Showsight Presents The Pug

PUG

Let’s Talk Breed Education!

WHATMAKES A PUG, BY PATT KOLESAR STOLTZ, JEC PDCA A PUG? ROUND HEAD, SQUARE BODY, CURLY TAIL

W e are all excited to get back to dog shows after our COVID hiatus. We want to restore that little bit of normal back into our dog life. It feels like we were all put on pause, there was a rewind, and now we are starting fresh. We are raring to go. With this in mind, I would like to take the opportunity to refresh readers’ understanding of some of the points of the Pug standard. I want to emphasize a few of the nuances that make a Pug, a Pug. I want to address the high points of type in our standard. I would certainly hope that anyone officiating in the ring already has a firm grasp of what mod- erate angles, moderate reach and drive, double tracking, and a level back mean. So, I’ll leave that for another discussion. I would like you to remember three important words when you think about a Pug; round head, square body, curly tail. These three words sum up the shape a Pug is expected to be. Say it again, “Round head, square body, curly tail.” Pugs are short-bodied, thickset, and square. We measure square from the point of shoulder to the ischium, and from the top of the with- ers to the ground. The standard calls for a Pug that is “ multum in parvo ,” which literally translate to “a lot in a little.” Basically, we are the con- crete block of the Toy ring. Calling for a lot in a little requires substance that is not overdone; nor should it ever be coarse. A fat Pug doesn’t have substance, he is just fat, and a scrawny adult clearly lacks substance. Admittedly, our standard can be confusing because it only addresses substance in terms of weight, stating weight from 14 to 18 pounds (dog or bitch) as desirable. And admittedly, today’s exhibits are often slightly larger than the “desired” weight we address in the standard. However, the Pug should be evaluated on the merit of its bone, muscle, and cobbi- ness as it relates to breed type. Always keep in mind that the Pug is a Toy breed of moderate angles. We never want to see Pugs that are excessively large, weedy, leggy, short-legged or long-bodied. Pugs never have a tuck- up. Our back is parallel to the ground and our underline is virtually the same. Think thick as a brick. Let’s move on to the curly tail. Our standard says the tail is curled as tightly as possible over the hip. The double curl is perfection. A Pug’s tail is a very distinctive characteristic, and a Pug carries his feelings on his tail. While a double curl is perfection, a tight single or 1-1/2 twist is perfectly acceptable and pretty much what you can expect to find. No daylight should ever be visible from within the curl. The tail should always remain curled tightly to the body—and this applies when mov- ing too. A low-set tail, a tail that doesn’t hold a curl, flops open when moving or shows daylight are all undesirable. It is not unusual for a puppy, or an exhibit that may have been startled by a noise, to drop its tail for a moment. However, when recovered, the tail should be carried high with that tight curl. (I joke that there are only three times a Pug’s tail comes undone; when he is ill, when he’s sleeping or when he’s dead.)

PHOTOS PROVIDED BY PDCA

Here is a beautiful example of square, level back, the correct underline, and profile.

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Dedicated to quality, type, health and movement

FOURSQUARE PUGS, reg. BREEDERS/OWNERS DR. DAVID AND JUDITH JOHNSON AKC BREEDERS OF MERIT 511 Wareham St. Middleboro, MA 02346 508-947-2917 baileybuttonboy@yahoo.com

HANDLED EXCLUSIVELY BY JASON BAILEY AKC REGISTERED HANDLER

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PUG

WHAT MAKES A PUG, A PUG?

Nose: Although the Standard does not mention the nose, a short discussion is necessary. The nose is black, wide, and lies flat when viewed in profile. The top of the nose bisects the center of the eyes. The stop is concealed by an over-the-nose wrinkle. An unbroken wrinkle, set on the nose, unifies the face. Undesirable: A nose wrinkle covering a significant portion of the nose so as to negatively affect the Pug’s ability to breathe comfortably; a nosepad that is too large; lack of noseroll.

When alert, the tip of the ear reaches no further than the outer cor- ner of the eye. The rose ear appears smaller and folds differently, with the inner edge against the side of the head. The inner burr of the rose ear does not show like that of a Bulldog. The rose ear is small, neat, and tends to give the head a rounder appearance. Ears are always black, and both ears should be of the same type. Head wrinkle is another trait essential to a Pug’s expression. The standard says no more than the wrinkles are large and deep. In the fawn Pug, the wrinkles are set off by a darkening within the folds of the wrinkle. Wrinkles in the black Pug are more difficult to discern, so be sure to take a good look. Wrinkles can conceal an incorrect skull shape. The Pug’s muzzle is short, blunt, and square, but it is not up- faced. The muzzle is almost half of the dog’s face and is extremely important. It should be flat when viewed in profile. The cushioning of the muzzle should appear to be equal to the width of the skull. The width of the muzzle should be in line with the outer edge of the eye. The underjaw is wide and deep. The upper lips should be full and the lip line firm. When viewed from the front, the muzzle should not fall away under the eyes. To complete the round head, there should be sufficient fill and cushioning under the eyes. The bite of the Pug is very slightly undershot. An overbite distorts the expression and gives a lippy appearance. Too much underbite makes the dog look up-faced. Kindly remember that we are a “thumb breed.” There is no need to lift the lips, pry open the mouth or stick your fingers in there. Use the flat of your thumb over the mouth to feel the bite. We highly recommend that the bite check should be the last part of the table examine. I said in the beginning that I wanted to hit the points of our standard that are essential to Pug type. However, there are two other points I want to touch on before I close this discussion. Pugs come in fawn or black. Period. Fawn or black only; any color other than fawn or black is a disqualification. It is the only disqualifica- tion in our standard. While fawn comes in many shades, black is black. It is important to remember that a small amount of white on the chest in either color is perfectly acceptable. Another note on color: Pugs should be judged with no preference for color. My final note in our conversation today is that Pugs should also be judged with equal consideration afforded to both dogs and bitches. Welcome back to the ring, and let’s hope that we never have to take a hiatus like this one again.

I have saved the discussion of the head for last as the head is complicated. Remember that word “round” head? If only it were that simple. I find that understanding the correct head is the hard- est thing for many to grasp. Yes, the standard says our head is large, massive, and round. However, keep in mind that our head is large and round when viewed from the front. When viewed from the side, our face is flat. The head must always fit the body, meaning it should be in proportion to the body. The head should never be so large that it is out of balance with the rest of the dog. This is as unappealing as is the dog with a head that is too small. The head should always exhibit a firm lip line, thick cushioning under the eyes, substantial cheeks, and a strong, wide underjaw. But to really understand the Pug head, one must also under- stand the nose, eyes, shape and set of the ears, head wrinkle, muz- zle width, and the bite as these all fill and fit into the round head. So, look at the head from the front and “draw” in your mind an imaginary circle around the head. Every inch of the dog’s head should reach out and touch or fill the edges of that circle. Now, let’s get a little more specific. We’ll start with the nose. Draw an imaginary horizontal line across the top of the nose to the outer edges of that circle. That horizontal line should run through the center of the eyes. It should bisect the center of the eyes for the dog to have proper nose place- ment. A nose that is set too low gives the face an up-and-down or rectangular look. For the Pug’s head to be balanced, half of his face will be above that horizontal line and half of it will be below. The stop of the nose is always concealed by the nose wrinkle. The nose is always black, wide, and flat. The eyes are the soul of this breed and they should be dark, very large, and round. “Globular” in shape means round, it never means bulging. The expression of the eyes is soft and lustrous, but full of fire when excited. The expression of a Pug is extremely dependent on their big, dark, wide-set, appealing eyes. The eyes should never be small or beady, nor close-set, nor light. The whites of the eyes should not show, nor should the eyes be east-west. The center of the eyes should always be in line with the top of the nose. The rims of the eyes are black. Expression, size, shape, and color are of primary importance. The ears frame the head. They are thin, small, soft (like black velvet), and come in two shapes—rose or button—with prefer- ence given to the button ear. The ears are set wide on the head. The fold of the button ear is level with the top of the dog’s skull.

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PUG

JUDGING THE PUG by DONNELLE RICHARDS

T he Pug is a thumb breed. Do not open the mouth of a Pug. AKC has a chart of all breeds and how to check their bites. This is a thumb breed, as are: Brussels Griffons, English Toy Spaniels, Japanese Chin and Pekingese. These five breeds (as of June 23, 2018) are the ones that are examined without opening the mouth. We have had a lot of complaints of judges wrestling with the dogs to check the teeth. Please don’t wrestle this breed. The bite should be slightly under- shot (reverse scissors) but there must be a chin—not mushmouthed. Check- ing the bite is quick and easy. This is a thumb breed and you must examine on the outside of the muzzle and bite. We only state that we are slightly under- shot. You can feel this with your thumb. Below is how you should go about judg- ing the head of a Pug. EXAMINING THE PUG HEAD CORRECTLY • Cup your fingers behind the Pug’s ears. This gives you a good look at the beautiful wrinkles on the head and will help you to feel the head.

sion. Your examination of the head is now over. You may judge the head last—that is fine. The Pug must have a large round head The head of a Pug usually matures rather slowly and will generally not reach full size until after two years of age. The rather small ears should reach only to the cheek bones. They are soft like velvet and very expressive; helping to give the Pug the sweet soft expres- sion we so love in our breed. The large, dark globular eyes are set so that the middle of the eye is at the top of the nose and the bottom of the alert ear. A light eye gives a much harsher expression to the face and they should be penalized to the degree of the fault. Pugs should appear cobby (standard says Multum in Parvo—meaning a lot in a little). It is a heavy little dog. The standard says 14 to 18 pounds for a dog or bitch but many today weigh slightly over 20 pounds and are still cobby. Pugs are square (dog or bitch). Mea- sured from point of shoulder to point of rump and ground to top of withers. They should never be too long in body nor too short on leg. Pugs have only a slight tuckup. The front legs when viewed from the front should appear straight. There may be some muscling on the outside of the front legs and that should not be taken as not being straight. They are set well under when viewed from the side. The pasterns are only slightly bent. The neck should be strong, and of sufficient length to hold the large head proudly. The head with no neck and set on the shoulders is not correct. The straight topline should remain level moving or standing. A sloping topline is not level. The standard calls for a high set curly tail curled over the hip. A double curled tail is perfection. You see tails

curled tightly directly on top of the back and this certainly is acceptable. A Pug with the tail down when moving is an unhappy Pug and today that Pug should not win. The Pug has a double tracking gait. There is a slight convergence as speed increases, but look at a normal speed and you will see a slight convergence. The front and rear legs should be in a straight line. If you look at the rear going away you should see only the rear and when coming at you only the front. This would be a true double track gait. I ask that the handler take the Pug down and back on as loose a lead as possible so that I can see the gait. If the Pug is on a tight lead you will not see the proper double track. The last thing you want to look at for your consideration in the ring is color. Fawn does consist of many different shades and they may have black hairs mixed in. Smuttiness in the Fawn col- oring is only a minor fault. When the standard says clear color that is to say there is a clear delineation between the fawn and the black of the mask and ears on the Fawn dogs. Black Pugs are just that—black. By saying only Fawn or Black this should eliminate any other off color. Just remember that Fawn does come with black hairs mixed in. If you are a judge of junior showman- ship and don’t know what to do when you ask the junior to show the bite. I ask of all juniors “Please show me the bite and mouth as you do in the conforma- tion ring”. I expect the junior to either explain to me (politely) that we do not open the mouth of the Pug or to show how the examination is done. I hope this helps all of us to under- stand our wonderful breed and how it should be judged.

As Pugs have a lot of skin on the head it is important to feel the bone structure.

• Use your thumbs to feel the top of the head, slide your thumbs down and feel the good width of skull. • Continue to slide your thumbs down to the muzzle which should be at least as wide as to be to the middle of the eyes. Feel for a wry bite at the same time. • Then put one thumb in front of the lips. (If your thumb bends forward slightly you will have a correct slightly undershot bite. As your fingers are still cupped behind the ears you can again see the beautiful shape of the head and expres-

CORRECTION Hello, I enjoyed seeing my article again and received many positive comments thank you! I need to clarify one part of the description which can lead to a misunderstanding. I wrote “the distance between the front feet while standing should be the width of one foot.” To prevent misunderstanding I should have said PAW, meaning the anatomical foot of the dog, not the measurement of 12 inches, which is much too wide. Th ank you again for a great publication, Morton Goldfarb S HOW S IGHT M AGAZINE , M ARCH 2019 • 313

PUG MYELOPATHY: A NEW UNDERSTANDING OF “WEAK REAR”

BY KATHLEEN L. SMILER, DVM, DACLAM Pug Dog Club of America Health Committee Chair

Pug Myelopathy is a recently recog- nized spinal condition believed unique in purebred Pugs. It is called by several terms (e.g., constrictive myelopathy, facet hypoplasia), and it is most often referred to as “Pug Myelopathy.” With an average age of onset of ~nine years, the rear limb incoordination (ataxia) may progress to paralysis of the rear limbs over a period of one to four years. Origi- nally referred to as “weak rear,” this has become a widespread problem in Pugs. Although the rear legs appear to be weak, the cause is a neurological defi- cit that develops in the spine. Affected dogs may initially drag their feet, stag- ger, have trouble jumping and can have fecal and urinary incontinence. It usu- ally affects just the rear limbs, unlike a very different disease, Degenerative Myelopathy (DM), which can have simi- lar initial signs, but slowly progresses tragically to complete paralysis and usually euthanasia. In Pug Myelopathy, we are learning there is usually a com- plex of spinal abnormalities that involve both the vertebral bones, and the spi- nal cord. Spinal cord compression—

often near the last pair of ribs—can be caused by one or more syndromes that may include chronic multiple moder- ate Hansen’s Type II intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) and spinal arachnoid diverticula (SAD) “pouch”, with fibrous thickening of the arachnoid (a layer of the spinal cord membranes – meninges - surrounding the spinal cord) and spinal cord atrophy. Unraveling the relation- ships between these conditions is one goal of the research at Michigan State University, led by Dr. Jon Patterson, which is funded by the Pug Dog Club of America . Although little is published about this condition, Pug Myelopathy may be the most common cause of mid- back spinal cord problems in Pugs. Many veterinarians are not yet knowledgeable about this condition, and affected dogs may have had a pre- vious diagnosis that was incomplete or inaccurate. Since so little is known, there is no consensus among neurolo- gists about the best way to treat it. Sur- gery may be appropriate for a limited number of individual cases, but it must be considered as soon as possible after

symptoms first occur, and may only delay progression of paralysis. The most important palliative treat- ment appears to be consistent physical therapy using rehabilitation exercises to preserve muscle strength and enhance development of a “spinal walk.” A thera- peutic wheeled cart, carefully fitted by a knowledgeable professional, may exercise the rear legs to assist, improve, and extend the ability to remain mobile. Other forms of integrative medicine can enhance the ability and interest to stay active. Pugs affected with Pug Myelopa- thy are usually pain free and can lead enriched long lives with good nursing care despite their disability. All senior Pugs require periodic wellness exams to detect and alleviate other problems of aging; including those of the dog’s front legs, shoulders, and neck; includ- ing using medication and/or supple- ments. It is critical that affected Pugs be carefully monitored for the ability to completely empty the urinary bladder several times a day. If your dog devel- ops signs of “weak rear” or ataxia, it is important to have your primary care

“WHY SOME PUGS BECOME AFFECTED BY A NEUROLOGICAL DEFICIT (THAT RESULTS IN ATAXIA PARALYSIS) IS THE MOST IMPORTANT SUBJECT OF CONTINUING RESEARCH.”

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“A THERAPEUTIC WHEELED CART, CAREFULLY FITTED BY A KNOWLEDGEABLE PROFESSIONAL, MAY EXERCISE THE REAR LEGS TO ASSIST, IMPROVE, AND EXTEND THE ABILITY TO REMAIN MOBILE.”

veterinarian arrange a referral for an examination by a board-certified vet- erinary neurologist or surgeon as soon as possible. In Pug Myelopathy, both bony (ver- tebral) and spinal cord abnormalities are found in most cases. Almost all purebred Pugs have hypoplastic (under- developed) or aplastic (absent) facet articulations between the vertebrae of the mid to lower back. These are best seen with a CT scan, but to understand lesions potentially compressing the spinal cord, an MRI is the preferred diagnostic test. Currently there is no way to predict which Pugs will develop a neurological disease at 7-12 years of age, long after a successful show and breeding career

has occurred. Using state-of-the art canine genetic tools, scientists at Pur- due University will begin to investigate the genetic variants underlying these canine spinal abnormalities, hopefully leading to the development of genetic tests. Such tests would allow breeders to screen for clinically relevant spinal abnormalities, and examine possible inheritance, while selecting for desired breed characteristics. A genetic test may also identify individual dogs “at risk” for Pug Myelopathy syndromes, be used to aid in diagnosis of an affected dog, and/ or supplement a prognosis after spinal injury or trauma. Genetic screening would improve the welfare and well- being of purebred Pugs, and provide direction in reducing other inherited

disorders in purebred dogs. To submit case history and medical records, test results and images, and pedigrees and DNA samples from affected Pugs please contact Dr. Smiler. A clinical study to examine the benefits of rehabilitation and physical therapy for long term nurs- ing care is also in development. To obtain more information on Pug Myelopathy please contact: Kathleen L. Smiler, DVM, DACLAM; smilerk@mindspring.com. Our websites: http://pugrearataxia- paralysis.com/ and http://www.pug- dogclubofamerica.com/pug-myelopa- thy.html. Our Facebook Page: https://www. facebook.com/Pug-Dog-Health-Rear- AtaxiaParalysis-218123938233440/. Wonderful Wheelie Pugs Support Group: https://www.facebook.com/ groups/wheeliepugs/. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dr. Kathleen Smiler’s Pug, 7-year- old Lily (pictured left), was affected in 2005 by an almost unknown rear limb weakness first recognized at Auburn University. In the past 12 years Kathleen has increased aware- ness, promoted research, and devel- oped resources for Pug owners to pro- vide long term home nursing care for their own disabled dogs. Dr. Smiler is a 1970 graduate of the Michigan State University, College of Veteri- nary Medicine. Her work experience in research combines purebred dog practice with basic investigative sci- ence. She has held offices in many vet- erinary medical organizations, and is currently the Michigan Delegate to the AVMA.

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PUG SURVEY

DORIS ALDRICH 1. What is different now about the sport from when you started? Too many professional handlers—they socialize with all the judges, making it difficult for the owner/handler. 2. What about the breed makes it a great show dog? They love being the center of whatever is going on. 3. What is your funniest experience at a dog show? The Pug is very entertaining so it is hard to pick out one thing they have done to make you laugh. JUDY BROWN 1. What is different now about the sport from when you started? The blacks have gotten so much better in the last 15 years, much more substance and big round wrinkled heads. When I first started in Pugs everyone was so friendly, we would have pitch-ins at the dog shows and there seemed to be a lot of encouragement between exhibitors. Now there are like little cliques, and so much back-stabbing. I see this everywhere I travel. I show another breed also and the people are much friendlier, welcoming and encouraging. 2. What about the breed makes it a great show dog? Pugs are pleasers and will do anything for food… well most of them will. 3. What is your funniest experience at a dog show? This happened at an outdoor show in Ohio. This was the last day of the show and the little girl I had purchased from some pugs friends had gone RWB for 3 days to a girl another friend was showing. That girl had finished the day before but my friend left her in the classes so the major wouldn’t break. This friend and her husband were both showing girls in Open Bitch along with me. The wife was showing the girl that had finished the day before, I say showing loosely as she was pretty much just wandering around the ring. When she put the girl up on the table she didn’t set her up or do anything to her. She pretty much let the bitch do whatever she wanted. The next bitch on the table was being shown by her husband. The judge says to her husband not knowing they were married, “That gal is a real ditz.” Her husband answered, “If you only knew!”

PATTI & RICHARD CALDWELL 1. What is different now about the sport from when you started? The quality of Pugs overall has improved substantially in the time we have been in the breed, although the top Pugs of time past are fully the equal of the top Pugs today. One specific point of improvement is the rear assembly. A major factor in the improvement of Pugs being bred now is due to there being more of a national breeding community, whereas breeding locally was more the style years ago. This presumably is partly due to improvements in technology--more information about dogs and exchanges between breeders on the internet, new extenders, reliable shipping of semen, etc. 2. What about the breed makes it a great show dog? We love the Pugs for their enthusiasm for life which makes them a great show dog, but also a joy to live with at home. They are so comical, love to be close and snuggle, and have a reliable, amicable personality that makes them an easy keeper. Well, except for the shedding. Pugs are more than purely a wonderful lap dog. While that is what they were bred to do and are clearly experts, they are able to be successful in many other venues, i.e. Obedience, Rally, Agility and Barn Hunt titles. 3. What is your funniest experience at a dog show? The funniest thing we have ever seen at a dog show involved the young daughter of a good friend of ours. The child was absolutely in love with our Pug. At her first dog show, a Mastiff walked by and she got so excited she could hardly talk exclaiming, “It’s a big Pug!” CHRIS DRESSER 1. What is different now about the sport from when you started? The breed has become more popular which has attracted some fanciers who seem more focused on quantity and less on quality, health, temperament and the welfare of the breed. For a natural breed, grooming of show Pugs is totally out of hand. I have watched own- ers spray up and scissor a topline on a dog. Much of the facial pigment is now supplied by permanent markers. The most outlandish grooming effort I have seen was a handler frantically back combing the hocks. I was around for the good old days and many of us who were do not think the sport is heading in the right direction. The judges often do not have the depth of knowledge about

“THEY LOVE BEING THE CENTER OF WHATEVER IS GOING ON.”

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general structure and soundness, let alone the desirable qualities we breeders value and are trying to produce. Judges are not doing their job and are doing the exhibi- tors no favors when they walk in the ring and base their decisions on the latest magazine ads. I haven’t produced the perfect dog yet, but I look critically at my dogs and those I am up against, as do others in the sport. 2. What about the breed makes it a great show dog? They are clownish, biddable and usually extremely food motivated. They are easy to like and tend to get along well when traveling and in a show venue. 3. What is your funniest experience at a dog show? I was also at a show talking to a friend who got an odd look on her face and said, “Dear God, that poor child looks like a monkey.” I turned to look and, of course, it was an actual monkey all dressed up in baby clothes. My friend truly didn’t know it was not a human baby. WARREN & JOYCE HUDSON 1. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are bet- ter now than they were when you first started? Why or why not? Through the years there has been steady progress in breed type. We have been involved with the breed for 44 years, and look back at pictures decades ago and really treasure what the general impression has become with the Pugs of today in the ring. 2. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? When mentoring new judges, we try to emphasize the “heavy boned” aspect of this breed. A fine-boned Pug just does not have breed type. 3. And, for a bit of humor: What’s the funniest thing you’ve ever experienced at a dog show? There have been many hilarious happenings in showing and judging dogs. I judged my first assignment as an AKC Judge (a Pug Specialty) in Brush Prairie, Washington. After glancing at my Judges book, I turned around to start judging the Pugs, and there was Jim Moran, as con- fident as all life, kneeling down stacking a Bulldog. So, it was once around the ring and out! One never knows what will happen at a dog show. JASON HUFF 1. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are bet- ter now than they were when you first started? Why or why not? In general, I think the breed is better today than ever before. Breeders’ focus on improving top lines has paid

off, with significant improvement displayed for all to see as the Pug moves around the ring. Our Pugs’ headpieces are stronger than ever. 2. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? New judges need to focus on the Pug and the Pug only. It is my opinion that too many times, judges are impressed by top handlers who may not be presenting the best specimen on the day. Judging should be an honor and a privilege and not the opportunity to float ribbons to heroic icons on the end of the lead. 3. Is there anything else you’d like to share about the breed? Our breeders are doing a fantastic job building strong breed type that is cobby and square with a big round head and a tight curly tail. One note for judges to consider, beware of aggressive and forceful examination of the Pug bite. It is absolutely not necessary and it leaves not only the exhibitor but the Pug with a negative ring experience. Also one of the most endearing parts of the Pug is the required dark round eye. Light eyes do not give the proper expression in the breed and they are distracting. A light eye, clear or not, is incorrect. SANDRA MORGAN 1. What is different now about the sport from when you started? The current obsession judges seem to have with clear pale fawn coats, which has led to a lack of pigment. Now we’re seeing less head wrinkles. I don’t think the sport itself has changed. I think the participants have tighter budgets and less time. This leads to less fun being had, and more pressure to finish dogs quickly, or not at all. 2. What about the breed makes it a great show dog? They enjoy being with people and playing to the crowd. 3. What is your funniest experience at a dog show? The time we took our van and a giant silver tarp we were using as a shade cover. The wind came up and because we’d clipped the tarp to the top of the expens, the pens lifted and one of the dogs escaped. She was running around and under the van, while we were trying to catch her and manage the tarp before more Pugs escaped. We still laugh about that one. We bought a motorhome before the next show.

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Discussions on the PUG

DORIS ALDRICH I am from Pelham, Massachusetts. I am retired and just enjoying life. I’ve started in obedience over 42 years ago. JUDY BROWN

quality Pugs, mentors who were willing to spend the time teaching us about the breed and our talented handler, Christopher Keith. TIMOTHY CATTERSON My partner Chuck

I live in Logansport, Indiana. I gar- den, read, and spend time with fam- ily and friends. I also like to travel but other than a summer vacation with my family most of my travel has been to dog shows. I’ve been in the breed for 15 years. I first owned a Pug 20 years ago;

Scott and I live in New Castle, Indiana where we’ve lived for 35 years. Chuck is still working in the same building where he’s worked for 45 years. I

it was a pet pug from a backyard breeder before I knew bet- ter. My first show with a Pug was in Louisville, KY, in 2002. I received a pretty cobalt blue vase for winning open black bitch. I was thrilled. PATTI & RICHARD CALDWELL

have retired from AT&T several years ago and spend most my time being involved in the sport of dogs. I got my first Pugs Tad and Daisy in 1965 and had them for about 20 years until I started with my Italian Greyhounds. Chuck and I have been showing dogs from the first year we were together, back in 1973. Together we bred and finished many champions in the Greyhound breed, including a national-specialty winner. We have been judging since 1989. I have also served as a Trustee of Take the Lead since 1994. SUZANNE DILLIN I live in Texas in a smallish town called Flower Mound; it is north of the Dallas/Ft. Worth metroplex and south of Denton, Texas. So we are fortunately within reach of great museums, restaurants, cultural events and prominent enter- tainers—great place to live. My other interests would be my return to painting and writing a children’s book. I have been held captive by the Pugs for over 25 years. I have refused to pay the ransom to get away from them, so it appears that I will remain stuck beside my precocious Pugs. So our first Pug filled our hearts and mind, making me promise not to be without one. Ever. That was about 1987. I began joining the dog world in about 1965. I fell in love with the Irish Setter and so we took them to heart. However, we also had three young sons to raise and found ourselves out of time. Later I glimpsed the beautiful English Cocker Spaniel. We eventually acquired a Galaxy granddaughter, the beginning of 47 years in the breed. My husband is a bird hunter which brought us the German Shorthaired Pointers over 25 years ago. About the same time a Pug hooked into my soul and here we are.

Patti and Dick Caldwell live on 45 acres in Lavon, Texas; it is 30 miles northeast of Dallas where they breed and exhibit Golden Retrievers and Pugs. They each have retained their own Golden Retriever kennel names, but breed and exhibit their Pugs under

the name Bookmark. Outside of dogs, Dick is a crossword maven and Patti enjoys reading, traveling and spending time with her friends. We both treasure our families. The expres- sion “their life has gone to the dogs” certainly applies to us with taking care of our dogs, going to training classes, being very active in several dog clubs and going, most week- ends, to dog shows. Patti had gotten her first Pug in 2005 and when we married, the Pug came with her as part of a package deal. We then got another Pug… and another Pug… and, well you know how it is with this sweet, funny breed— you can’t have just one. We have been very fortunate to be able to finish almost all our Pugs and obtain high national rankings on several of them. Our breeding program began in 2010 and, in addition to other champions, produced “Keebler” who we are currently campaigning. Much of our success has been due to breeders who first entrusted us with

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dog show to watch the Obedience classes. I ended up spend- ing the time at the Pug Conformation ring—I was hooked! Her sire was a show dog, so I contacted his breeder to find out about breeding her. I first showed my first home bred girl from my first litter in 1997. She was the only one in her class, and I was so thrilled with her blue ribbon. ELOIS VELTMAN I live in one of the most beautiful areas of North County San Diego—Fallbrook. Outside of the dog world, I refurbish homes, and spend time with my family and grandchildren. I bred and showed Beagles with my mom for over 30 years. My husband and I had wirehaired Doxies that we bred, showed and participated in tracking events on Camp Pendleton. When my daughter was about 10, she wanted her own show Pug so she bought her first one, Ch. Blaques Mr. Twiggins, from Blanche Roberts. As family, we were all taken in by his loving personality! When my daughter went to college, I end- ed up with four grieving Pugs in MY bed. 1. Describe the breed in three words. DA: Entertaining, funny and loving. JB: Square, cobby and clownish. P&RC: “MULTUM IN PARVO,” a lot in a little body, quoted from the Pug standard.

WARREN HUDSON

Joyce and I live in Kingston, Washington. The town is across Puget Sound from Seattle, where we live in the woods on five acres. I earned my living for 40 years as a Commer- cial Artist. We are both AKC Judges, with Joyce judging eight Toy Breeds, and I judge the Working and Toy Groups, BIS, 9 Non Sporting breeds and Junior Showmanship. Our fam- ily consists of 2 sons, 2 daughters, 13 grandchildren and 3 great grandchildren. We have been in the sport of dogs for 50 years, and I have been judging for 25 years. JASON HUFF

I currently reside in Cincinnati, Ohio and work as an Administrative Direc- tor for Solid Organ Transplant: Kidney, Pancreas, Liver and Heart, Hemodialysis Unit, Infusion Services and Inpatient Diabetes at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center. I have been surrounded

by dogs since before I ever walked as a baby. Our first dog was a Pekingese and I was in the 6th grade when my mother bought our first Pug, a black female named Sabrina. Through support- ing my best friend from high school in 4-H shows and then AKC Dog Shows when we were in high school, I was intrigued by the sport of dog showing. When I graduated nursing school in 1997, I bought my first show Pug. Since that time, I have owned, bred and finished championships on several Pugs and other breeds including Yorkies, Brussels Griffons, Smooth Col- lies and French Bulldogs. During my time in Pugs, I was fortu- nate to judge multiple specialty sweepstakes and received AKC approved status for Pugs in 2014. In 2015, I was honored to judge the Pug Dog Club of America National Specialty.

TC: Compact, cobby and playful. SD: Saucy, jaunty and captivating.

WH: The PUG is best described in the Standard as “mul- tum in parvo” which means a “lot in a little space”. This means that the dog should be chunky, heavy-boned and square-proportioned in body, with a large, round, heavily- wrinkled head. JH: Multim in parvo. SM: Happy, loving and stoic. EV: Pugs are truly “multum in parvo.” 2. Do you prefer Pugs to be moved on a loose lead? Does it bother you when Pugs are run around the ring? TC: Pugs, as with all breeds, should be shown on loose lead. Pugs are not hunters or racers and I will always tell exhibitors to slow down once. If they don’t listen then I will evaluate the dog the best I can. But running with a Pug will not win any points with me. WH: Like many breeds, Pugs should be moved on a loose lead at moderate speed for adequate evaluation. JH: Yes. My advice to new Pug exhibitors is to remember to show your Pug at a collected trot on a loose lead. There is nothing more disappointing for a judge than to see a Pug strung up, gasping for air with backward sneezes, as

SANDRA MORGAN

We live in a rural setting outside of Seattle near Puget Sound in Washington state. I have a dog-related home business, StarWalker Canine Solutions. I mainly sell Life’s Abundance pet products and some items for breeders, includ- ing custom linens, mostly for puppy pens. My reproduction specialist sends me clients who have special needs for their puppies, and I make things to suit the situation. We got our first Pug in 1994; over 20 years. We did Obedience and Agility with her and several rescue dogs we had, and went to an AKC

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6. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are bet- ter now than they were when you first started? Why or why not? TC: Today’s Pugs are in much better shape than dogs we had in the 60s and 70s. We had many beautiful dogs back then, but overall the average Pug is better--especially the black Pug. WH: Through the years there has been steady progress in breed type. We have been involved with the breed for 44 years, and look back at pictures decades ago and really treasure what the general impression has become with the Pugs of today in the ring. JH: In general, I think the breed is better today than ever before. Breeders’ focus on improving top lines has paid off, with significant improvement displayed for all to see as the Pug moves around the ring. Our Pugs’ headpieces are stronger than ever. 7. What is different now about the sport from when you started? DA: Too many professional handlers—they socialize with all the judges, making it difficult for the owner/handler. JB: The blacks have gotten so much better in the last 15 years, much more substance and big round wrinkled heads. When I first started in Pugs everyone was so friendly, we would have pitch-ins at the dog shows and there seemed to be a lot of encouragement between exhibitors. Now there are like little cliques, and so much back-stabbing. I see this everywhere I travel. I show another breed also and the people are much friendlier, welcoming and encouraging. P&RC: The quality of Pugs overall has improved substan- tially in the time we have been in the breed, although the top Pugs of time past are fully the equal of the top Pugs today. One specific point of improvement is the rear assembly. A major factor in the improvement of Pugs being bred now is due to there being more of a national breeding community, whereas breeding locally was more the style years ago. This presumably is partly due to improvements in technology—more information about dogs and exchanges between breeders on the internet, new extenders, reliable shipping of semen, etc. SD: The Pug has changed a great deal. Today we are clearer coated, utilizing a stronger side gate, shorter backed, stronger in rear and top line, feet and pasterns. We had big dogs back then as we do today. Our standard calls for 16-18 pounds. Pugs are a Toy breed. Changes in the Sport: if I go back just 45 years I would find R.E.S.P.E.C.T. I remember shaking from the fear of actually talking to a judge, well-known handler or successful breeder. Of course in those days, everyone hung out in the grooming areas. We weren’t invited into the conversations, but nev- er the less made welcome. We listened and absorbed the knowledge. We relied on our vintage mentors to guide

it is pulled around the ring. Exhibitors see handlers do it so they think it is correct and mimic them. Pugs running around the ring is bothersome and absolutely not a pretty sight. As previously stated, the Pug should be moved at a collected trot. 3. Do you penalize any white on a black Pug? TC: White on a black Pug is not something I want to see; but, again, what about the rest of the dog? Excessive white of course takes away from a nice Black dog. WH: We enjoy the breed equally in both fawn and black colors. The fawn color is most pleasing when there are fewer black hairs interspersed within, creating a clearer and less smutty coat. The black coat color should be jet black, with allowances for slight reddish cast on hips from sunburn in the summer. A small amount of white on the chest of a black pug should not concern a judge, but a white foot or toes are undesirable in our opinion. JH: Coat color is always a big topic in judging Pugs. I believe strongly that judges should judge the overall Pug and only then consider coat color. Judge every part of the dog first—does it have a high-set tail, beautiful type, and gor- geous head? Our breeders have done an outstanding job breeding black Pugs. I am personally not offended by a small amount of white on the chest of a black Pug.

4. What are your “must have” traits in this breed?

WH: Our “must have” traits in this breed are large round, wrinkled head, level topline and square-proportioned body. Also, the tail should be curled, the tighter, the better. The standard calls for a Pug between 14 and 18 pounds. 5. Are there any traits in this breed you fear are becoming exaggerated? TC: When I judge a Pug it must be compact and it must be set well under with good fore chest. All the parts must fit together on a dog that shows attitude and spark. Judging Pugs for over 25 years I’ve seen dogs that have beautiful parts but if they don’t fit together it doesn’t serve as what I’d want to breed to. Overall the Pug is in good shape and on occasion you’ll see dogs with so much wrinkle that it takes away from breed type. I think most new judges have a handle on the breed but they do need to listen to breeds when it comes to examination and priorities. WH: Many male Pugs in the ring are over 20 pounds, which has been a trend for years. This should be somewhat guarded against, as the breed is considered to be a “toy”. JH: I’d also like to see more Pugs in the ring that are shown without a lot of scissoring and sculpting. This is often used to exaggerate and distract and should not be accepted. The Pug is a natural breed and should appear that way in the ring.

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“a fine-BoneD PuG Just Does not haVe BreeD tyPe.”

10. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? TC: The new judges miss pigment and details of the stan- dard that they seem to think is not important. When they do this we start losing the clear coat that is needed. And without pigment we are losing the trace and the black vent that use to be called for. I am always ready to explain to new judges the proper mouth examination for a Pug. WH: When mentoring new judges, we try to emphasize the “heavy boned” aspect of this breed. A fine-boned Pug just does not have breed type. JH: New judges need to focus on the Pug and the Pug only. It is my opinion that too many times, judges are impressed by top handlers who may not be presenting the best specimen on the day. Judging should be an honor and a privilege and not the opportunity to float ribbons to heroic icons on the end of the lead. 11. Is there anything else you’d like to share about the breed? JH: Our breeders are doing a fantastic job building strong breed type that is cobby and square with a big round head and a tight curly tail. One note for judges to con- sider, beware of aggressive and forceful examination of the Pug bite. It is absolutely not necessary and it leaves not only the exhibitor but the Pug with a negative ring experience. Also one of the most endearing parts of the Pug is the required dark round eye. Light eyes do not give the proper expression in the breed and they are distract- ing. A light eye, clear or not, is incorrect. 12. And, for a bit of humor: What’s the funniest thing you’ve ever experienced at a dog show? TC: Black Pugs are now holding their own in the show ring. In the 70s and 80s when I was showing many Pugs I had a few very nice examples of black Pugs. I was showing in a very large class in Louisville when the classes weren’t divided. The judge had made her place- ments and before she sent us around she saw me at the end of the line and out loud said, “Oh, I forgot I better use a black dog”, and I was ceremoniously marched up to 3rd place. WH: There have been many hilarious happenings in show- ing and judging dogs. I judged my first assignment as an AKC Judge (a Pug Specialty) in Brush Prairie, Washing- ton. After glancing at my Judges book, I turned around to start judging the Pugs, and there was Jim Moran, as con- fidant as all life, kneeling down stacking a Bulldog. So, it was once around the ring and out! One never knows what will happen at a dog show.

us through the animal husbandry, mandatory to succeed in the care, breeding and showing of the dog. We did not know it all after 5 years of owning a show dog. SM: The current obsession judges seem to have with clear pale fawn coats, which has led to a lack of pigment. Now we’re seeing less head wrinkles. I don’t think the sport itself has changed. I think the participants have tighter budgets and less time. This leads to less fun being had, and more pressure to finish dogs quickly, or not at all. 8. What about the breed makes it a great show dog? DA: They love being the center of whatever is going on. JB: Pugs are pleasers and will do anything for food… well most of them will. P&RC: We love the Pugs for their enthusiasm for life which makes them a great show dog, but also a joy to live with at home. They are so comical, love to be close and snuggle, and have a reliable, amicable personality that makes them an easy keeper. Well, except for the shed- ding (we have learned to decorate and dress in beige). Pugs are more than purely a wonderful lap dog. While that is what they were bred to do and are clearly experts, they are able to be successful in many other venues, i.e. Obedience, Rally, Agility, Barn Hunt titles—we even know of Pugs who compete in Tracking, Drafting and Lure Coursing! SM: They enjoy being with people, and playing to the crowd. EV: Pugs make great show dogs because they will do any- thing for a “reduced diet kibble”—i.e. RDs. 9. What advice would you give a newcomer? DA: Enjoy your time together—they are show dogs for a short time, have fun. JB: Purchase the best Pug girl you can afford and have a mentor that travels to most of the same shows you do. P&RC: Newcomers should establish a relationship with a mentor who knows the standard, pedigrees, health concerns and will be honest enough to critique their dog’s qualities and faults. This mentoring relationship is important in showing the dog, but extremely important when the newcomer begins a breeding program. SD: Stop. Look. Listen. Learn about a breed before you pick one. Join a vintage breeder. Join a local all-breed kennel club and volunteer! SM: Do your research. Don’t expect to have a perfect dog, or to walk into the ring and win every time. EV: I think the best advice for newcomers in the breed is to buy the best bitch they can afford from a BREEDER whose reputation stands out.

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THE PUG

186 • S HOW S IGHT M AGAZINE , M AY 2015

T oday, the Pug is renowned as a superb companion. He is often portrayed in print media, on television and in film as a happy loving member of the family which a true depiction of the breed. With a background typical of an Orien- tal breed, the Pug has been loved and adored through centuries and today his popularity is at an all time high. In 2014, 203 Pugs received their AKC Championships; 71 went on to Grand Champion status. In the Obedience ring, Pugs made their presence known as well: ten Pugs attained their CD and three their CDX! Th e Pug was o ffi - cially recognized by AKC in 1885; in 2014 Pugs were ranked #32 in popularity out of 178 breeds and varieties—although for Pug fanciers he will always be #1. Th e Pug loves his family but also is friendly with others, especially babies. His pink tongue is always ready to give kisses and he loves cuddles. Not the most easily trained, many have been very successful in obedience and as therapy dogs. Th is is a breed meant only for compan- ionship. He does not hunt, track, retrieve point or herd. He enjoys a rough tumble and a quiet snooze on the couch with his person. He is protective of his turf and will alert you to strangers approaching. As a family pet he usually attaches him- self to the person feeding him, but will share his a ff ections. Pugs are very good eaters and one must be careful of overfeed- ing as it is hard to resist those great big black, pleading eyes. Perhaps the worst thing that could hap- pen to a Pug is to be ignored. Th ey enjoy routine and once they understand yours they will want to participate on every level. Th ey are highly attuned to your moods and also will comfort you in times of sadness. Most Pugs in the classes are shown by their owners and often their breeders. Th ey are little clowns and will not always stand perfectly on the table. Do not expect them to because that bubbling personality is a large part of their charm. Th ey are very sensitive to their eyes being covered dur- ing a table exam and are especially unhap- py with a heavy-handed mouth exam. A slightly undershot bite can be determined by a visual exam or a light touch outside the mouth. Th e biggest complaint exhibi- tors have is bite exam and having a heavy hand on these toy dogs. Th e Pug is the largest dog in the Toy group—and his many admirers will argue he also has the largest heart.

by CHARLOTTE PATTERSON

S HOW S IGHT M AGAZINE , M AY 2015 • 187

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