens have breed type? Throughout the years there have always been several Goldens with good breed type—and there still are. Unfortunately, a lot of these Goldens are now only going to breeder judged specialties. I try to encourage them to exhibit at all-breed shows so that judges can see what typey Goldens look like, but many feel it is a waste of money. In general, bodies and loins need to be shortened and backlines need to be firm, level, and

ing and competing in performance events with Golden Retrievers since 1977, and have owned or bred over 50 Golden Retriever champions under the Ducat prefix. I’ve owned seven GRCA Outstanding Dams, including the Dogs In Review top-

producing Golden Retriever bitch in 2012, and have personally owned and trained five Goldens to Excellent Agility titles. I cur- rently judge the Sporting Group and am a retired agility judge. I am lucky enough to own and live on an eight acre farmette with sheep, goats, chickens, a livestock guardian dog, and a boarding kennel in central Texas. Describe the breed in three words: Purpose, profile, soundness.



floor on each side, as long as the dog had “reach and drive.” This seemed to be all that mattered. Unfortunately, when the exhibi- tor races their dog around the ring, the dog ends up overreaching (sometimes unnecessarily). Getting exhibitors to show their dogs on a loose lead—and looking for a level topline that doesn’t bounce or roll—helps assess correct gait in Goldens. How do I prioritize correct Golden coat and color when consid- ering breed type? I must admit that having a boarding kennel really opened my eyes to what constitutes correct Golden coat. Spend- ing an entire summer combing burrs out of Golden Retriever coats before they could go home to their owners made me despise “exces- sive length, open coats, and limp, soft coats.” (And that was when I had employees to help me; fast forward to pandemic era after letting all of my employees go, which means I now get to bathe these same dogs.) Profuse, open, soft coats are not fun to bathe, shed more than they should, and take forever to dry. Correct coat is definitely one of my top five discriminators when judging Golden Retrievers, and can be a deciding factor between two dogs. Color is last priority. I have personally owned and bred every shade. What do I think are important features of Golden Retriever type that are too often overlooked by conformation judges? Retriev- er head properties. We want muzzles broad enough with strong underjaws that are capable of carrying waterlogged ducks. We want enough stop so they can see over the bird they are carrying while swimming or on land. We don’t want long ears that are going to wick water into the ear canal. They need premolars to help “pin” the bird, contributing to their characteristic “soft mouth.” What advice would I give to a new judge of my breed. Please do not reward the over-groomed or over-trimmed Golden. I am con- tinually amazed that exhibitors are not only changing the texture of their dog’s coat, they are actually grooming their dogs to look like they have an open coat, are sickle hocked, have splayed feet and a faulty outline. And please don’t discount Goldens that are on the lower end of the standard. A 23 inch dog is frequently more athletic and bal- anced than his 24+ inch counterpart. JUDY BACHOFNER I have been involved with the Golden Retriever breed for over 47 years now. I joined the GRCA 47 years ago and was also a member of the Golden Retriever Club of Illinois. When I relocated to Ore- gon 26 years ago, I joined the Pacific Rim Golden Retriever Club of Oregon. I have served as President, officer, board member, and have chaired several committees. I am a member of the Judges Educa- tion Committee for GRCA and have judged several sweepstakes. In addition, I am a CCA Evaluator for the GRCA. I am honored to share my life with this noble breed! Describe the breed in three words: Noble, loving, intelligent. What are my must-have traits in this breed? Excellent tem- perament, health, and intelligence. Proper coat, proportions, and athleticism. Are there any traits in this breed that I fear are becoming exagger- ated? Anxiety/hyperness, coat, over-angulated rears, and short legs. Do I think the dogs you see in this breed are better now than they were when I first started judging? I believe they are better in some areas, [though] we seemed to have had better longevity years ago, overall. Dogs were also, overall, more athletic. I do see many breeders make great efforts in this regard. Front assemblies always seem to need improvement, then and now. I believe we have very good quality in our Golden Retrievers, overall. There is always room for improvement, and many are working in that direction. Purebred dogs represent generations of work and dedication and are a continuing work in progress.

smooth. I’m always looking for the topline that the proverbial glass of water can sit on—without spilling—as the dog moves around the ring. How do I prioritize key Golden breed-type elements when judging the breed? I look for profile first, which for me includes a slightly off-square body with well-developed forechest and a firm, level backline with tail following the natural line of the croup. Head is part of the profile too and should have adequate stop, depth of muzzle, and a muzzle that is slightly shorter than the skull, along with parallel planes. Well let down hocks complete the profile. Coat needs to be a firm, resilient, waterproof jacket. Balanced, symmetri- cal gait with no bouncing or rolling of the topline completes the overall appearance. Although eyes (placement, shape and size) and ears (placement, set and length) are important to me, I am more willing to “give” on both of those, but usually don’t have to. If the other parts of the head are correct, usually the eye placement, shape and size are also correct. I love a short loin, but can’t always find it. Light col- ored noses, light eyes, and missing teeth are not as important to me—especially since some dogs can lose teeth in the field. Least important of all is color. How would I characterize correct outline and proportion? As I described previously, outline to me includes the whole dog, from well-developed forechest to slightly sloping croup, and well let down hocks. The slightly off-square proportion seems to be very difficult to achieve—not just in Goldens, but in many breeds. I have actually measured Goldens I thought were the correct proportion and have had trouble finding a dog that is truly 12:11. I think in our effort to get “reach and drive” we started breeding longer and longer dogs. So, yes, it is still a drag on the breed. But I think as more and more judges look for the correct proportion, more and more breeders will breed for the correct proportion. What is the state of Golden Retriever heads today? Good heads can be difficult to find and even harder to breed for. To those who say you can fix a head in one generation; my answer is always, “Then why haven’t you?” While other retriever breeds specify a “broad skull,” Goldens are the only retriever breed that calls for a broad skull “slightly arched laterally and longitudinally.” We want a broad and deep muzzle that is slightly shorter than the skull, but we don’t want heavy flews that would trap feathers; and we want the broad and deep muzzle to carry through from the stop to the tip, with very little tapering. One of the longest paragraphs in our stan- dard is on eyes and yet we don’t specify the shape of the eye—only what shape it isn’t. We want the eyes medium large and reasonably deep, but not so deep in the sockets that they get entropion. Some experts think of the Golden Retriever eye as a fat almond. I think of it as more of a peach pit. In any event, it should not be obliquely set, narrow, squinty, triangular or round. Above all, the eyes are respon- sible for the kind, friendly and intelligent expression that is such an inherent Golden Retriever breed characteristic. Add on correctly- set, short ears and it is easy to see why it is so difficult for breeders to produce the perfect Golden Retriever head, and for judges to find the perfect head. How do I assess adequate reach and drive versus effortless/effi- cient movement when many dogs being shown today are moved at a fast pace? I guess judges are as much responsible for some of today’s trends in the ring as the exhibitors are. If we reward the easy/ effortless movement of a dog on a loose lead, perhaps breeders won’t feel they have to produce entrants for a sweeping side gait contest. The Golden is supposed to be an endurance, stamina breed, able to traverse over uneven ground. They are a gentleman’s hunting dog, not a dog that needs a GPS collar so you can retrieve him from the next county. Over the years, it seemed we were frequently breeding for side gait at all cost. It didn’t seem to matter if the topline slapped the



What do I think new judges misunderstand about this breed? They are not a racehorse. They need to be shown on a loose lead, not over-groomed (a huge issue for me). Pay attention to moderation; level topline and not too long—and [not] that over-angulated rear. Do today’s Goldens have breed type? There are really a couple of different “types.” “American” style and “English” style, and many combinations thereof. This does not mean there is not correct on both sides. Moderation should be key! How do I prioritize key Golden breed type elements when judg- ing the breed? Head and face, neck into shoulder, good front assem- bly, solid topline, well-set tail, good leg, correct coat. Grooming! So much can be fixed in the whelping box. How would I characterize correct outline and proportion? Our standard is very specific on the 11:12 ratio. Length to height has become a real problem. It seems to be getting somewhat better, but we still need to work on this. Breeders should concentrate on front assemblies—and it is a complete assembly; not just shoulders, or prosternum, or length of upper arm—it is all three combined! What is the state of Golden Retriever heads today? I think we need to work on some loose eye lids, low ear sets, and too round an eye. I like to look into an inquisitive, sweet, intelligent face that says, “Golden Retriever”; correct eye shape, good stop and correct ear set. How do I assess adequate reach and drive versus effortless/effi- cient movement when many dogs being shown today are moved at a fast pace? They are moved way too fast; it is not a race. You cannot easily assess effortless/efficient movement when they move that fast! Loose lead and let them flow. How do I prioritize correct Golden coat and color when consid- ering breed type? Correct Golden coat is of very high importance to me! Color means very little to me. What do I think are important features of Golden Retriever type that are too often overlooked by conformation judges? They should be moderate dogs, and not profusely coated! In addition, the short legs and over-angulated rears are a problem in too many. Advice to a new judge of my breed? Take your time, don’t dis- miss the owner-handler who is not as proficient and may be ner- vous—these can be some of your nicest dogs with amateurs at the end of the lead. Learn to feel for a correct coat. Slow them down! COLLETTE JAYNES I currently live in Whitwell,

about too much coat and grooming for the breed years ago, but I do not believe it made much of a difference in the show ring. Do I think the dogs I see in this breed are better now than they were when I first started judging? No. We are losing type, specifical- ly in balance, heads, expression, and soundness. There is too much emphasis on grooming to hide faults instead of breeding them out. What do I think new judges misunderstand about this breed? I think that new judges can be tricked by a flashy, over-coated, over- groomed Golden presented by a professional, instead of evaluating movement and the structure with their hands. A lot of handlers move Goldens too fast, which makes it difficult to evaluate the movement correctly. There is a range in both color and size, and I think new judges get caught up in color and size. Quite often the one Golden that is NOT like the others is the only correct Gold- en in the ring, but because the rest are alike and mediocre at best it is easy to reward what is similar in the ring, instead of what is truly correct. Do today’s Goldens have breed type? What can be improved upon? Balance and correct movement. Form and function are not being considered, and the condition of Goldens needs to be improved. This is, again, primarily a hunting dog and thus should look like one! How do I prioritize key Golden breed-type elements when judging the breed? First would be overall impression, balance, and outline. Then proper movement; the Golden should cover ground effortlessly and not have so much kick-up in the front or rear. Least important to me would be color. How would I characterize correct outline and proportion? Cor- rect proportion is just off-square or 12:11 as stated in the standard. Breeders are making the mistake of often breeding to the flavor of the month and not really understanding structure, balance or type. What is the state of Golden Retriever heads today? Heads are starting to become a problem and seem to be all over the place with houndy ears, loose eyes, and no underjaw. The Golden should have a soft, loving expression, yet so many have a very harsh expression. The backskull is too big and the muzzle is lacking in depth and width. But there are still some lovely heads as well. I look for: The Golden expression, which is the hallmark of the breed; a muzzle that is deep with a strong underjaw, which is necessary as a hunting dog; and a proper backskull with proper size ears. How do I assess adequate reach and drive versus effortless/effi- cient movement when many dogs being shown today are moved at a fast pace? It is a pet peeve of mine when they race around the ring. Correct movement needs to be evaluated at a normal pace. Han- dlers will move at a very fast pace in hopes of hiding the faults—it doesn’t. I require all my exhibitors to move at a normal pace and, if they move too fast, they do it again. How do I prioritize correct Golden coat and color when consid- ering breed type? Color is not a major issue for me. The extremes should be panelized, but I will put structure over incorrect coat color every day. Correct coat texture is very important in the field. It should not be soft and have adequate undercoat. We are also seeing excessive length of coat and excessive grooming. The coat should fit like a jacket and be weather-resistant. Too many handlers blow the coat out to give the impression of more substance or rib spring. This doesn’t fool me. If there is a LOT of product in the coat, I will mention it to the handler. What do I think are important features of Golden Retriever type that are too often overlooked by conformation judges? The type that screams primarily a hunting dog. Too often the fluffy, excited attitude gets the attention and the correct dog that is mov- ing with head out and tail right off the back gets ignored because he is not flashy. What advice would I give to a new judge of my breed. Study, study, study. Talk to long-time breeders and don’t be afraid to

Tennessee, but will be moving to White, Georgia, in a couple of months. I have been in the dog world since 1973. My first show dog was an Irish Setter. I started showing and training

Golden Retrievers in 1975. I also bred English Springer Spaniels in the late 1970s to late ‘80s. I became involved in Clumber Spaniels in 2002. I have actively competed in agility, field, obedience, and conformation with my dogs. I began judging sweeps in 2009 and regular classes in 2015. I am a retired AT&T employee. I currently have three grandchildren who are the center of my world. Describe the breed in three words: Primarily a Hunting Dog. What are my “must-have” traits in this breed? Proportions, movement, correct head, and coat. Are there any traits in this breed I fear are becoming exagger- ated? Yes. The proportions are becoming long and low and the coats are over-groomed and too profuse. The GRCA sent a letter to judges


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