Showsight Presents The Appenzeller Sennenhund

SENNENHUND APPENZELLER

Let’s Talk Breed Education!

THE

BY PAULA WEBBER PHOTOS PROVIDED BY PAULA WEBBER Sennenhund APPENZELLER

T he Appenzeller Sennenhund hails from the Appenzell region of Swit- zerland. “Sennenhund” refers to “Senn” herders in the Appenzell region of Switzerland. An Appenzell Cattle Dog was first described in a book as a “high-pitch, barking, short haired, med. size, multi- color of a quite even Spitz type, used partly to guard the homestead, partly to herd cattle.” The Swiss Cynological Society (SKG) formed a special commission and fixed the traits of the “Appenzell Cattle Dog,” eight of which were shown at the first international dog show in Winterthur and entered in the new, separate class of Cattle Dogs. HISTORY AND PURPOSE The Appenzeller is a medium-sized breed of dog and one of the four regional breeds of Sennenhund-type dogs, originally kept primarily as a cattle herding dog and a flock guardian. The breed was also used as a draft dog and general farm dog. Appenzellers are known for their affinity to herd and guard, and their tenacity for the task at hand. The Appenzeller Sennenhund Club was founded in 1906 by Prof. Albert Heim who also wrote the first valid breed standard: General Appearance

• Medium-Sized Herding Dog • Strong Molosser-Like Build • Well-Balanced • Agile and Deft • Distinctive Tri-Color Coat • Cheeky Expression

“‘Sennenhund’ refers to ‘Senn’ herders in the Appenzell region of Switzerland.”

A BREED APART FROM THE OTHER SWISS SENNEN BREEDS • The high tail set, the so-called post horn, curled tightly over his back when in motion is unique to the breed. • The proportion of the Appenzeller is slightly longer than tall. • Spitz influence is suspected in the heritage of the Appenzeller, with his tail set and energy level. • The Appenzeller Sennenhund has a more refined head and body than those of his Swiss cousins and is clearly defined as a breed that is quite distinct from the other Swiss Cattle Dogs. • Color variations within the breed include tri-color black or Havana Brown, with each having rust and white markings. • Appenzellers have been recognized in Europe for over 100 years. The Havana Brown as a color has been recognized internationally since 1983.

THE APPENZELLER SENNENHUND

COLOR & MARKINGS Basic color is black or Havana brown, with reddish- brown and white markings as symmetrical as possible. Small, reddish-brown spots over eyes; reddish-brown mark- ings on cheeks, chest (left and right in the region of the shoulder joint), and on legs. The reddish-brown on the lat- ter must be located between the black, resp., Havana Brown and the white. White Markings: • Distinct white blaze, which runs from skull with- out break over the bridge of the nose and can reach totally or partially around the muzzle; • White from chin, covering throat without break at chest; • White on all four feet; • White on tip of tail; • White spot on nape of neck or half collar tolerated; • Thin white ring all around neck tolerated, but not desirable. COAT Double coat, firm and fitting; topcoat thick and shiny; undercoat thick, black, brown or grey; slightly wavy coat— on withers and back only—is just tolerated. GAIT • There is good reach in the forequarters and a powerful drive from the hindquarters, without any wasted action. • Seen from either front or rear, limbs move in a straight line when trotting. As speed increases, the dog tends to single track. TEMPERAMENT • Lively, high-spirited, self-assured, reliable, with a strong drive to guard. This is not a breed for an inex- perienced or first -time dog owner; • Highly intelligent and willing to learn, and possess- ing amazing perceptive faculties; • Reserved with strangers, but completely loyal to his person; • Needs lots of activities, exercise, and space; • Incredibly quick and almost unrestrainable in its eagerness to work; • Friendly with children and other animals if they grew up with them.

The Appenzeller Is: • Lively • Agile • Robust

• Muscular • Intelligent • Reliable • Self-Assured • Versatile SIZE AND PROPORTION • Desired height for dogs measured at withers is 52-56cm (20.5"-22") for dogs; 50-54cm (19.7"-21 ¼") for bitches; there is tolerance of 2cm (.8"). • Slightly Longer Than Tall. HEAD • Head is balanced, size in relation to body; slightly wedge-shaped. • Skull - Fairly flat on top, broadest between the ears; occiput not prominent; moderate frontal furrow and slight stop that is slightly marked. • Muzzle - Slightly shorter in length than the skull and tapers gradu- ally in width towards the nose, not snipey, with strong lower jaw, lips clean and tight. • Eyes - Small and almond-shaped and set slightly obliquely. Black dogs have brown to dark brown eyes, Havana Brown dogs may be lighter brown. Eye rims black or brown depending on coat color. • Ears - Small to medium in size, triangular-shaped with rounded tips; set high and hanging down against the cheeks; may be car- ried slightly forward when dog is alert; top of ear is level with top of skull. • Nose - Black or brown depending on coat color. • Bite - Full complement of strong white teeth meet in a scissor bite. A level bite is acceptable. BODY STRUCTURE • Body is compact and strong. • Forequarters - Shoulder blade and upper arms are long and sloping; forelegs are straight, lean, and muscular; pasterns slope slightly; elbows are close-fitting. • Body - Chest is broad and deep with definite forechest; topline is level and there may be a slight rise at the withers. • Hindquarters – Well-muscled, moderately angulation at the hip; hind legs are straight and parallel; typical angulation results in relatively steep hindquarters; hock joint is fairly high; rear pasterns are longer than front pasterns. • Feet - Short, with tight, arched toes and solid pads. • Tail - High-set tail is strong and densely coated, and is carried high and tightly curled over the back when dog is in motion.

from left to right: GSMD, Bernese Mountain Dog, Appenzeller Sennenhund, Entlebucher Mountain Dog

THE APPENZELLER SENNENHUND

COMPARISON OF THE APPENZELLER AND OTHER SWISS BREEDS

APPENZELL MOUNTAIN DOG Spitz-type cattle dog originally used partly to guard the homestead and partly to herd cattle; the quintessential drover’s dog. They are robust, little prone to illness, and long-lived.

BERNESE MOUNTAIN DOG The only one of the four Sennenhund breeds with a long coat; used primarily as a farm dog, and occa- sionally used as a draft dog and drover. An easy-going dog, they are a faithful compan- ion to their people. Large-boned, squarely built and heavily coated; dogs are very masculine in appear- ance, while bitches are quite feminine. Slightly longer in body than they are tall. The Bernese tem- perament is one of the breed’s strongest assets. Consistent and depend- able, with a strong desire to please. Self- confident, alert, good- natured. Attached and loyal to human family; may be aloof or suspi- cious with strangers.

GREATER SWISS MOUNTAIN DOG

DESCRIPTION ENTLEBUCHER MOUNTAIN DOG

Dog of the Alpine Herdsman; is a native of Switzerland; the small- est of the four tri-col- ored Swiss Sennenhund breeds. Historically used to move cows from pasture to pasture in the Alps. Their speed, intelligence, and agility made them useful for managing other large animals. Med-sized, compact, strongly muscled, elongated drover with distinct tri-colour markings; a short, hard, and bright black, shiny coat. Quiet and easy going, confident, and often reserved with strangers. Intelligent & versatile, highly energetic, not for the casual owner. They have strong guardian tendencies and require early socialization, and they thrive with a job to do. Despite their keen- ness and independence, they like to be near their people. Height at withers is between 15.5 & 19.5 in. Weight is 55-66 lbs.

Oldest and largest of the Sennenhund

breeds, descended from mastiffs; used to assist the farmer and butcher by guarding, driving

ORIGIN & PURPOSE

livestock, and pulling carts.

Tri-color, (either black of Havana Brown) Med-sized and almost squarely built, and bal- anced. Muscular, agile, and very deft. Char- acteristic is its short, curled, ring tail, the so-called post horn. Lively, high-spirited, self-assured, and reli- able; they are not a breed for the casual or first-time dog owner. They have strong guardian tendencies, and early socialization is required for this highly intelligent dog; they can be aloof with strangers and require consistent and intelligent training.

Strong of bone and very sturdy in appear- ance. Males and females are quite dis- tinct in appearance.

GENERAL APPEARANCE

Easygoing and obedi- ent, with an even disposition; both bold and faithful. Alert and vigilant; energetic, eager to work. Self-confident, watchful, fearless in everyday situations; devoted towards people familiar to him. Self- assured with strangers. Males are 25.5 to 28.5 in. at withers; weight is between 132 & 154 lbs. Females are 23.5 to 24 in. and weigh between 110 and 132 lbs. The coat is the typical Swiss tri-color – deep, lustrous black with white and tan trim on the feet, face, chest, and tail. Markings and other cosmetic factors should be considered of lesser importance than other aspects of type that directly affect working ability of the GSMD.

BEHAVIOUR/ TEMPERAMENT

Height at withers is between 19 & 22.5 in. Weight is 60-77 lbs.

Males are 25-27.5 in. at withers and can weigh between 66-88 lbs. Females are 23 to 26 in. and weigh 48.5-66 lbs.

SIZE

Tri-color. Basic color must be black with tan (fawn to mahogany) and white markings, which should be as symmetric as possible. An inverted cross on the chest is desirable. Most are born with long tails, which are often docked.

Tri-color. Basic color is black or Havana Brown, with reddish-brown and white markings as sym- metrical as possible.

Coat is thick, mid- length, and can be wavy or straight.

Jet-black ground color. Rich, russet markings (dark reddish-brown is most favored) appear on the cheeks, in a spot over each eye, in a patch above each foreleg, and on all four legs between the black of the upper leg and the white of the feet.

COLOUR/ MARKINGS

THE APPENZELLER SENNENHUND

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Paula Webber lives on Vancouver Island with her husband and two Appenzellers, Hektor and Bri. Her love affair with this amazing breed began 20 years ago when the couple lived in a small community in northern Canada. They acquired their first Appenzeller as a companion to their Bernese Mountain Dog. Paula quickly discovered the Appenzeller was nothing like their placid and gentle Berner. This tenacious and driven little Appenzeller introduced her to the world of competitive dog sports. Since that time, it has been Paula’s mission to make this rare breed more widely known in North America. Her current male is the first Appenzeller Sennenhund to earn an AKC Certificate of Merit. Both of her dogs have earned numerous performance titles in both Canada and the US. Paula has been involved with the Appenzell Mountain Dog Club of America for a number of years and is a member of the current Executive Board.

THE VERSATILE APPENZELLER SENNENHUND BY AUDREY LYKE A ppenzellers, a traditional farm dog, make for excellent companions and pets. It is necessary, however, to provide sufficient activity, leadership, and training. FAMILY COMPANION AND EXERCISE COACH

The Appenzeller is empathetic and loyal, and he makes a good companion dog. He will guard the home and alert you to any unusual activity. Daily excursions and playtime or training are needed, and a large, fenced yard is recommended. This is a dog that will keep you active; many owners consider their Appenzeller their best exercise coach. They are formidable companions for walks and hiking. Most of them love a dip in a stream or a good swim. The dogs are gener- ally good with children within the family, enjoying play and forming strong emotional bonds. However, interactions should be supervised, as they may jump up if not trained otherwise. The dogs are smart, eager to learn, and easily motivated. One chal- lenge heard from owners is that these loyal dogs are, by nature, some- what suspicious of strangers. It is important for breeders and owners to provide early socialization and to commit to continued socializa- tion activities throughout the dog’s career. VERSATILE WORKING DOG Appenzellers can excel in a variety of dog sports. This working dog is an all-arounder. More than any other dog, he is able to do any kind of work with his bright and joyful eagerness to learn. Among North American owners, agility has been the most popular venue. Owners have also participated in herding, conformation, scent work, rally, obedience, tricks, parkour, schutzhund, and freestyle. Owners who participate in these sports with their Appenzeller dogs find it very rewarding. The breed community would like to see more owners participate. The Appenzell Mountain Dog Club of America ( www. appenzellers.org ) provides forums for owner discussion and support. OBEDIENCE AND RALLY Obedience is a great activity for Appenzeller owners. Beginning with the AKC S.T.A.R. Puppy program and moving on to Canine Good Citizen (CGC) is achievable for most any owner. Obedience training fosters the handler/dog relationship that will be needed both for obedience titles and for competition in other venues. Appenzeller dogs are often hyper-alert to changes in their environment, and the added relationship and training from obedience work can help with focus. That said, the dogs are smart, eager to please, and can mas- ter the most rigorous criteria to achieve high scores. In Switzerland, Appenzellers have been trained as guide dogs for the blind. Owners also participate in Rally; course variations contribute to keeping the activity interesting and fun for these smart dogs.

CH Hektor Blässhunde USA CM RE (Owner/Handler Paula Webber)

Hummer Queen Elsa CGC TKN (Owners Steve and Audrey Lyke)

292 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, NOVEMBER 2021

THE VERSATILE APPENZELLER SENNENHUND

CH Highleigh Ulric (Owner/Handler Debbie Dales)

Highleigh Brandy OAP OJP (Owner/Handler Audrey Lyke) photo by Rick Knecht

A DOG WITH CONFIDENCE IN ITS HANDLER WILL COMPLY. THE EFFORT IS WORTH IT TO SHARE THESE AESTHETICALLY BEAUTIFUL AND PLEASING ANIMALS WITH OTHER DOG FANCIERS.

CONFORMATION – AESTHETICALLY BEAUTIFUL The Appenzeller is a remarkably beautiful dog. They need little grooming and are naturally clean. When they run through their paces, the onlooker cannot help admiring these well-built athletes. The breed is some- what suspicious of strangers, which means that in preparing for the show ring, handlers must proof their train- ing for the dog to stand for examination. A dog with confidence in its handler will comply. The effort is worth it to share these aesthetically beautiful and pleasing animals with other dog fanciers. AGILITY – READY FOR ACTION This consummate athlete is born to be an agility star. The dogs learn quickly and are eager to please. They are sure-footed and fast. They may require a little extra work on focus early on, as it is their nature to scan sur- roundings for anything unusual. (Personally, I had a dog that liked to pause at the top of the A-frame to take a look around, which cut into our course speed!) As they advance, they have a natural, excellent balance between handler and obstacle focus and are competitive with the ubiquitous Border Collies and Australian Shepherds. One mechanism to take the pressure off dogs and owners initially is to start in less formal venues, such as Canine Performance Events (CPE), before proceeding to title the dogs in USDAA and AKC competitions. The important thing is that both owners and dogs have fun.

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THE VERSATILE APPENZELLER SENNENHUND

Highleigh Vinca (Owner/Handler Keith Hermiz)

Baden of Trout Creek (Owner/Handler Deb Schneider, DVM)

HERDING – BRED FOR THE JOB In their native Switzerland, Appenzellers are used as cattle drovers, going in to nip at heels to move the animals. As a farm dog, the Appenzeller gets along with other animals (such as cats). If possible, they should be introduced to and learn to work around other animals while still puppies, but it is in their nature to co-exist with other animals. In training, the exuberance must be channeled. Thus, in herding, the Appenzeller may be much faster and more aggressive (although not to the point of injuring any sheep) than other herding dogs, such as Aussies. Initially, he may need to be trained on a line and to use a "no pull" harness to keep him from working up too much speed. The dogs are vocal herders, controlling stock with their sharp, clear bark, though sometimes to the point of excess. The dogs very much enjoy working livestock, but the handler must bear in mind that these are dogs bred to control cattle. Merely in response to the posture and “eye,” sheep would just about climb on top of each other to demonstrate they are falling in line The curious and persistent Appenzeller dog enjoys “find-it” games and scent detection work. Over- seas, some Appenzellers work in earthquake and avalanche rescue, but not yet in North America. However, some owners here are competing and acquiring scent work points and titles in Canadian Kennel Club and AKC sanctioned events. Some dog/handler teams may progress to building searches, vehicle searches, or in rare instances, search and rescue. For others, it is a wonderful way for the dog to succeed and develop confidence. SUMMARY – SO MUCH MORE THAN A PRETTY FACE The Appenzeller’s heritage includes both herding and guardian work. All of its traditional work has been in close cooperation with the farmer, and this dog will truly become part of the family. Its versatility as a working dog makes it well-adapted to numerous dog sports. In his breed portrait, Gerd Ludwig says, “The Appenzeller is incredibly quick and almost unrestrainable in its eagerness to work. It is very keen, has an inherited urge to act independently, and possesses amazing perceptive faculties.” 1 Owners will tell you this description rings true. While not a dog for everyone, people looking for a fun and active canine partner may find the Appenzeller Sennenhund to be a good match. with where an Appenzeller asks them to go. SCENT WORK, SEARCH & RESCUE

1. Gerd Ludwig. The Bernese and Other Mountain Dogs. Barron’s (1995).

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Audrey and Steve Lyke have had Appenzeller dogs in their household since 1995. Curious about these amazing dogs, they began showing them through the American Rare Breed Association and United Kennel Club in the hope of meeting more experienced owners. At the time, no one else was showing Appenzellers on this side of the pond and they ended up being the ones with breed experience. Audrey retired this summer from a career in data analytics and environmental and energy policy analysis. On a loosely related note, Audrey and Steve brought a 10-week-old puppy home two weeks later. Audrey is a past president of the Appenzell Mountain Dog Club of America and continues to be involved with the breed.

296 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, NOVEMBER 2021

FEDERATION CYNOLOGIQUE INTERNATIONALE (AISBL) SECRETARIAT GENERAL: 13, Place Albert 1 er B – 6530 Thuin (Belgique) ______________________________________________________________________________

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05.05.2003/EN

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FCI-Standard N° 46

APPENZELLER SENNENHUND (Appenzell Cattle Dog)

2

TRANSLATION : Mrs. C. Seidler. Official language (DE).

ORIGIN : Switzerland.

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE OFFICIAL VALID STANDARD : 25.03.2003.

UTILIZATION : Driving-, watch-, guard-, house- and farm dog. Today also a versatile working and family dog.

FCI-CLASSIFICATION :

Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer- Molossoid breeds- Swiss Mountain- and Cattle Dogs. Section 3 Swiss Mountain- and Cattle Dogs. Without working trial.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY : In 1853 an Appenzell Cattle Dog was first described in the book “Tierleben der Alpenwelt” (Animal Life in the Alps) as a “high -pitch barking, short-haired, medium size, multicolour cattle dog of a quite even Spitz type, which can be found in certain regions and is used partly to guard the homestead, partly to herd cattle.” In 1895, the great promotor of the breed, head-forester Max Siber, asked the SKG (Schweizerische Kynologische Gesellschaft, Swiss Cynological Society) to do something for the breed. 1898 the executive authorities of the Canton St. Gallen put the sum of SFr. 400.- at disposal to support the breeding of the Appenzell Cattle Dog. The SKG then formed a special commission, the characteristic traits of the breed were fixed, and at the fair at Altstätten 9 dogs and 7 bitches appeared; they received prizes between SFr.5. to 10-. As a result, 8 Appenzell Cattle Dogs were shown at the first international dog show in Winterthur and entered in the newly introduced, separate class “Cattle Dogs”.

FCI-St. N° 46 / 05.05.2003

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At the instigation of Prof. Dr. Albert Heim, who commited himself very much to the Swiss Cattle Dogs and with them also to the Appenzell Cattle Dog, the “Appenzeller Sennenhund Club” was founded in 1906. Its purpose was to preserve and promote the breed in its natural state. With the compulsory registration of puppies in the “Appenzeller Dog Stud Book” the aim of selective pure -breeding was begun. In 1914 Prof.Heim set up the first valid breed standard. The original breeding territory was the Appenzell region. Today the breed is distributed all over Switzerland and beyond its borders and bred in many European countries. The notion “Appenzeller Sennenhund” is clearly defined nowadays and the breed, as such, quite distinct from the other Swiss Cattle Dogs. Although the Appenzell Cattle Dog has found many admirers, the breeding stock is still very small. It is only by responsible and careful breeding that it will be possible to establish and consolidate its natural and outstanding hereditary qualities. GENERAL APPEARANCE : Tricolour, medium-sized, almost squarely built dog, balanced in all parts. Muscular, very agile and deft, with a cheeky expression. IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS : • Height at withers to length of body = 9: 10. Rather compact than long. • Length of muzzle to length of skull = 4: 5. BEHAVIOUR / TEMPERAMENT : Lively, high-spirited, self- assured, reliable and fearless. Slightly suspicious of strangers. A watchdog which cannot be bribed, and capable of learning.

HEAD : Balanced size in relation to body. Slightly wedge-shaped.

CRANIAL REGION: Skull: Skull fairly flat, broadest between the ears, tapering evenly towards the muzzle. Occiput barely pronounced. Frontal furrow

moderately developed. Stop: Slightly marked.

FCI-St. N° 46 / 05.05.2003

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FACIAL REGION: Nose: In black dogs black, in havana-brown dogs brown (as dark as possible). Muzzle: Medium strength, tapering evenly, but not snipy, with strong lower jaw. Nasal bridge straight. Lips: Clean and close fitting, with black pigmentation in black dogs or with brown pigmentation (as dark as possible) in havana-brown dog. Corner of the mouth not visible. Jaws/Teeth: Strong, complete and regular scissor bite. Pincer bite tolerated. One missing PM1 or double PM1 (premolar 1) and

missing M3 (molars) tolerated. Cheeks: Barely pronounced.

EYES : Rather small, almond-shaped, not protruding. Set slightly oblique towards the nose. Expression lively. Colour: in black dogs dark brown, brown; in havana brown dogs lighter brown, but as dark as possible. Eye-lids close fitting. Eye-rims black respectively brown (as dark as possible) corresponding to the colour of the coat. EARS : Set on fairly high and broad; in repose hanging down flat and close to cheeks. Triangular shape with tips slightly rounded off. In alertness raised at set-on and turned forward so that the head and ears, seen from above, form a marked triangle.

NECK : Rather short, strong and clean.

BODY : Compact, strong. Back: Moderately long, firm and straight. Loins: Short and well-muscled.

Croup: Relatively short, running in flat continuation of the topline. Chest: Broad, deep, reaching to the elbows, with definite forechest. Sternum reaching sufficiently far back. Ribcage round-oval in diameter. Underline and Belly: Only slight tuck up.

FCI-St. N° 46 / 05.05.2003

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TAIL : Set on high, strong, of medium length, densely coated. Hair slightly longer on underside. In movement carried tightly curled over the croup, carried sideways or in centre. In repose pendent tail in various shapes tolerated.

LIMBS : Strong and dry bone.

FOREQUARTERS: General appearance: Well muscled; seen from front forelegs straight and parallel; standing not too close. Shoulder: Shoulder blade long and sloping. Upper arm: Same length or only slightly shorter than shoulder blade. Angle with shoulder blade not too blunt. Elbows: Close fitting. Forearm: Straight, lean. Pastern: Seen from front in straight continuation of the forearm.

Seen from the side, set at a very light angle. Forefeet: Short, arched, tight toes; solid pads.

HINDQUARTERS: General appearance: Well muscled. Seen from rear, hindlegs straight and parallel, standing not too close. The typical angulations result in relatively “steep” hindquarters. Upper thigh: Fairly long, forming a relatively small angle to the hip- bone (coxo-femoral joint). Lower thigh: Equally long or only slightly shorter than the upper

thigh. Lean and well-muscled. Hock joint: Set relatively high.

Hock: Set vertical and parallel, slightly longer than the front pastern, turning neither in nor out. Dewclaws must be removed, except in those countries where their removal is prohibited by law. Hind feet: Short, arched, tight toes; solid pads. GAIT / MOVEMENT : Good rear drive, well reaching stride in front. Seen from either front or rear, limbs move in a straight line when trotting.

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COAT Hair: Double coat (Stockhaar): Firm and fitting. Topcoat thick and shiny. Undercoat thick, black, brown or grey. It is undesirable for the undercoat to be visible through the topcoat. Slightly wavy coat only on withers and back just tolerated, but not desirable. Colour and markings: Basic colour black or havana brown with reddish-brown and white markings as symmetrical as possible. Small reddish-brown spots over eyes. Reddish-brown markings on cheeks, chest (left and right in the region of the shoulder-joint) and on legs. The reddish-brown on the latter must invariably be located between the black, resp.havana brown and the white. White markings: • Distinct white blaze which runs from the skull without break over the bridge of the nose and can reach totally or partially round the muzzle. • White from chin, covering throat without break at chest. • White on all four feet. • White on tip of tail. • White spot on nape of neck or half collar tolerated. • Thin white ring all around neck tolerated but not desirable.

SIZE : Desired height at withers: Dogs:

52 – 56 cm,

Bitches 50 – 54 cm. Tolerance of plus or minus 2 cm.

FAULTS : Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. • Lack of typical sex-specific appearance. • Too long or unbalanced in body. • Bone fine or too coarse.

FCI-St. N° 46 / 05.05.2003

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• • • •

Insufficient musculature.

Very heavy or very light in head.

Skull round.

Stop too defined.

• Muzzle too long, too short, narrow or pointed; nasal bridge not straight. • Lips too developed. • Absence of teeth other than 2 PM1 (premolars 1). • Cheeks too prominent. • Eyes round, protruding or light. • Ears too small, too large, standing off; set on too high or too low. • Swayback, roach back. • Croup overbuilt or falling away. • Belly tucked up. • Chest flat or barrel-shaped; lack of forechest; sternum too short. • Loosely rolled tail, its tip reaching at least the base of the tail. • Insufficient angulation of fore-and hindquarters. • Out at elbows. • Down on pastern. • Cow hocks. • Feet longish-oval (harefeet), splay feet. • Incorrect movement, e.g. short, stilted gait, close movement coming and going, crossing etc. • Undercoat visible through topcoat. • Faults in marking: • Black ticks on white. • Broken blaze. • Broad white collar around the hole neck. • Divided white on chest. • White reaching distinctly above pastern (“boots”). • Absence of white on feet and tip of tail. • Over- or undersize regarding tolerance. • Insecure behaviour, absence of liveliness, slight sharpness.

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DISQUALIFYNG FAULTS : • Aggressive or overly shy. • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities. • Overshot or undershot mouth. • Entropion, ectropion. • Wall eye. • Sickle tail (its tip not reaching the base of the tail), definitely pendent tail; kink tail. • Other than double coat (Stockhaar). • Other than tricoloured coat. • Other than black or havana-brown main colour. N.B. : • Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum. • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

FCI-St. N° 46 / 05.05.2003

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