Showsight Presents the Norwich Terrier

TERRIER NORWICH

Let’s Talk Breed Education!

HISTORY OF THE NORWICH TERRIER

by MAGDA CHIARELLA

D ogs come in more forms and sizes than any other mammal species, thanks to our selective breeding for specific traits. Description of any dog breed is intrinsically linked to its his- tory, the why and when of the breed’s characteristics. Here are some main points of a timeline that has led to today’s Norwich Terrier. A rural, “horse country”. Dogs are widely used for hunts and for rodent control. Many local huntsmen have large kennels housing harriers, hounds and terriers and it is not uncommon to freely cross breeds based on specific hunting traits. A few breeders start crossing ter- riers in search of a small, carry-in-the- saddlebag, throw-the-ratter-in-the-barn, gamey local breed. Dogs range from wire to smooth coats, from mutts to established breeds of the day, all choic- es driven primarily by temperament and working ability. LATE 1800S IN EAST ANGLIA All dogs are chosen for their size, tenacity, energy and gameness, and that selection quickly establishes local lines: CanTab Terriers, the Trumpington Ter- riers, the Jones Terriers. The types are fluid though, and the associated names have more to do with places and peo- ple, than a breed type. Charles “Doggy” Lawrence, for example, a local dealer and breeder of hunting dogs, is associated with both CanTab and Trumpington Terriers, and the names are used interchangeably for the same dogs. If there is one overarching charac- teristic of the breed’s early beginnings it would be gameness and fearlessness in a small body. TURN OF THE 20TH CEN- TURY IN CAMBRIDGE Locally bred Thrumpington/CanTab Terriers become popular with students. In addition to their ratting abilities (helpful in dorm rooms) and their por- table size, the local terriers have softer temperament than some other matters.

RECOGNITION OF THE NEW BREED BY THE KENNEL CLUB IN 1932 With the solidifying of the breed type, there finally comes an official rec- ognition of the Norwich Terrier in Eng- land. The controversy over the ear car- riage is addressed by dividing the breed into two types—a dropped ear and a prick ear variety. The conflict flares up though once the ear cropping is banned in England. The two Norwich types are not interbred. As a result, as with all selec- tive breeding, the differences between prick and drop ear varieties extend to other features, and slowly distinctly two different terrier types emerge. DROP EAR NORWICH IS RECOGNIZED AS A SEPA- RATE BREED Norfolk Terrier in 1964 in England and 1979 in America. Norwich Terrier is now understood as only the prick ear variety. Separat- ing the two types into two breeds results in redrafting of the breed standard. A changing role of the Nor- wich Terrier in owners’ lives brings about changes in features that reflect a shift from a working terrier to a pleasing companion. Dogs are bred with more furnishings and fuller coats, larger heads and heavier bod- ies. The legs get increasingly shorter. Temperament gets further shifted from gameness and tenacity to a friendly disposition, as the dog’s role drifts completely away from hunting and ratting. END OF 20TH AND BEGIN- NING OF 21ST CENTURY The age of Internet shopping cre- ates a new demand for small, good- looking, friendly companions. Unscru- pulous breeders start crossing other small terriers with Norwich and selling them as purebred Norwich Terriers. The Norwich Terrier Club of Ameri- ca fights to preserve the integrity of the breed. What will the future bring?

Bred to hunt in large packs, they display a perfect blend of tenacity and being enjoyable companions. Some students continue crossing the local terriers, among them Jodrell Hopkins, a breeder of Rags, the first dog with what we identify today as a Norwich type. In the spirit of form fol- lowing function, Hopkins bred a red silky-coated terrier cross to a black Scotty-like bitch. The coat color and texture was not that important as their temperament. That mating though produced a pup with a dominant red coat color and dominant harsh coat texture, in addition to the principal goal of that breeding, namely gentle yet tenacious working terrier tempera- ment. This is Rags, the forefather of the breed. The emphasis on what is inside the dog, rather than how it looks, contin- ues. A red wirehaired Rags is mated several times to a smooth-coated white bitch Ninety. The main contribution of the “Cam- bridge period” is a temperament of a loyal and friendly companion. EARLY 20TH CENTURY IN ENGLAND AND FIRST EX- PORTS TO AMERICA Huntsmen in Norfolk county con- tinue refining the local terrier type and two ear carriages emerge. Bigger and floppy ears are cropped. The new breed’s popularity extends past Norfolk. People travel to East Anglia to buy the small friendly ratter. As the demand grows, more breeders get involved, Frank “Roughrider” Jones among them. He sells the first export to America. Dog buyers refer to their dogs as Jones Terriers, but Jones himself calls his dogs Norwich Terriers. The name sticks. The breed’s friendly disposition spreads their popularity beyond hunt- ing circles. By early 1920s first drafts of breed standard emerge, and an accom- panied conflict over the ear carriage. The emphasis on dogs’ temperament and working abilities give way to a new focus on the looks.

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Grooming the NORFOLK & NORWICH TERRIER By Lori Pelletier

T he fi rst thing to consider when grooming a Nor- folk or Norwich terrier is the breed standard for each breed. Th e Nor- folk and Norwich terrier standards di ff er in that the Norwich terri- ers body type is that of a Square dog and the Norfolk terrier body type is stated to be slightly longer than tall dog (o ff square). As stated in the AKC Norfolk Terrier stan- dard: Length of back from point of with- ers to base of tail should be slightly longer than the height at the withers. Th e same reference to length from the AKC Norwich terrier standard: Length of back from point of withers to base of tail should be slightly longer than the height at the withers. Th e outline of the dog should be every groomers starting point. Th roughout the grooming process one will mold the coat to fi t the described outline for each breed. A dog in good coat is a sight to behold. A dog in a blown or dead coat is often hard to evaluate without placing your hands on the dog. Grooming can both help and hurt the dogs’ chances in the show ring. Th e Norfolk and Norwich terrier standards state they should be shown in natural coat with minimal tidying (this is where we all chuckle) the standards state “a minimum of tidying is permissible but shaping should be heavily penalized”. Many of us spend hours each week doing “minimal tidying” to keep our dogs coat in show condition and looking its best. Th ere are two ways people prepare their dogs coat for the show ring. Th e fi rst method is most common and probably the easiest way for people without extensive grooming experi- ence to manage a dogs’ coat. Th is groom- ing process is when the groomer pulls the dogs’ whole outer layer of hard coat o ff and just leaves the dog in its soft undercoat. After removing the whole hard coated out- er layer they then tidy the furnishings and wait 12 weeks for the dog to grow a “show

coat”. Th is coat is a tight jacket but is only a single layer and will not last more than a month or so. Th e person showing this dog might get 6 weeks out of the coat before it starts to get too long and starts to open up (part down the back). When this happens they will have to pull the coat down and start all over again thus taking the dog out of the show ring for another 3 months. Th e second method is to “roll” the coat. Th is is where the coat is worked on a weekly basis. Th e groomer rolls a coat by taking the coat and pulling it up between their fi ngers and removes the longer, light- er colored hairs and leave the intermedi- ate length hairs. Th is is done all over the dog in an even manner to create an even appearance. Th is method allows the coat to grow in in layers. Th e layered coat can be kept going inde fi nitely and will allow the dog to be shown continuously. Th is is the preferred method of grooming for the Norfolk and Norwich but it takes consid- erable skill and patience to achieve a rolled coat. Once a dog is in a rolled coat it can be maintained by continuous pulling of the coat. It is important to note that you need to pull coat in order to get new coat to grow in. When examining a rolled coat one can really get an idea of the dogs true coat texture and an appreciation for its weatherproof characteristics. Norfolk and Norwich terriers should be shown in coats that appear to be all one length. Th ey should not have exces- sive skirting or pu ff y pants, they are not Scotties or Westies, or massive mutton chops on their faces. All of these things are extreme grooming techniques that detract from the natural appearance of the breeds. Th ese dogs were bred to be working terriers they were bred to go to ground and to dig in the dirt. Profuse coat hanging o ff their body would not only be a disaster in the fi eld but is often unattractive. A dog that is trimmed properly will accentuate the good points of the dog, a dog trimmed poorly

can actually create a picture of the dog that is unbalanced or can create the appearance of faults that are not actually there. Norfolk and Norwich terriers should be trimmed to hide faults and highlight the positive attributes each dog has to o ff er. One of the biggest mistakes I see people make when grooming the Norfolk and Norwich terrier is that they leave too much hair on the elbows of the dog. Th is makes even a perfect front look bad. I have never met a dog that needed extra hair on its elbows. Th is area should be kept short. Th e next common mistake that people make to is over trim the head of their dog. Th ey remove too much hair from the top of the head and give the dog a fl at skull. Both breed standards state the skull should be broad and slightly rounded with good width between the ears. Taking away too much hair detracts from the overall expres- sion of these breeds. Th e hair on the corner of the eyes should be kept short. Leaving long hairs at the corner of the eyes makes the dog have a sad expression and not the “keen” expression as is called for in both standards. Th is method of trimming can also make a round eye appear even rounder again accentuating an improper eye shape for the breed. Grooming the topline is a topic we could write volumes about. Th e topline as stated in the standard for both of these breeds should be level. Now not every dog is born with a level topline. Toplines on Norfolk terriers seem to be stronger and straighter than the toplines the Norwich terrier thus easier to groom. When you have a topline that is not level you must create a level topline using the dogs’ hair. If the dog has a dip in the middle of their back a groomer must be careful not to remove too much hair from this area when trimming the dog. It is best if the groomer can grow lay- ers in this area so there is always coat to fi ll in the dip. If the dog is high in the rear the groomer must keep the dogs coat short

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over the rump. Once the groomer has made the topline level they then must create a straight underline. Th e underline of the dog (the area under the belly of the dog) is a re fl ection of the topline and ads to the overall outline of the dog. If the underline is not groomed evenly it will make the topline look uneven as well. Th e neck of the Norwich and Norfolk terrier is a “neck of medium length, strong and blending into well laid back shoulders” If the dog lacks length of neck a groomer must trim the front and sides of the dogs neck to create the illusion that the dog has a medium length of neck. Th e Norfolk and Norwich terrier should have feet that are round with thick pads. Th e feet should be trimmed underneath to remove all hair that would attract debris and distract from a round appearance. Th e outside of the foot should be trimmed round. Th e ears on the Norfolk and Norwich terrier should be stripped clean of hair. Th e Norfolk should have the hair in front of and under- neath the ear pulled close to allow the ears to lay fl at against the head of the dog. Th e Norwich terrier should have the top half of the ear cleaned both front and back and the remaining hair in front of the ear trimmed to lightly cover the ear opening. Th e hair on the Norwich ear should have a fanned appearance when fi nished. Th e tail of both the Norfolk and Norwich terrier should be stripped close and the area around the rectum should be kept clean of hair as well. Th e rear end of the Norfolk and Norwich terrier should be broad with strong, muscular thighs. Th ese dogs should have a rear end that extends past the base of their tail (a round rump appearance). When trimming this area it is important to tidy up the area but not to remove too much hair thus making the dog fall away behind or exposing the genitalia. Trimming these dogs for show can be a rewarding experience. Th e largest shortfall on grooming these breeds is when the groomer does not pull enough hair o ff the dog and they do not pull the coat often enough to create a rolled coat. Th e only way to perfect your grooming skills is to seek advice from people that have been trimming these breeds for years and have been very successful at it. I recommend looking at photos of top winning dogs and placing those photos in front of you when you trim your dog keep in mind those dogs probably had a fault or two themselves but the creative groomer has hidden them from sight with impeccable grooming. Another useful tip is to groom your dog in front of a mirror; this will allow the groomer to see what a person standing away from the dog would see. Most importantly do not be afraid to make a mistake… remember it is only hair and it will grow back!

BIO Lori has been a breeder of both Norfolk and Norwich terriers for 20 years. She won the Norwich terrier national specialty at Mont- gomery county Kennel Club in 2008 with CH Abbedale Brass Tacks “Rugby”. She has been at Norfolk Aggie since 1992. She has been teaching dog grooming since 1990 on the col- lege, post graduate and high school level. Lori

started her career in dogs at the age of 12 and it has continued ever since. She shares her home with Norfolk, Norwich and Border terriers as well as a Vizsla and a Golden Retriever. She breeds Norfolk and Norwich under the prefix Avalon and Borders and Goldens under the prefix Radland.

History of the NORWICH TERRIER

D ogs come in more forms and sizes than any other mammal species, thanks to our selective breed- ing for specific traits. Description of any dog breed is intrinsically linked to its history, the why and when of the breed’s characteristics. Here are some main points of a timeline that has led to today’s Norwich Terrier. Late 1800s In East Anglia, a rural, “horse coun- try”, dogs are widely used for hunts and for rodent control. Many local huntsmen have large kennels housing harriers, hounds and terriers and it is not uncommon to freely cross breeds based on specific hunting traits. A few breeders start crossing terriers in search of a small, carry-in-the-saddlebag, throw-the-ratter-in-the-barn, gamey local breed. Dogs range from wire to smooth coats, from mutts to established breeds of the day, all choices driven primarily by tem- perament and working ability. All dogs are chosen for their size, tenac- ity, energy and gameness, and that selec- tion quickly establishes local lines: CanTab Terriers, the Trumpington Terriers, the Jones Terriers. Th e types are fluid though, and the associated names have more to do with places and people, than a breed type. Charles “Doggy” Lawrence, for exam- ple, a local dealer and breeder of hunting dogs, is associated with both CanTab and Trumpington Terriers, and the names are used interchangeably for the same dogs. If there is one overarching characteristic of the breed’s early beginnings it would be gameness and fearlessness in a small body. Turn of the 20th Century In Cambridge, locally bred Th rump- ington/CanTab Terriers become popular with students. In addition to their rat- ting abilities (helpful in dorm rooms), and their portable size, the local terriers have

By Magda Chiarella

Recognition of the New Breed by the Kennel Club in 1932 With the solidifying of the breed type, there finally comes an o ffi cial recogni- tion of the Norwich Terrier in England. Th e controversy over the ear carriage is addressed by dividing the breed into two types—a dropped ear and a prick ear vari- ety. Th e conflict flares up though once the ear cropping is banned in England. Th e two Norwich types are not inter- bred. As a result, as with all selective breeding, the di ff erences between prick and drop ear varieties extend to other fea- tures, and slowly distinctly two di ff erent terrier types emerge. Drop Ear Norwich is Recognized as a Separate Breed Norfolk Terrier in 1964 in England and 1979 in America. Norwich Terrier is now understood as only the prick ear variety. Separating the two types into two breeds results in redrafting of the breed standard. A changing role of the Norwich Terrier in owners’ lives brings about changes in features that reflect a shift from a work- ing terrier to a pleasing companion. Dogs are bred with more furnishings and fuller coats, larger heads and heavier bodies. Th e legs get increasingly shorter. Tempera- ment gets further shifted from gameness and tenacity to a friendly disposition, as the dog’s role drifts completely away from hunting and ratting.

softer temperament than some other rat- ters. Bred to hunt in large packs, they dis- play a perfect blend of tenacity and being enjoyable companions. Some students continue crossing the local terriers, among them Jodrell Hop- kins, a breeder of Rags, the first dog with what we identify today as a Norwich type. In the spirit of form following function, Hopkins bred a red silky-coated terrier cross to a black Scotty-like bitch. Th e coat color and texture was not that important as their temperament. Th at mating though produced a pup with a dominant red coat color and dominant harsh coat texture, in addition to the principal goal of that breed- ing, namely gentle yet tenacious working terrier temperament. Th e emphasis on what is inside the dog, rather than how it looks, continues. A red wirehaired Rags is mated several times to a smooth-coated white bitch Ninety. Th e main contribution of the “Cam- bridge period” is a temperament of a loyal and friendly companion. Early 20th Century in England & First Exports to America Huntsmen in Norfolk county continue refining the local terrier type and two ear carriages emerge. Bigger and floppy ears are cropped. Th e new breed’s popular- ity extends past Norfolk. People travel to East Anglia to buy the small friendly rat- ter. As the demand grows, more breeders get involved, Frank “Roughrider” Jones among them. He sells the first export to America. Dog buyers refer to their dogs as Jones Terriers, but Jones himself calls his dogs Norwich Terriers. Th e name sticks. Th e breed’s friendly disposition spreads their popularity beyond hunting circles. By early 1920s first drafts of breed standard emerge, and an accompanied conflict over the ear carriage. Th e emphasis on dogs’ temperament and working abilities give way to a new focus on the looks.

End of 20th & Beginning of 21st Century

Th e age of Internet shopping cre- ates a new demand for small, good look- ing, friendly companions. Unscrupulous breeders start crossing other small terriers with Norwich and selling them as pure- bred Norwich Terriers. Th e Norwich Ter- rier Club of America fights to preserve the integrity of the breed. What will the future bring?

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LIVING WITH NORWICH TERRIERS

By Alison Freehling Charlottesville, VA

T he jaunty little Nor- wich trotting around the Terrier Group ring at Westminster presents a beguiling image of the breed to television view- ers. So too, photos of Norwich puppies and adults online and in dog publications prompt many people looking for a canine companion to “fall in love with” the breed. Before you decide that a Norwich would be your family’s ideal pet, however, pro- spective owners should learn more—from reputable Norwich breeders and from oth- er Norwich owners—about the pros and cons of the breed. My family and I have lived with numerous Norwich during the past 32 years. Based on those experiences, here’s a brief overview of what to expect. Th e AKC breed standard provides a good starting point for pinpointing correct Norwich temperament. Th e original AKC standard (1936) described the breed as “tremendously active,” “not quarrelsome,” “lovable.” Th e current standard describes correct Norwich temperament as “gay, fear- less, loyal and a ff ectionate,” noting also that these “hardy hunt terriers” are “eager to

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dispatch small vermin.” Th ese abstract words/phrases o ff er valuable insights about living with a real-life Norwich. “Gay” (in the word’s original mean- ing) captures the breed’s sunny, play- ful disposition. A happy-go-lucky, joie de vivre outlook on life is the hallmark of the Norwich breed. If they have been properly socialized as young puppies, Norwich will be social butter fl ies, ami- able with children and adults (and usu- ally with other dogs) inside and outside their family circle. Along with this cheery personality comes abundant energy (“tre- mendously active”), a trait that makes exercise an important part of living with a Norwich. Daily walks, “fetch” games, agility and other performance/companion events, etc., are all recommended outlets for these lively little terriers. “Fearless” connotes brave, plucky, game—traits that were essential to the breed’s original function as barnyard rat- ters and go-to-ground fox bolters in the East Anglia region of England (encompass- ing the city of Norwich). When combined with the breed’s keen hunting instincts (“eager to dispatch small vermin”), fear- less can also mean foolhardy and rash. If a Norwich spots a squirrel or other

potential quarry while out walking, males and females alike would dash o ff in fren- zied pursuit, mindless of dangers posed by cars, unfriendly big dogs, getting lost, etc. For your dog’s own safety, living with a Norwich requires either a well-fenced yard, secure from digging under, or an owner willing to walk their Norwich on lead. To allow a small hunt terrier to explore out- side the con fi nes of a fenced yard or to go on walks o ff lead invites tragedy. “Loyal and a ff ectionate” suggest the breed’s people-loving qualities. Norwich are an exceptionally gregarious breed, always wanting to be with their people. Like tag-along “little shadows”, they will follow you everywhere. Invariably, they are by your side when you are reading or watching TV and underfoot when you are gardening, cooking, cleaning. Both pup- pies and adults need lots of attention and love. If left home alone all day every day, Norwich will not be happy. And if pup- pies are not properly socialized, they may develop shy, fearful, wimpy personalities. If zest for life personi fi es correct Nor- wich temperament, zest for food is equally characteristic of the breed. All my Norwich have been consummate beggars, plead- ing for another biscuit, another morsel of

bacon from my breakfast plate. Lest your Norwich balloon from a svelte 12 pounder to a hefty 16-plus pounder, owners must resist their dog’s begging. Overweight Norwich are a far too common phenome- non and, just as humans, are more likely to develop health problems linked to obesity. One fi nal aspect of living with Norwich involves grooming. As the breed standard states, the correct Norwich coat is “hard, wiry and straight, lying close to the body with a de fi nite undercoat.” To retain the coat’s correct appearance requires strip- ping (by hand or with a stripping tool) the long, dead outer hair about every 6-8 months. Some owners learn to strip their own dogs. Others fi nd professional terrier groomers or other Norwich owners to do the job. Still other pet owners opt to have their dog’s coat clipped. A clipped coat will lose its hard texture and rich color, but if you do not intend to show your Norwich in conformation and are not concerned about correct looks, then clipping the coat works fi ne and is easier on the dog. Norwich generally live to be 13-15 years old. Th ey adapt happily to city, suburban and country life and make wonderful com- panions for owners looking for an “on the go”, gregarious small breed.

“A happy-go-lucky, joie de vivre outlook on life is the

HALLMARK OF THE NORWICH BREED.”

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JUDGING THE NORWICH TERRIER: A BREEDER’S PERSPECTIVE

by JANE R. SCHUBART

From Illustrated Guide to the Standard of Norwich Terriers. The Norwich Club of America, © 2013. Used with permission.

M y perspective of judg- ing Norwich Terriers is that of a breeder. I’m not an AKC licensed judge. From inside the ring, my experi- ence is limited to judging two Norwich sweepstakes and a couple of matches. Just enough to appreciate how difficult judging can be. That said, from outside the ring I’ve spent hundreds of hours judging Norwich. Through the lens of a breeder, I view the purpose of dog shows as being to facilitate evaluation of future breeding stock. Whether inside or outside the ring, my approach is to evaluate the over- all dog first. I make my “first cut” on type. I’m looking for a hardy little hunt terrier who appears capable of dis- patching small vermin. He is fearless and never shy. Although the smallest of the terriers, Norwich should have

substance—never fine-boned or toyish. He is a sturdy dog in a small package and surprisingly heavy when lifted. First, I like to watch a Norwich moving. He should cover the ground efficiently. His neck should be of suf- ficient length and not stuffy, blending into well laid back shoulders to enable good reach. His height is achieved from depth of body, not length of leg. His body is short coupled, with good spring of ribs and just a little distance from the last rib to the tail. His should have short strong hocks and sufficient angulation to propel him forward with his topline remaining level. In keeping with his working origin, the Norwich tail is medium-docked and of sufficient length to grasp. It is set high at 12 o’clock. All the pieces should fit together to give a pleasing picture of a small sturdy, spir- ited dog who moves with confidence

and purpose. He should not appear long-cast or too stuffy. Heads are important for correct breed type. The wedge-shaped muzzle is strong and slightly tapering. The Norwich standard says a “slightly foxy expression”. That doesn’t mean a fox- shaped muzzle. Rather, it means that his expression is alert, keen and inter- ested. The skull is broad and slightly domed. His eyes are dark and a medium oval size. Round eyes look toyish and spoil the expression. His small prick ears should be set well apart and not too high on his head. He has a pro- nounced stop, and his muzzle is neither too long nor too short. The proportion of the head is approximately two-fifths muzzle and three-fifths back skull. The standard says, “Tight-lipped with large teeth. A scissor bite.” It is silent about missing teeth.

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From Illustrated Guide to the Standard of Norwich Terriers. The Norwich Club of America, © 2013. Used with permission.

Having first evaluated the side view, I watch him coming and going to evalu- ate soundness. Going away, he should neither move too close nor too wide. His elbows should not stick out coming towards you, and he should not paddle. Ideally, his hind legs follow in the track of the front legs, converging slightly with speed, but some Norwich move a bit wide in front due to their full rib spring and short legs. I don’t mind this if the movement is true. At this point, I have a sense of the dog’s virtues and weak points. Now, I will examine him more closely on the table, looking at details. His front legs are supposed to be straight and must be felt. Clever grooming can cover up crooked legs. His toes may turn out just slightly, however, his feet are small and ideally, he stands on well-arched toes pointed forward with thick pads. I feel the neck and shoulder placement with my hands. While he should have good lay-back, because he has short legs and is suppose to have good spring of rib, the chest will have some width. Also, I check the top line and tail set with my hands because clever grooming can cover up rolls and topline dips. The official standard describes the traits of the ideal Norwich. Some details are very specific, but I believe that excessive focus on details tends to result in fault judging. Fault judging is less productive when evaluating breed- ing stock. I first look for correct Nor- wich type and expression and forgive

small faults (such as a slightly gay tail, missing tooth, even a softer coat). The judge who understands the more subtle qualities prized in a Norwich will not reward a dog who is simply sound and lacks breed type. While I believe that the dog show competition should focus on confor- mation, showmanship in the ring is important to the extent that it displays the dog’s temperament. Show-ring pres- ence reveals the dog’s attitude. In the ring, the Norwich look best left alone to stack themselves. Some judges will spar Norwich. I don’t mind the judge who brings them to the center to stand on their own, but they are pack dogs and should not be sparred nose to nose. You don’t want a Norwich showing aggres- sion. Also, when judging Norwich, do not favor one color over another. Coat color is least important. All shades of red, wheaten, black and tan or grizzle are equally acceptable colors. The coat texture is to be hard, wiry and straight. It is a nearly weatherproof, double coat that should blend and appear as one piece on the body. The trim should be neat and not overly shaped. The coat should be healthy and not open or blown. The Norwich standard has remained relatively unchanged since the first English standard in 1932. It is my hope that the attributes that so endeared the founding Norwich breeders will continue to be upheld. To this end, members of the Norwich Terrier Club

of America recently published the first Illustrated Guide to the Standard of Norwich Terriers, for Norwich breed- ers, owners, exhibitors, and judges. Copies are available for $10 plus $2.50 postage. To order, please con- tact Patty Warrender, Notions Chair, at pwnoridge@gmail.com. ABOUT THE

AUTHOR Jane Schu- bart is a m e m b e r of the Nor- wich Ter- rier Club of America (cur rent ly 2nd Vice- P r e s i d e n t

and Chair of the Illustrated Standard Committee). She is a parent club approved AKC Ringside Mentor for Norwich Terriers, the AKC Breed Col- umnist for the Norwich Terrier, and (with Alison Freehling) author of the Norwich Terrier chapter for The AKC Complete Dog Book (21st Edition), to be released in August 2014. She is also a member of the HYPERLINK "ht t p : //www.norwichter r ierc lub. co.uk/"Norwich Terrier Club, England (NTC). Jane and her husband have loved, owned and bred Norwich for 15 years under the prefix ASCOT. They live in Pennsylvania.

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THE NORWICH TERRIER

JOAN ECKERT I am a breeder/exhibitor of Norwich for 35 years in Kalam- azoo, Michigan, and have judged several National Specialty sweepstakes. I am a leader in health testing and breeding sol- id dispositions with 35 champions, specialty winners and BIS winners. Outside of dogs, I have a grand hobby of antiques and unique collections of various objects—some might call it hoarding I suppose. MARETH KIPP I live with my husband on a dairy farm in southeastern Wisconsin in an area known as the Southern Kettle Moraine. My husband Fred, along with our son Bruce and grandson Dan, run the farm. I am in charge of the bookwork. I do have a life outside of dogs, although with a current litter of 6-week-old Airedale puppies, that time is limited. I volunteer at Waukesha Memorial Hospital in the recovery room, two days a week. I also love to find time to read, knit or do count- ed cross-stitch. I have been involved with purebred dogs and dog shows for (I hate to admit it) 48 years. My first dog show was in January 1968, and what a journey it has been. I have been judging 30 years, give or take. We have 4 adult children and 5 great Grandkids, two of which are making names for themselves as professional handlers. As for myself, during my first show as an exhibitor, under a wonderful Terrier Judge, Bill Marshner, we had a great Airedale entry of close to 20. I was showing my first puppy and won a class of 6. She went on to Reserve Winners Bitch and my husband later told Bill if he had only given me 5th in that class he could have put an end to all this show nonsense. I guess it didn’t work as I still love it and can’t wait for the next show. MARGO KLINGLER

MIDGE MARTIN I live in Libertyville, Illinois, about 45 miles north of Chicago. My day job is as a Neuropsychologist . I am an independent contractor in a large and diverse group practice of wonderful people. I have spent over 50 years in purebred dogs: a silver Miniature Poodle in 1961, Afghan Hounds since 1964, a few English Cockers about that time, Salukis in the 1970s and the first Standard Wirehaired Dachshund in 1970. My first judging assignment was in October 1973—Ramapo Kennel Club. I left breeding and judging in 1981 to work for AKC. I was Administrator of Judges’ Education, responsible for the breed slide shows and videos. And, yes, I made up the very first tests for Judges. I resumed breeding and judging in 1990, when Don and I married and I moved to Illinois, starting work on my Psy D that fall. BETTY MCDONNELL

I live in Mahwah, New Jersey on “Preserved Farmland” where I have a Christmas tree farm and a private nature preserve. Outside of dogs, I am an avid gardener and birder. I love to travel, read and I enjoy the convenience of the many cultural opportunities available in nearby New York City. I have always had dogs. Before I was 25 years old,

I had owned a Cocker Spaniel, German Shepherds, Dachs- hund and Border Collie. In 1964, I purchased my first New- foundland and breeding, training, showing and judging took over my life. In 2000 I started the process of downsizing to the Norwich. My first Norwich was a two-year-old AKC Champion and a World Champion from Sandina kennel—-an easy introduction to breeding. To date, two of my Norwich bitches have quali- fied as Register of Merit producers. I am always an owner- handler. I continued in obedience and five of my “untrainable Terriers” have earned Utility titles. I began training in agility, which all my dogs love, and all of my Norwich have agility titles. I have served the Norwich Terrier Club of America as

I live in North Texas almost on the Red River. I am a retired Prac- tice Manager Orthopedics and Neu- rosurgery. I do some consulting work. I have shown many different terriers over my 43 years being in the dog world, and judging 18 years of that.

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WITH JOAN ECKERT, MARET H KIPP, MARGO KLINGER, MIDGE MARTIN, BETTY MCD ONNELL & RICHARD POWELL

their AKC Delegate ever since the division of the combined Norwich and Norfolk Club. I am a Breed Mentor and am now a Permit Judge of Norwich. RICHARD POWELL

BM: 1) Small terrier but with good substance, 2) Short legged with balanced angulation, 3) Typical head with expression full of winning attitude. RP: I must have a Norwich that is sure of himself. The tail has to be up all the time whilst in the show ring. 3. Are there any traits in this breed you fear are becoming exaggerated? JE: Breeders, finally, are understanding more about structure and why you must adhere to the written standard. MKipp: The Norwich is no longer the little dog with prick ears, he is not a Norfolk whose ears stood up instead of folded over. His body is (as a very famous Terrier handler once told me) slung in behind his shoulders. He is more compact than his cousin and certainly has a different head. He is a delightful little dog with tons of personality. MKlinger: Good ear set and tail set, good balance, equal proportions. MM: I find that the Norwich Terrier to be a bit higher on leg and more compact than his closes t relative, the Norfolk Terrier. This was not the case 20 years or so ago when they were different varieties of the same breed. They are among the smallest of the working Terriers, but require the same gameness and sound and balanced angulation as their bigger cousins. Even if they don’t rid the farm of vermin any more, they certainly must have the gameness and construction to do so. BM: Small, short legged; square, compact body; balanced angulation. RP: No. 4. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are better now than they were when you first started judging? Why or why not? JE: Much better angulation and lay back of shoulder. Fewer wide fronts. More substance. Better bites. MKipp: Over the years we have seen quality have its ups and downs. There always seems to be a few really good ones out there no matter which decade we are talking about. I think presentation has become more professional and I love seeing the breeder/owners in the ring. I always look forward to a Norwich assignment, eager to see what the entry has to offer. MKlinger: Yes! I see more consistency and beautiful, keen expressions in recent years. I think they are better in the last 10 years. MM: From my vantage point, I can’t really say whether the breed is better or worse than when I started judging it. I think that there is a group of dedicated breeders who care passionately about this breed and who are doing a good job of preservation of the breed’s traits and essence. After all, our job is preservation, not innovation. BM: I am just starting to judge this breed, but compared to the original Norwich description in the standard and to early photos, most modern Norwich carry more coat length. The easy, no-groom ancestors have evolved so they now are high maintenance and the dogs that win must be groomed by skilled hands. Judges expect well- groomed dogs. Now judges must put their hands on the

I have owned and bred Welsh Ter- riers for roughly thirty years. I am honored to have been asked to judge the National Specialty for the second time in 2016. I have also judged the breed in Canada, South America and in Scandinavia. I live in central Penn- sylvania with my wife, Sue and we have raised two sons whilst running

a busy kennel and small farm. We are about to move to a new house with much less land where, apart from enjoying time with the dogs, I hope to be able to expand the garden and continue showing chickens. I have shown dogs since I was ten years old, English Cockers in Junior handling, then Eng- lish Setters and then all sorts of Terriers. Right now we are concentrating on the Welsh and Dachshunds in a very lim- ited way. I have been judging for over ten years. My favorite assignments are the specialties but I must say judging huge entries of English Setters at championship shows in England has been exciting.

1. Describe the breed in three words. JE: I find the Norwich to be funny, interesting and adventurous.

MKipp: I usually like to describe a breed with one word, but asked for three gave me some thinking to do. I think my three words are sturdy, compact package. MKlinger: Tenacious, hardy, fit and compact. MM: Sturdy, stocky and fearless. BM: 1) Small/square, 2) Confident, bold attitude, 3) Devoted and comical companion. RP: Small, cobby and active. 2. What are your “must have” traits in this breed? JE: They must have good health and pleasing dispositions, as well as be good specimens of the breed standard. MKipp: Like other judges, I look for overall balance and pre- sentation as the dog enters the ring. I wish for that com- pact body, nice tail set and correct head and ears with a nice eye. I want to see him move on a looser lead, trotting out with head and tail up, and of course, four good legs. MKlinger: I look for good bone and substance, foxy expres- sion and weatherproof coat. He should be fearless— despite size! MM: Must have traits in this breed: compact body, substance without cloddiness, alert, foxy expression, sound construction and proper coat. I find some exhibits to be rather larger than the standard calls for, as well as some that are somewhat Toy-ish. Thankfully, this is not the norm.

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WITH JOAN ECKERT, MARET H KIPP, MARGO KLINGER, MIDGE MARTIN, BETTY MCD ONNELL & RICHARD POWELL

7. And, for a bit of humor: What’s the funniest thing you’ve ever experienced at a dog show? JE: The funniest things that happen at shows are after the show. But I did have a dog that belonged to a co-owner that taught him all sorts of tricks. So when I was showing him, as soon as I got in the ring with any bait at all, he would go into his repertoire. You could not ever look at him. It was funny and he did win, but probably because you could not ignore him. It was embarrassing, as I could not even look at him so he was doing all this with my back to him—funny little dog. MKipp: My favorite dog show story in fact involves the Norwich breed. It was quite a few years ago in another part of the country. When the judging schedule came, it showed an entry of 26 Norwich. I thought it a misprint until the time for judging arrived, and in they started to come. The first puppy had never seen a bath or a comb and I thought it had to get better. The next class came in, dragging on their bellies and not even combed. It didn’t get better until the open dog class. Up to this point I was wondering how I would explain to these exhibitors that I was not going to award Winners Dog. I have to admit the winning dog was with a handler, beautifully pre- sented, walking happily on his lead. I asked that handler if she had brought her Thank You notes since she should send one to each of the other exhibitors who made that 5-point major possible. And I remember that day like it was yesterday—it is one of my favorite stories. (Some of the others probably shouldn’t be seen in print.) MKlinger: I have had a lot of fun at dog shows and although maybe one thing does not stand out—the many friends whom I have made has been life changing. When we had all the dogs “bedded down” at the show sites, the han- dlers would have a volleyball game or maybe even attend a local “revival.” We all had fun winners and losers! MM: For funny, I will tell one on myself. I was showing a class Afghan Hound dog at Rock Creek Kennel Club on a dewy October morning. He turned the corner, I did not. I slid on my butt into the next ring, stopping under a New- foundland that Tommy Glassford was showing. Without batting an eye, he spread his arms and pronounced me, “Safe!” I got up, retrieved my dog that had stopped to watch the fun, and continued on. I don’t even remember whether we won or lost. RP: There have been lots of funny things happen and when I am judging or showing, I try to have a good time, but one memory constantly makes me smile thinking about it. I was judging in Atlantic City, New Jersey and this gentle- man in a kilt was showing a Staffordshire Bull Terrier. I went up to him and said, “Good morning” and then start- ed to go over the dog. As I was getting close to the rear end, he said, “Oh excuse me” I stopped and exclaimed, “Yes?” He said, “Sorry, he just farted.” Not quite knowing what to do, I decided to stand back and let the air clear, so to speak, and in doing so, the moment got to me and I started to laugh hysterically! Lydia Coleman Hutchinson was doing Toys in the next ring, and asked, “What is so funny?” I told her and she could see the funny side of it too. Whilst judging, people say the funniest things.

dogs to discover what grooming may have disguised such as: fine bone, soft toplines, crooked fronts and close moving or cow-hocked rears. The desired hard coat “just might” be enhanced for texture and color! RP: No, they were/are a quality breed then and they still are. I feel the Norwich is in good shape. 5. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? JE: I think judges should ask more questions and be better educated about type, movement and coat. MKipp: I think that sometimes as a “Terrier person” through and through, I find judges coming into the Terrier group do not appreciate the time and effort it takes to properly prepare our coats and pay little attention to a correct trim. I think the Norwich breed is lucky in that the greater majority of the exhibits seen in the ring today are correctly presented. MKlinger: Pay attention to balance and type, but of course we do not always have a lot of choices. BM: Judges must understand that all allowed colors of Norwich are equal under the standard. A deep, rich red is not any more correct under the Standard than a paler wheaten. A dark black saddle will naturally lighten as the dog matures, and dark black must not be favored over a grizzled coat. Judges should be aware that the standard calls for a square 12-pound dog. A dog that is the correct, standard size should not be faulted in a class of oversized 18-pound dogs. Yet large or small, all must have good substance and should not appear Toy-like. Head propor- tions are essential to correct type. As ratters, Terrier teeth are important. Norwich muzzles must be wide enough to house their very large teeth. Missing teeth and mal-occlusion are on-going concerns for breeders. RP: I think new judges can get caught up with the cuteness and they are cute so it is easy, but we have to remem- ber the job for which they were bred. Some are getting snipey and have very short fore faces, which takes away from a working Terrier. With these weak features, good teeth are compromised. 6. Is there anything else you’d like to share about the breed? MKlinger: I love this breed and love the tenacity this breed shows, but still staying lovable. It is a fun breed that has a wide variety of attributes. BM: A Norwich in good health and proper condition should be able to run in the fields all day. Three trips around the show ring should not tire the healthy Norwich. Also, the short-legged Norwich is usually not happy gaiting in tall, wet grass. Let’s hope that show chairmen and superinten- dents try to make the ring environment a pleasant place to show off. An indoor ring that is rich with dropped bait or with litter (that is imagined food), is a hard place to hold the attention of a dog whose nose and eyes are so very close to the ground. RP: Judges should be careful to keep this breed out of the full sun. They can get very excited and can get into trouble getting overheated.

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History of the NORWICH TERRIER

D ogs come in more forms and sizes than any other mammal species, thanks to our selective breed- ing for specific traits. Description of any dog breed is intrinsically linked to its history, the why and when of the breed’s characteristics. Here are some main points of a timeline that has led to today’s Norwich Terrier. Late 1800s In East Anglia, a rural, “horse coun- try”, dogs are widely used for hunts and for rodent control. Many local huntsmen have large kennels housing harriers, hounds and terriers and it is not uncommon to freely cross breeds based on specific hunting traits. A few breeders start crossing terriers in search of a small, carry-in-the-saddlebag, throw-the-ratter-in-the-barn, gamey local breed. Dogs range from wire to smooth coats, from mutts to established breeds of the day, all choices driven primarily by tem- perament and working ability. All dogs are chosen for their size, tenac- ity, energy and gameness, and that selec- tion quickly establishes local lines: CanTab Terriers, the Trumpington Terriers, the Jones Terriers. Th e types are fluid though, and the associated names have more to do with places and people, than a breed type. Charles “Doggy” Lawrence, for exam- ple, a local dealer and breeder of hunting dogs, is associated with both CanTab and Trumpington Terriers, and the names are used interchangeably for the same dogs. If there is one overarching characteristic of the breed’s early beginnings it would be gameness and fearlessness in a small body. Turn of the 20th Century In Cambridge, locally bred Th rump- ington/CanTab Terriers become popular with students. In addition to their rat- ting abilities (helpful in dorm rooms), and their portable size, the local terriers have

By Magda Chiarella

Recognition of the New Breed by the Kennel Club in 1932 With the solidifying of the breed type, there finally comes an o ffi cial recogni- tion of the Norwich Terrier in England. Th e controversy over the ear carriage is addressed by dividing the breed into two types—a dropped ear and a prick ear vari- ety. Th e conflict flares up though once the ear cropping is banned in England. Th e two Norwich types are not inter- bred. As a result, as with all selective breeding, the di ff erences between prick and drop ear varieties extend to other fea- tures, and slowly distinctly two di ff erent terrier types emerge. Drop Ear Norwich is Recognized as a Separate Breed Norfolk Terrier in 1964 in England and 1979 in America. Norwich Terrier is now understood as only the prick ear variety. Separating the two types into two breeds results in redrafting of the breed standard. A changing role of the Norwich Terrier in owners’ lives brings about changes in features that reflect a shift from a work- ing terrier to a pleasing companion. Dogs are bred with more furnishings and fuller coats, larger heads and heavier bodies. Th e legs get increasingly shorter. Tempera- ment gets further shifted from gameness and tenacity to a friendly disposition, as the dog’s role drifts completely away from hunting and ratting.

softer temperament than some other rat- ters. Bred to hunt in large packs, they dis- play a perfect blend of tenacity and being enjoyable companions. Some students continue crossing the local terriers, among them Jodrell Hop- kins, a breeder of Rags, the first dog with what we identify today as a Norwich type. In the spirit of form following function, Hopkins bred a red silky-coated terrier cross to a black Scotty-like bitch. Th e coat color and texture was not that important as their temperament. Th at mating though produced a pup with a dominant red coat color and dominant harsh coat texture, in addition to the principal goal of that breed- ing, namely gentle yet tenacious working terrier temperament. Th e emphasis on what is inside the dog, rather than how it looks, continues. A red wirehaired Rags is mated several times to a smooth-coated white bitch Ninety. Th e main contribution of the “Cam- bridge period” is a temperament of a loyal and friendly companion. Early 20th Century in England & First Exports to America Huntsmen in Norfolk county continue refining the local terrier type and two ear carriages emerge. Bigger and floppy ears are cropped. Th e new breed’s popular- ity extends past Norfolk. People travel to East Anglia to buy the small friendly rat- ter. As the demand grows, more breeders get involved, Frank “Roughrider” Jones among them. He sells the first export to America. Dog buyers refer to their dogs as Jones Terriers, but Jones himself calls his dogs Norwich Terriers. Th e name sticks. Th e breed’s friendly disposition spreads their popularity beyond hunting circles. By early 1920s first drafts of breed standard emerge, and an accompanied conflict over the ear carriage. Th e emphasis on dogs’ temperament and working abilities give way to a new focus on the looks.

End of 20th & Beginning of 21st Century

Th e age of Internet shopping cre- ates a new demand for small, good look- ing, friendly companions. Unscrupulous breeders start crossing other small terriers with Norwich and selling them as pure- bred Norwich Terriers. Th e Norwich Ter- rier Club of America fights to preserve the integrity of the breed. What will the future bring?

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