Let’s Talk Breed Education!
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Official Standard of the Papillon General Appearance: The Papillon is a small, friendly, elegant toy dog of fine-boned structure, light, dainty and of lively action; distinguished from other breeds by its beautiful butterfly-like ears. Size, Proportion, Substance: Size - Height at withers, 8 to 11 inches. Fault - Over 11 inches. Disqualification - Over 12 inches. Proportion - Body must be slightly longer than the height at withers. It is not a cobby dog. Weight is in proportion to height. Substance - Of fine- boned structure. Head: Eyes dark, round, not bulging, of medium size and alert in expression . The inner corners of the eyes are on line with the stop. Eye rims black. Ears - The ears of either the erect or drop type should be large with rounded tips, and set on the sides and toward the back of the head. (1) Ears of the erect type are carried obliquely and move like the spread wings of a butterfly. When alert, each ear forms an angle of approximately 45 degrees to the head. The leather should be of sufficient strength to maintain the erect position. (2) Ears of the drop type, known as the Phalene, are similar to the erect type, but are carried drooping and must be completely down. Faults - Ears small, pointed, set too high; one ear up, or ears partly down. Skull - The head is small. The skull is of medium width and slightly rounded between the ears. A well-defined stop is formed where the muzzle joins the skull. Muzzle - The muzzle is fine, abruptly thinner than the head, tapering to the nose. The length of the muzzle from the tip of the nose to stop is approximately one-third the length of the head from tip of nose to occiput. Nose black, small, rounded and slightly flat on top. The following fault shall be severely penalized - Nose not black. Lips tight, thin and black. Tongue must not be visible when jaws are closed. Bite - Teeth must meet in a scissors bite. Faults - Overshot or undershot. Neck, Topline, Body: Neck of medium length. Topline - The backline is straight and level. Body - The chest is of medium depth with ribs well sprung. The belly is tucked up. Tail long, set high and carried well arched over the body. The tail is covered with a long, flowing plume. The plume may hang to either side of the body. Faults - Low-set tail; one not arched over the back, or too short. Forequarters: Shoulders well developed and laid back to allow freedom of movement. Forelegs slender, fine-boned and must be straight. Removal of dewclaws on forelegs optional. Front feet thin and elongated (hare-like), pointing neither in nor out. Hindquarters: Well developed and well angulated. The hind legs are slender, fine-boned, and parallel when viewed from behind. Hocks inclined neither in nor out. Dewclaws, if any, must be removed from hind legs. Hind feet thin and elongated (hare-like), pointing neither in nor out. Coat: Abundant, long, fine, silky, flowing, straight with resilient quality, flat on back and sides of body. A profuse frill on chest. There is no undercoat. Hair short and close on skull, muzzle, front of forelegs, and from hind feet to hocks. Ears well fringed, with the inside covered with silken hair of medium length. Backs of the forelegs are covered with feathers diminishing to the pasterns. Hind legs are covered to the hocks with abundant breeches (culottes). Tail is covered
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with a long, flowing plume. Hair on feet is short, but fine tufts may appear over toes and grow beyond them, forming a point. Color: Always parti-color or white with patches of any color(s). On the head, color(s) other than white must cover both ears, back and front, and extend without interruption from the ears over both eyes. A clearly defined white blaze and noseband are preferred to a solidly marked head. Symmetry of facial markings is desirable. The size, shape, placement, and presence or absence of patches of color on the body are without importance. Among the colors there is no preference, provided nose, eye rims and lips are well pigmented black. The following faults shall be severely penalized - Color other than white not covering both ears, back and front, or not extending from the ears over both eyes. A slight extension of the white collar onto the base of the ears, or a few white hairs interspersed among the color, shall not be penalized, provided the butterfly appearance is not sacrificed. Disqualifications - An all-white dog or a dog with no white. Gait: Free, quick, easy, graceful, not paddlefooted, or stiff in hip movements. Temperament: Happy, alert and friendly. Neither shy nor aggressive. Disqualifications: Height over 12 inches. An all-white dog or a dog with no white.
Approved June 10, 1991 Effective July 31, 1991
JUDGING THE PAPILLON
By Sharon Newcomb
he hallmark of the Papil- lon breed is, of course, the large, rounded, set at “forty-five degrees when alert”, ears that remind you of the wings of the
butterfly. Notice the instruction, forty-five degrees when alert. In repose, the ears may be lower. We are starting to see ears set too high on the head. Th ey should never be higher than forty-five degrees. Judges seem to be OK to use the higher ear sets but will ignore an otherwise nice dog if he dares to relax his ears below forty-five degrees. Sev- eral years ago the general consensus was that the ears couldn’t be too big. One of our most respected judges, Edd Bivin, said they can be too big and we didn’t agree. He was right. Recently I have rethought that as I have seen two dogs that have ears so large they almost look like cartoons.
“I have seen two dogs that have ears so large THEY ALMOST LOOK LIKE CARTOONS.”
to move. Th e standard calls for “free, quick, easy, graceful, not paddled-footed, or sti ff in hip movements.” Th is breed does not ask for a “well laid back shoulder”. Only laid back for freedom of movement. Th is is not a ‘reach and drive’ breed. Th e use of the word “quick” is not about the dog moving fast. Quick is used to tell you that the stroke of the foot stays on the ground a very short time. QUICK is the timing of the foot hitting the ground and leaving the ground. It makes for a shorter stride and almost moves on top of the ground like a bug skimming across the water. Th e standard says, “ Th e head is small, the muzzle is fine, abruptly thinner than
the head. Th e proportions of muzzle to back skull is ⅓ muzzle to ⅔ backskull.” We are seeing more and more dogs with big heads and thick long muzzles that lack the correct proportions. If you have a prop- er head and muzzle you really don’t even have to shave the whiskers. We have people literally shaving the whole head with a ten blade to try to reduce the size. We also have people shaving the hair on the front of the legs and the feet trying to reduce the size of the bone. Tails are another thing that is evidently not understood. Th e standard clearly calls for “well-arched over the back.” We have many dogs being shown with “snap” tails,
One of the questions that I am often asked is, “How much is too much bone?” Th e standard says, “fine boned” four times. It is not about too much bone, it is the shape of the bone. It says “hare footed”, which lets us know the shape of the bone. Bladed bone goes with hare footed. You never see round bone with a hare foot. So, if the foot is the right shape, then you have the lighter, fine bone. Th e lighter, fine-boned, hare-footed dog gives us a clue as to how the dog is going
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“Looking at the Papillon in profile you should see the beautiful, small head, LARGE EARS ON ONE END AND THE HIGH, ARCHY TAIL ON THE OTHER.”
(laying flat on the back with no daylight under them). We have judges rewarding dogs with snap tails who wouldn’t think of putting up a dog with his tail down. One is just as bad as the other. Neither is correct. Th ey both spoil the outline of the dog. Th ere should be daylight between the back and the arch of the tail. Th e Papillon is single coated. Double coats appear to be dense and round. When gaiting away, there will be no movement of the pants. Double coats seldom get any length to the pants. Th e whole dog just gives you an impression of round. One of our most famous students of dogs, well- known judge Richard Beauchamp says, “If it is round, it is wrong.” To me, outline is extremely important. Th e Papillon is slightly longer in body
than the height at the wither. Slightly is an interesting word. What is slightly? “Small in amount, not great”, says Webster’s Dic- tionary . I have a friend, Terry Miller, who says, “Put your toes on the edge of Grand Canyon, now step up slightly.” A Papillon does not stand over a lot of ground. Th e standard also calls for “neck of medium length.” It is not a necky breed. Temperament almost goes with- out saying. Th ey are a happy breed and very smart. Th ey should never be shy or aggressive. Looking at the Papillon in profile you should see the beautiful, small head, large ears on one end and the high, archy tail on the other. I have been fortunate enough to judge Th e Papillon National in four countries, US, UK, Sweden and Canada. My impres- sions were that the dogs in the US and Cana- da were very similar in breed type. Th e entry in Sweden for the most part was larger dogs and not as fine-boned as ours. I thought over- all quality was best in the UK. BIO Mrs. Sharon Newcomb has about 50 years of experience with dogs. She is a successful breeder, owner/handler, pro- fessional handler, trainer (obedience and
one field trial lab) and an AKC conforma- tion judge of 35 years. Mrs. Newcomb has bred or owned: Weimaraners, Miniature Poodles, Shetland Sheepdogs, Pomera- nians, Pekingese, German Shepherd Dogs, Doberman Pincers, Papillions, Anato- lian Shepherds, Pointers, Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas. Mrs. Newcomb is approved to judge the Toy Group, the Herding Group and sev- eral breeds in all the other AKC Groups. She has earned AKC Best in Show awards with Pomeranians, Papillons, Chihua- huas, Pointers, Shetland Sheepdogs and German Shepherds. Mrs. Newcomb is a noted teacher and lecturer. She has instructed both confir- mation and obedience classes and has pre- sented seminars on German Shepherds, Papillons, Anatolian Shepherds and Chi- huahuas. Additionally, she has presented canine health lectures concerning diet and vaccinations. Mrs. Newcomb is well known across the US and around the world. She has judged in England, Ireland, Canada, Mexico, China, Sweden and Korea. She showed her first Pap in the mid 70s. She has been breeding with her daughter, Elyse Vandermolen, Clearlake Papillons, for the last 20 years.
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PAPILLON: “Butterfly” in French, ‘Delightful Companion’ in English By Angela Pickett Wildfire Papillons F ine-boned, dainty, elegant. Th ese three words describe a Papillon to perfection! However, a prospective owner of this delightful breed should be aware that
Th e hallmark of the breed is the big beautiful butterfly ears. Th e ears are large, round and should be well fringed. When you look at a Papillon you should never think Chihuahua! Th e Phalene is equally as beautiful with their dropped ears. Th e Papillon coat is silky, much like human hair. When you touch a Papillon coat it is cool to the touch. Th ey should not be double coated like a Pomeranian. Papillons are small, measuring between 8"-11" at the withers and usually weigh 5-8 pounds. Papillons are a generally healthy breed. Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) has been linked to Papillons; however, recently the DNA marker was found for PRA in Papillons. A simple DNA test swab can
those words do not correlate to a couch potato or a lap dog! Papillons love to play and just be dogs. Given a choice, a Papillon would much rather be running around the house chasing a ball than sitting quietly watching boring television. Th ey are not hyper dogs, but outgoing dogs with fun- loving personalities. Th ey want to be the life of the party and will work the crowd if given the opportunity. Papillons are very intelligent dogs, excelling in obedience, tracking, & agility. Th ey can also be trained to do service work. Th ey are big dogs in a little package and are the “do-it-all” toy dog. Most are happiest with a job to do that involves interaction with their owner. Th ey love to please and can be trained with consistent positive reinforcement. With their intelligence, they can easily manipulate their owner to get their way. Suddenly, you will realize that you have been outsmarted by a Papillon! “FINE-BONED, DAINTY, ELEGANT. These three words describe a Papillon to perfection!”
now give a definitive diagnosis for the blinding disease on a Papillon and more importantly, on dogs used in breeding programs. Responsible breeders are very careful not to breed dogs with genetically linked problem in their breeding programs
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their owners. Th ey are very adaptable dogs and can be fickle. “If they can’t be with the one they love, they love the one they are with,” is general rule that Papillons live by. Th at being said, breeders are very careful with placement of Papillons in homes with large dogs, as Papillons can never be convinced that they are toy dogs. Papillons can be injured during play with a bigger dog or when they decide the other dog’s toy must be theirs! Breeders also strongly access the placement of a Papillon in a home with small children. Children like to play with their dogs and that interaction can prove to be too rough for a Papillon. Since Papillons are fine- boned dogs, owners must be keenly aware that certain play or activity could lead to an injury. Papillons are not the right dogs for everyone, but for the right owners they make wonderful companions that will add joy to a home for many, many years.
“THEY HAVE A ZEST FOR LIFE and want to share that with their owners.”
such as patella luxation. It is imperative to work with a reputable breeder when looking for a Papillon in order to insure a happy, healthy addition to the family. Many Papillons live active, healthy lives for 15 or more years. Grooming a Papillon in a pet home is a relatively easy task that requires only
regular baths, nail clipping and brushing. Th at regime is enhanced for Papillons that are in the show ring. Dental care is very important for Papillons as it is with all dogs and especially toy dogs. Th e temperament of a papillon should be happy, alert and friendly. Th ey have a zest for life and want to share that with
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The Phalene Ear While Moving
BY ANDI MELOON & CHERYL CONLEY MAASS
W hen it comes to the Papillon and the Phalene, it is all about the ears! Ear set for each is very important. However, for some reason, some think the Phalene ear should not be mobile. Maybe the confusion comes from the statement in the Papillon Standard: “Ears of the erect type are carried obliquely and move like the spread wings of the butterfly... Ears of the drop type, known as Phalene, are similar to the erect type, but are carried drooping and must be completely down.” When the Papillon is standing still, and alert, the ears are forward. When moving, the ears can move like the spread wings of the butterfly and are sometimes forward, sometimes rotated, and sometimes folded back against the head. When the Phalene comes to a standstill, the ears should hang down along the sides of the face. But when moving, the ears can rotate back, just like the ears of the Papillon. The ears can also move out from the head when moving, as the wind created by their gaiting lifts the ear. Ears of the Phalene are also set on high toward the back of the head, just like the Papillon. This ear placement results in a very light ear carriage, not at all like the low set ears of the Cocker Spaniel. Since 2005, there have been great strides with Phalene breeding. Although those who are inter- ested in bringing the Phalene back to its original prominence in the breed are few, they are eager to work together for a common goal! Phalene breeders are rare, and breeding Phalenes must be accompanied by much patience, love, and devotion. It is not for the faint of heart! Nowadays, many of the drop-eared dogs you see in the ring are just as refined and typey as their erect eared counterparts... and they are still improving! Yet, despite the advances of BOB and BIS Phalenes, there still seems to be some confusion about the ears on the Phalene. While there are many judges willing to put a Phalene up as WD, WB or even BOB, there are still far too many who do not know the Phalene and are not sure how to judge them. The drop-eared Papillon, the Pha- lene, is just as correct as the erect-eared variety and was actually the first of the two varieties. No matter the individual preference of the judge, both varieties are equally correct and should receive equal consideration in the show ring. Judges seem to have no problem with the erect ears, but many are hesitant about the drop ears as they are unsure if the ears are correct. Both types of ears are mobile and move around, although the drop ears should always be down when the dog is at rest. The most repeated observations heard from judges about the Phalene is that while the dog itself may be lovely, the ears are flowing back when it is moving, not hanging down to the sides. If they were really watching what Papillons do when they gait, they would notice that the ears are mobile too, and have backwards movement as well when gaiting! Both are correct! Judges should not be surprised to see a Phalene toss its head back and flip its ears around; even up, when offered a toy or a treat from on high. This is exciting stuff! However, the ears will return to the dropped position the minute the dog lowers its head.
THE PHALENE EAR WHILE MOVING
and flip the ear back into its natural position. The heavier the ear fringe the less likely it is that the ears will flip because the weight of the fringes will help to keep the ear in its natural position.” The next time you are at the shows, watch Papillons and Pha- lenes gait around the ring. Notice the movement of the ear flowing back. Even the short video of the Papillon on the AKC website shows a dog gaiting with ears moving backwards. EARS do move in travel, both Papillon and Phalene!
Pearl George, famous for her many BIS Kvar Papillons and for helping to spark the current revitalization of the Phalene, stated it very well in her article in Pap Talk , February 2007, Volume 42, Issue 2: “The correct Phalene ear has a slight rise where the ear leather joins the skull, but then falls gently down the side of the head. The Phalene ear has mobility just as the erect ear does, but the movement is differ- ent. The Papillon ear will move back and forth in the upright position. The Phalene ear will sometimes be pulled back towards the dog’s neck or even pulled slightly forward, but still hanging. When moving, the ear leather, which is light, may waft slightly—it has a fluttering type motion, but this does not translate into the ear going into an erect posi- tion. When the Phalene is standing, the ear should automatically drop back into the full down position. It can happen that the ear is thrown up. But when that happens, the ear will fold back upon itself. When this happens, it is not a problem; the exhibitor should just reach down
Below is the link to the video on AKC: https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/lifestyle/4-papillon-characteristics/ Feb. 6, 2017... Watch our video on this breed! Papillon—AKC Dog Breed Series.
(This article has been updated as of August 22, 2020)
ABOUT ANDREA MELOON, RN It wasn’t until 1986, after the loss of our family dog of 12 years, that my husband and I began looking at purebred dogs. I fell in love with the Aki- ta, and over the course of 12 years bred several champions, including the 1996 Akita National Specialty winner, AKC CKC CH Moto-Yori’s Marko No Inaka. My fourth Akita litter, I bred Moto-Yori’s Cover Girl Dotti, CD. “Dotti” became the 1994 Delta Society Guide Dog of the Year. With the collaboration of a very good friend, Bill Bobrow, our combined obedience training with Dotti earned her acceptance into the Pilot Dog’s School for the Blind. Dotti graduated in two months as a certified guide dog for Dr. Jeffery Fowler, a medical cardiologist I had worked with at the time. It was during my active participation and work in Obedience from 1988 to 1994 that I fell in love with the Papillon.
My first Papillon Club of America (PCA) National was in 2003, and shortly thereafter I bought our first companion. “Mollie” was ours to spoil, love, and learn the behavior of the Papillon. We were hooked. I returned to the dog show world in 2004, and that same year became a member of PCA. I have volunteered in the PCA Genetic’s Committee since 2005, and by 2014 became Chairperson of the PCA Genetic Research Committee. In 2010, I asked my best friend, Cheryl Maass, if she wanted to partner as one kennel and join forces under the name of Andali Papillons and Phalenes. Since that time, we have worked together, concentrating as Preservationist Breeders for the Phalene. We have bred multiple Papillon and Phalene champions, Group-winning dogs, and BISS winners. In 2020, we had the #5 All-Breed Papillon (Phalene) and currently the #6 All- Breed and Breed Papillon (Phalene) for 2021. The Phalene has been seen in old world painting’s since the 14th and 15th Century. Even today, traveling around the world for dog shows, we still take time to visit art museums to find the ancestors of our breed as depicted in old world art. ABOUT CHERYL CONLEY-MAASS Around 20 years ago, my husband, Mark, and I acquired our first Papillon as a family pet. Smitten with the breed’s charismatic personality, in - telligence, athleticism, and graceful beauty, we were hooked on the breed and we knew we had to get another one. The second time, we opted to look at local breeders and found a nice female from a breeder in Indianapolis. She told us we really should look into showing our new little Papillon, and how fun showing dogs was. We took her up on her advice. Mark started out showing our Papillon, but decided it wasn’t for him. Well, I was very interested as I loved the excitement of competition and the friendships that developed between the show folks. Soon after I’d started showing dogs in the Midwest, Mark’s job transferred him to Arizona. It was there, in Phoenix, that I met up with my new best friend, Andrea “Andi” Meloon. We soon discovered that we had so much in common—we certainly must be sisters! Andi turned out to be a fabulous mentor and I became consumed obtaining knowledge in breeding and showing Papillons. In 2010, we just knew we were meant to be partners, and I joined Andi in partnership of Andali Papillons & Phalenes. I had been introduced to the rare Phalene by Pearl George and Mary Jo Loye when I lived in the Midwest, but Andi really kindled my interest. My first love of Phalenes was cemented by the beautiful La Ren Let The Good Times Roll, “Ray.” We knew we had to do something in the US to preserve and promote this lovely foundation of the Papillon breed. Through my membership in the Papillon Club of America and volunteerism on the National Genet- ics Committee of PCA, we’ve been able to promote the austere beauty of the Phalene and make its presence more prominent than ever. Andali Papillons & Phalenes has produced multiple Papillon and Phalene AKC champions, Group-winning, and BISS winners. We currently own the #6 Breed and All-Breed Papillon (Phalene) for 2021. Andi and I have enjoyed traveling to Europe to promote the Phalene, and plan to do so again in the future. We’ve mentored and continue to introduce new folks to the breed and to Phalenes. I’m so proud of our accomplishments and new friends. What a wonderful sport!
PAPILLONS ARE MORE THAN PARTS & PIECES
by CHARLOTTE CLEM MCGOWAN
P apillon people like to say that the Papillon is a do-it-all dog. Papillons are gregarious, ele- gant, smart and athletic dogs. They are happy in the showring, perfor- mance ring and in the homes and hearts of their owners. They can be trained to do all kinds of things. They will go with you on a 5-mile walk, play fetch or they will cuddle on the couch for many hours and snuggle in bed at night. They love their comfort. As a companion dog they certainly excel. When judges come to this breed in the Toy group and are learning about it, they will get various opinions on the “essence” of the breed. Hopefully the list they get will be long and detailed but will also indicate that this is a breed that is a whole dog—beautifully typey, sound in all ways and temperamentally exceptional. The goal is the whole dog but the pieces and parts need to be cor- rect as well. TYPE POINTS Papillons have a number of distinc- tive type points. These are the lovely details that distinguish the breed and when appearing in one dog tell the world it is a Papillon. Papillons are dainty and fine boned. You will not find a lot of breeds asking for these traits. They are dainty and fine boned, but not fragile. This is the bal- let dancer of dogdom. The daintiness and fineness contribute to the breed’s elegance. Papillons have hare feet, another part of being dainty and fine. The majority of breeds have round or oval feet. The hare foot is a bit longer with the center toes advanced. Papillons are distinguished by their large, butterfly-like fringed ears. Papil- lon ears are large, broad at the base, round at the tips and set at a 45-degree angle like the spread wings of a butter- fly. The ears may be erect or dropped, but they are still set at 45 degrees to the head. In Europe, the breed is called Epagneul Nain Continental or
“PAPILLONS ARE GREGARIOUS, ELEGANT, SMART AND ATHLETIC DOGS.”
SOUNDNESS & BALANCE Every breed has a distinctive out- line. The Papillon outline is slightly longer than tall, never square or cobby, but also not long or low. The standard calls for a neck of medium length. It does not say short. The Papillon as an elegant, fine-boned dog needs enough neck properly set to in fact be ele- gant. It should not be stuffy necked or ewe necked. Front and rear are well angulated, topline is level and legs are straight. The Papillon is a sound, well made little dog. Straight legs front and rear means not east/west, not out at elbows, not cow hocked or spraddle hocked. Sound is sound. Papillons are great stars in agility because of their basic sound- ness and trainability. Papillon gait is free. Remembering that in Europe this is a Continental Toy Spaniel, the movement is light, free and not restricted. Now we have considered the long list of traits we want in our lovely Papil- lon. Please realize we are quite greedy here. We want it all. We want a beau- tiful, well-balanced, sound, graceful, elegant and fine-boned dog with all the lovely type points of head, ears, coat tail and feet and we insist on the won- derful temperament, character, intelli- gence and ability to be a superb com- panion. We want the whole dog. Dear judges, do your best to pick the best whole dog.
Continental Toy Spaniel. The erect ear is the papillon (butterfly) and the drop ear is the phalene (drop winged night moth). In the US, our butterflies and moths are all Papillons and judged together as one breed. Papillon ears also are fringed with silky coat. The ears are well fringed. So with ears we want size, shape, set and also fringe. The Papillon skull is somewhat small for the size of the dog and some- what rounded on top. The muzzle is fine and tapered and the muzzle is one- third the length of the skull with a well defined stop. The nose is black. The bite is scissored. Another type point is the tail, which should be long, set high and well arched over the back. The tail is an indicator of degree of happiness. Papillons tend to register high on the happiness scale. Papillon coat is single, something not all that common in dog breeds. The coat should be silky, fine and resilient, somewhat long without covering the dog’s outline. Tails are well plumed with long silky hair. Hair can grow over the toes and be trimmed to a point to exaggerate the longer hare feet. Temperament is very much a part of type. Papillons tend to think a lot of themselves. They like showing off and they like people. They are lovely dogs to live with and they like other Papil- lons. One is nice several are better. We say they are like potato chips—hard to have just one.
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THOUGHTS ON JUDGING PAPILLONS by CHARLOTTE CLEM MCGOWAN
W hat is it about Papillons that makes a really good example of the breed? First, judges need to view the breed as a “fancy” breed that is a sound breed. I use the word “fancy” to say that the Papillon has exaggerated type points. In Europe, the breed is called Epagneul Nain Continental , or Continental Toy Spaniel. Th ere are two varieties: Papillon (erect ear) and Phalene (drop ear) and in Europe they are shown as separate variet- ies. Th e exception is the UK where both varieties are shown together. Th is is also true in the US and Canada. Any sporting judge will immediately think of soundness as a necessary ingredient for a spaniel. Any toy judge will think of a toy as a fancy little companion with a delightful tempera- ment. Th e best judge will put both notions together when judging the Papillon. What are the fancy type points and how should they be prioritized? In this question is the art of judging the Papil- lon! Another good question is what points are most di ffi cult to breed and retain? As a breeder judge, I am always considering the question on the breeding side and judges may wish to consider this as well. Hardest to breed: on this list come perfect head and ears, proper coat and basic sound structure—fronts, rears and
toplines. Another constant breeding issue is length of leg. Short-legged Papillons can be genetically persistent. Th e correct outline can be illusive. Th e proper build, which is never coarse but dainty and ele- gant while not fragile or spindly can at times be di ffi cult to breed. Temperament must always be kept in mind. Papillons should be smart, friendly, happy gregari- ous dogs. Th ey should never snap, bite or slink around the ring with tails down. EARS Consider ears. Papillon ears are large whether the ear is erect or drop. Ear shape is broad at the base and very ROUND at the tips. Th en comes ear set. Th ink of the Monarch butterfly. Th ink of the wing set. Th at’s what we want. Th is breed is Papillon (butterfly) or Phalene (dropped wing night moth) and whether we are talking butterflies or moths, we are looking for the proper set of ears at 45 degrees o ff the skull. Now comes fringe. Breeders are fond of the double-fringed ear with fringe on the inside and outside of the ear. Clear red and whites tend to have less fringe than other colors. Th e ear size and fringing help create the butterfly look. However, given a choice between correct huge ears of the right set and shape that are lightly
fringed and a small pointed ear with tons of fringe, go for the huge ear with the correct set. Th e last thing we want: small pointed, fringeless ears. Low set ears are also unwanted. HEAD Now to head shape. Th e head, when correct, is a lovely thing to behold. Th e standard starts out clearly stating the head is small. Th is would be small in pro- portion to the size of the dog. Th e head is never coarse. Th e muzzle is ⅓ and the skull is ⅔ of the head length. Th e stop is well defined. Th e muzzle is finer than the skull and tapers gracefully. Eyes are set in low and are sparkling, nearly black and round. As a breeder, the most undesirable head is one with a long, coarse muzzle and a sliding stop. I find it amusing that this most awful fault in the head, the lack of stop, is referred to by some breeders as a “sheltie head!” As a judge, be aware of stop. Be aware of head proportion: ⅓ muzzle to ⅔ skull. Th e eyes are dark, round and set on line with the stop. Light eyes are ugly. Eye rim pigment is black. BODY & COAT Other fancy points should be on your radar screen. Tailset should be high, with
“THINK OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY. THINK OF THE WING SET. THAT’S WHAT WE WANT.”
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the tail arching up over the back and then the tip making contact with the body to make a teacup handle. Th e tail should not wave in the air ala Siberian Husky. Th at’s a tail too loose and it destroys the outline. Neither should the tail be smack flat on the back, kinked or immobile. Th e teacup tail balances the large ears and helps create the distinctive Papillon outline. Coat is impor- tant. Here some judges have a hard time. Th e coat is single (no undercoat), silky, straight and ideally abundant. Th is is a hard grocery list of traits. Some of the most abun- dant coats may be double. Double is wrong. Anything that is not silky is wrong. Getting silky and abundant is a trick. Recently an exhibitor with a really high-class dog had a judge tell her that her dog had too much coat. He picked a dog with sparse coat and minimal fringe. Th e dog he missed had good coat and lovely fringe. Th e most com- mon error is that judges pick the biggest coat as opposed the silkiest coat. I like to say a silky coat feels expensive. More fancy points include feet. Papil- lons have hare feet. Th is is a dainty, elon- gated foot to fit a dainty dog. Probably round feet are required of the majority of breeds. Even full sized spaniels. But we want a hare foot with center toes elon- gated and fringe tapered to exaggerate the length of the foot. Not wanted: fat, round feet with all the fringe cut o ff . TEMPERAMENT Temperament cannot be overlooked. No excuses, please. Papillons are ideally one of the most pleasant breeds to live with. Why else would they have been so popular with royalty and the wealthy merchant class for so many hundreds of years? Th ey are smart, friendly, gay, lively, athletic and gregarious. Th ey have high self-esteem. Th ey are charming! Th ey get along with other Papillons. We say they are like potato chips! One is nice, several are better. Th ey prefer Papillons to oth- er breeds. Th ey are large dogs in a small package. Why then, would you ever tol- erate a dog that slinks around the ring, is shy, snaps or tries to be invisible? It is true that some Papillons do not like their mouths opened. You, the judge, need to learn how to do it quickly and gently. A beginner puppy may need a little encour- agement but should not be shy. Do not tolerate bad temperament. SILHOUETTE If you are going to judge this breed, understand the breed outline. Th is breed
is slightly longer than tall. It is elegant. It is not short legged. Th e ears are large and the tail is mobile, set high with a teacup handle carriage. Th e coat never obscures this outline. Th e dog’s outline and ele- gance require good structure—su ffi cient neck, well laid shoulders, level topline, sound rear. Problems: we have so many bad toplines one judge asked me if Papil- lons should be high in the rear! No, No! Level topline! STRUCTURE Papillons should be sound. Like some other toy dogs, patella luxation is a minor problem. No one wants this. You don’t pick a luxated dog for breeding stock. Don’t rotate stifles on the table, please! But if you feel of the dog and hear that nasty little “click” guess what! Th e other problem that can occur is the open font. You may find this in Chihuahuas and Pomeranians. It is okay in Chihuahuas. It is not okay in Papillons. As a judge, you are not expected to go over the skull with scientific precision. Just be aware and if you just happen to find a big hole, this is not good breeding stock! SIZE Some words about size: there is a HUGE range in Papillons. Th e range is 8-11 inches
DQ at 12 inches. Th at’s 4 big inches in a toy breed! As a breeder, totally personal opinion outside the standard, I prefer not to breed any bitch under 9 inches. People who don’t come from toys are used to big males, smaller bitches. Toy breeders like bitches big enough to breed. Some tiny (under 9 inches), dainty bitches are gor- geous, precious and make superlative pets for the discriminating. Some are capable of being bred. Th ey deserve their champi- onships. Judge by the standard, judge the dog on quality not size. But don’t overlook the beautiful bigger bitch just because she is bigger or the small, dainty elegant male who goes so well with the good breedable bitch. Basically, judge to quality, not to size. MARKINGS Th ey are the frosting on the cake. Sym- metrical face markings are preferred, but get the best head, ears, outline, tempera- ment, body, legs etc. Th at’s more impor- tant. I have no problems with a solid head or a less than symmetrical blaze. Read the standard. It isn’t a fault. Ticking occurs. It goes with being a spaniel. Some people don’t like it. It isn’t a fault. Don’t treat it like a fault. Finally, pick the best whole dog. Th e situation needs careful consideration by Papillon judges to help the breed and breeders in the right direction.
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by SANDY VAILLANCOURT & JOLENE ROUDEBUSH
V ersatility definition: Capable of or adapted for turn- ing easily from one another of various tasks, fields of endeavor. Th e definition aptly describes the Papillon dog. A “happy, alert and friendly” dog that is “light, dainty and of lively action” the Papillon is able to adapt and excel in many venues. Papillons have been some of the top dogs of all time in the physically and mentally demanding sports of agility, obedience and rally. Papillons are successful in tracking competitions. Th e breed standard may state “elegant and fine-boned”; but they are also sturdy, sound, and agile; with a great work ethic which makes this breed well suited for companion events. Papillons excel at agility. In the 2014 ranking of the AKC Top 25 All Breed Agility Dogs—the most represented breeds are Papillons and Shetland Sheepdogs; with 5 each. Th e AKC Lifetime Top 10 All Breed Agility rankings include Papillons at #1 and #6. Th e intelligence of the Papillon makes it a superb choice for obedience and rally. Th e Papillon is considered one of the top 10 brightest dogs and the challenges of obedience make them a super obedience and rally partner. Competitive Obedience and Rally present challenges that no other sport does. In addition to teaching the correct heel position, the dog must also do many exercises that require them to be as precise and as close to perfect as possible. In addition to their good nature and high intelligence, Papil- lons possess the most important aspect of a service dog—the desire to spend time with humans. Considered a “companion dog” the desire to spend time with their human makes the papillon an ideal choice for therapy and service dog work. Th ey are trained as Hear- ing Aid dog, Seizure Alert dog and Psychiatric Support dogs. Papillons have started doing Barn Hunt and Lure Coursing, now that the AKC as opened these venues to them. To showcase the versatility of the breed, the Papillon Club of America honors its members each year who compete in Obedi- ence, Rally, Agility, Tracking and Th erapy. PCA members can earn a Versatile Papillon Award, Versatile Papillon Advance or a Versatile Papillon Excellent Award. O ff ered at the Papillon Club National Specialty show is a friendly competition, “All Arounder Challenge”. Papillons com- pete in the Conformation, Obedience, Rally and Agility Trials during the National Specialty. Th e overall winner is selected from the highest qualifying scores.
Th e Papillon may be purse-sized, but packed inside is one of the smartest of all dogs—a clever, active dog that excels at almost anything dogs do. A truly versatile breed; capable of going from the conformation ring to doing agility, obedience, etc. to cud- dling on your lap.
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By Arlene Czech
A Brief History of tHe PAPillon I n sorting through vast amounts of reference material I have gath- ered on the Papillon for the last fifty nine years I discovered a pamphlet printed in 1957 that has great information on the history of the Papillon. It was written by Rachel D. Kemmerer, President Emeritus of the Papillon Club of America. I have copied it here, and it is with permission from the Papillon Club of America Board as it is copyrighted by them in 1957. Th e origin of the Continental Toy Spaniel, of which the papillon is the mod- ern representative, can be traced through the paintings of the Old Masters of every country in Western Europe as far back as the earliest years of the 16th Century. Beginning about 1500, Vecelli, called Titian, painted a number of tiny span- iels, rather similar to the hunting spaniels of the day. In this century and the next, dogs—so like the Titian spaniel that it is safe to assume this was a pure breed— made their appearance in Spain, France and the Low Countries. We can only speculate on the ancestry of the Titian spaniel. Classical Greece and Rome possessed toy dogs but these were a spitz type which seems to have become extinct. During the Dark Ages only hunt- ing and working dogs would have been of value, but with the dawn of the Renais- sance, Italy became a prolific source of toy breeds of many varied types: toy grey- hounds, dwarf barbets (a sort of miniature poodle, often clipped lion-fashion), of Cayenne (which were curiously pug-like),
and a number of breeds which probably resulted from crosses of various sorts. Th e toy spaniel was quite di ff erent in its char- acteristics from any of these. One authority has suggested that the toy spaniel was brought from China, with which country the Venetians had traded since the days of Marco Polo. Th e Chi- nese did, in fact, have as late as the 18th century a parti-colored, long-coated dog not unlike the Titian spaniel, along with those resembling the modern Pekingese. But the breeders of the Renaissance were unable to reduce greyhounds and barbets to minute size, it seems unnecessary to resort to the Chinese theory to account for the toy spaniel. Th e name spaniel means dog of Spain, for which reason it has often been inferred that the spaniel breeds originated there. Th e spaniel family, which includes the set- ters, is as old as such other basic canine patterns as the hounds, the masti ff s or the spitzes. It is therefore probable that the hunting spaniels came to Europe along with successive Asiatic tribes. In this case, spaniel was a misnomer for the hunting breeds as well as for the toy. Th e often repeated story that the con- querors of Mexico brought the Chihuahua to Spain and that the papillon is descended from it seems to have no historical basis. Th e Titian spaniel had been developed as a pure breed prior to the Conquest of Mexico. Furthermore, this theory seems to have been fabricated to account for the erect, oblique ears of the papillon. But it explains nothing, because the Continental Toy Spaniel did not become the butterfly
dog with erect ears until two and a half centuries after the Conquest. Th e continued popularity of the little spaniel in court circles gave the breeders a ready market for their dogs. Evidently they conducted an intensive breeding program for its refinement. Over the years it devel- oped finer bone, more abundant coat and profuse feathering. Th e most characteristic change, however, was in the shape of the head. Titian’s spaniels had relatively flat heads with little stop; a type of toy spaniel painted shortly after by Veronese and oth- ers had high-domed, sometimes bulging heads. By the time of Louis XIV, French and Belgian breeders had perfected the type they sought. Mignard, the o ffi cial court painter, in his portraits of the child Marie de Bourbon, the Dauphin and His Family, and several paintings of Henriette d’Orleans, shows us a little spaniel that could scarcely be improved upon today. From Titian through Mignard and his contemporaries, all of the Continental Toy Spaniels had drooping ears. Th e ears were set high, although far enough apart to show the curve of the skull. Th ey were of medi- um size, hanging, as one writer expressed it, “lightly.” Th ere may, however, have been an occasional dog with leathers of su ffi cient strength for the ears to stand erect. Two 18th Century paintings suggest this. Suddenly, toward the end of the 19th Century, the erect ear carriage with its but- terfly appearance became highly fashion- able. In fact, it so caught the public fancy that the new term of “papillon” quickly became the name for the entire breed. Sev- eral attempts have been made in the past
“The name spaniel means dog of Spain, FOR WHICH REASON IT HAS OFTEN BEEN INFERRED THAT THE SPANIEL BREEDS ORIGINATED THERE.”
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“The little papillon has survived rather better than the Royal Families in whose courts he was once such a favorite. MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN, OF ALL AGES AND IN ALL WALKS OF LIFE, TAKE HIM INTO THEIR LAPS AND HEARTS.”
to straighten out the names of the two varieties, without much success. Recently the international papillon organization, to which the American but not the Eng- lish club is a ffi liated, has given to the drop eared variety the name of “Phalene.” Th e Titian dogs were red and white. Before long, specimens appeared in all shades from pale lemon to deepest chest- nut, while some of the most beautiful examples were black and white or silver- grey and white. All these colors were usu- ally marked with a white blaze and often with the thumb mark on the top of the head. Th en, toward the end of the 19th Century through the first two decades of this one, the vogue was for solid colors or for dogs with only the feet and chest splashed with white. Today the solid col- ors have disappeared and the preference is again for an evenly marked parti-color. People often insist on a one word answer to the question,”Where does the breed come from?” Baron Albert Houtart of Belgium, author of the most authorita- tive work for this subject, demonstrated that credit for perfecting the Continental Toy Spaniel belongs equally to France and Belgium. Th is statement is also true for the development of the erect eared type. Both countries may rightfully consider the papillon a native breed.
Th e little papillon has survived rather better than the Royal Families in whose courts he was once such a favorite. Men, women and children, of all ages and in all walks of life, take him into their laps and hearts. Now, as in the past, when he has found his way into a home he is there to stay, as loving as he is beloved. JUDGinG tHe PAPillon Th is breed is one of those that can fool the judge into thinking they are perfect. Th ey are perfectly clever since they have the ability to win a judge over by their “cuteness”. Cute is not a criteria of judg- ing. So how does one go about judging cor- rectly? I will try to lead you step by step through the process. When the dogs enter the ring you should have them go around the ring once so that you can get a quick assessment of what is there. Th is movement allows toy dogs to loosen up from the crate they have been in until judging time. It gets the kinks out of the muscles. Have the lead dog placed on the table and step back to get a good pro- file image of the dog. Th en approach the dog as you would to any large dog. Th e toy dog becomes very suspicious of judges that creep up on them. Now you have the first look at the defining characteristic of the Papillon. Th e head with its “butterfly” ears
is the reason the dog has the name Papil- lon. Papillon is French for butterfly. Place your hand on the front of the muzzle and feel your way up to the top of the head. Lately there have been ears that go straight out from the sides of the head. Th e ear leather should be firm and the tips are rounded with or without fringing. Blacks and tricolors usually have abundant fring- es whereas the reds do not. Occasionally the reds are blessed with fringing. How- ever I found that my reds fringed out after age 5 when we are through showing them, of course. I have always said that fringing is the icing on the cake and if it is scarce do not fault them. Th ere is also a variety of ear type called the Phalene. Phalene in French means folded and the ear is folded to the head and dropped down much like the spaniel of long ago. Th e eyes are a nice brown and round but not like a Chihuahua. Th e muzzle should be one third of the head and have a decent stop. All this can be observed in the first hands on the pup’s head. Don’t forget to check the teeth. Th ey should have a scissor bite. Do not try to pry the mouth open. If the dog resists ask the handler to show you the bite. Th e nose must be black and if it is not then it must be severely penalized. Now, there is more to the dog than just the
“THE HEAD WITH ITS ‘BUTTERFLY’ EARS IS THE REASON THE DOG HAS THE NAME PAPILLON. Papillon is French for butterfly.”
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head. Th e judge must look beyond the head to the body, legs, etc. Once the head has been examined the judge needs to see that there is more to the dog than that. Th e body and legs must be equally sound and correctly proportioned. Th e standard says “the proportion should be slightly longer than tall’. However, there are no measurements or directions as to where to measure to or from. It is not a short legged or a cobby dog. Th ere is how- ever a disqualification on height. If mea- sured at the withers over 12 inches is a DQ but if the dog measures over 11 inches it is a fault. Th is is one of the two disqualifica- tions we have. Now place your hands close to the neck and you can feel if the dog has neck. Th e head does not sit on the shoulders. He should hold his head regally. Once the head has been examined the judge needs to see that there is more to the dog than that. Th e body and legs must be equally sound and correctly proportioned. Next, step to the side of the dog and use your hands to check the topline. Th is should be per- fectly level. And be sure to lift the tail o ff the topline so as to really see it. Check the body for soundness such as rib cage, etc. Th en we approach the rear structure where we find the tail. Th e tail is not low set, instead it should be set high and held up in a large arch over the back. Our description is “like a teacup handle”. It should never lie flat on the back nor stand straight up like a flag. ( Th at is exactly what we call it, a flag tail.) Some puppies get too excited in the ring and the tail may flag a bit, but they should not carry it that way as an adult. Next you need to go down over the rear legs feeling the muscle tone and the angu- lation. Remember to check testicles on the males. Th e legs should be fine-boned not heavy. As with most other breeds you check the stance of the hocks, neither in nor out. Th en go forward to the front legs and look for the same fine bone. Shoulders
should be well developed so that the dog may move freely. Front legs should not be lifted as they move. Feet on all four legs should be elongated or hare-like. Too many are trimmed to look like cat feet. Dewclaws on rear must be removed. Front dewclaws are optional. Ask the handler to then take the dog down and back. Th is is a critical part of judging Papillons. Th ey have exquisite movement that in the standard is defined as light, dainty and of lively action. Th e behavioral characteristic that typifies the Papillon in the ring is the alert attitude and rapt attention displayed while show- ing. Th is and the lively movement have always made this breed a real “showdog” both in the conformation ring and obedi- ence ring. Th ey are lovable, adoring com- panions and will do anything for their owners and handlers. One of the biggest misconceptions about the Papillon is that it is a cute little flu ff ball like the Pomeranian. Not so! Th e coat of the Papillon is silky and lies flat. It is a single coat and you need to be able to identify it. A simple movement on your part will do this for you. Put your hands on both sides of the body and lift up the coat, let go and it should drop right down flat to the sides. A double coat will stand out. A Papillon does not carry a heavy coat or long and trailing in the rear and under- neath the body. Many judges will not put up a dog without a lot of coat. Bitches in season will particularly have a di ffi cult time growing a long coat since they drop it every six months after being in heat. I find that when I am showing my less than nor- mal coated bitch I have judges comment that they really can see the structure. Th ey understand. Th is is one problem in special- ing a CH Bitch. Our breed has an attribute in that the coat is literally wash and wear as it dries in an instant. In an emergency you can bathe the dog an hour before going into the ring
and with a little help from a dryer he will be ready. You as a judge can feel this silky texture when checking the coat. Finally we come to color. Th ey are parti-colored or basically white with patches of color. Among the colors there is no preference except to the breeder. I like my red/sables over any other color because that is the color I began with. Th e color must cover both ears and extend from the ears to cover the eyes. If it does not we call it a mismark and should not be shown. I find no reasoning in the past history of the Papillon in spec- ifying color placement. Nor is there any indication for the need to have a white blaze and nose band, just decisions of the majority at the time when proposing the standard. I find that judges are not overly critical on these points. Good! I would rather have a judge be judging more on structure and soundness than color. Th ere is a disqualification for an all-white dog. Th ere have been some whelped but have been placed as pets. Just remember the butterfly look, the light and lively movement when you go out and judge my breed. Have fun, as they are delight- ful little dogs with great personalities.
BIO Arlene Czech has bred Papillons for almost 60 years and been judging for 46. She bow judges all Toys, Non-Sporting and Herding Groups, BIS and Juniors.
References: 1. Baron Albert Houtart,”Les Epagneuls Naims Continentraux” 2. L’ABOI,(Belgium Kennel Monthly), various issues 3. The Hon. Mrs. Neville Lytton,”Toy Dogs and Their Ancestors” 4. Ada Milner, “Les Chiens d’Agrement” 5. Josephine Z. Rine,”Toy Dogs” 6. Isabel Rademacher, “The Butterfly of the Fandcy” With forward by Robert Leighton 7. Hutchinson’s “Dog Encyclopaedia” by Arlene Czech
“THE COAT OF THE PAPILLON IS SILKY AND LIES FLAT. It is a single coat and you need to be able to identify it.”
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