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PUREBRED DOGS A Guide to Today's Top
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PAPILLONS ARE MORE THAN PARTS & PIECES
by CHARLOTTE CLEM MCGOWAN
P apillon people like to say that the Papillon is a do-it-all dog. Papillons are gregarious, ele- gant, smart and athletic dogs. They are happy in the showring, perfor- mance ring and in the homes and hearts of their owners. They can be trained to do all kinds of things. They will go with you on a 5-mile walk, play fetch or they will cuddle on the couch for many hours and snuggle in bed at night. They love their comfort. As a companion dog they certainly excel. When judges come to this breed in the Toy group and are learning about it, they will get various opinions on the “essence” of the breed. Hopefully the list they get will be long and detailed but will also indicate that this is a breed that is a whole dog—beautifully typey, sound in all ways and temperamentally exceptional. The goal is the whole dog but the pieces and parts need to be cor- rect as well. TYPE POINTS Papillons have a number of distinc- tive type points. These are the lovely details that distinguish the breed and when appearing in one dog tell the world it is a Papillon. Papillons are dainty and fine boned. You will not find a lot of breeds asking for these traits. They are dainty and fine boned, but not fragile. This is the bal- let dancer of dogdom. The daintiness and fineness contribute to the breed’s elegance. Papillons have hare feet, another part of being dainty and fine. The majority of breeds have round or oval feet. The hare foot is a bit longer with the center toes advanced. Papillons are distinguished by their large, butterfly-like fringed ears. Papil- lon ears are large, broad at the base, round at the tips and set at a 45-degree angle like the spread wings of a butter- fly. The ears may be erect or dropped, but they are still set at 45 degrees to the head. In Europe, the breed is called Epagneul Nain Continental or
“PAPILLONS ARE GREGARIOUS, ELEGANT, SMART AND ATHLETIC DOGS.”
SOUNDNESS & BALANCE Every breed has a distinctive out- line. The Papillon outline is slightly longer than tall, never square or cobby, but also not long or low. The standard calls for a neck of medium length. It does not say short. The Papillon as an elegant, fine-boned dog needs enough neck properly set to in fact be ele- gant. It should not be stuffy necked or ewe necked. Front and rear are well angulated, topline is level and legs are straight. The Papillon is a sound, well made little dog. Straight legs front and rear means not east/west, not out at elbows, not cow hocked or spraddle hocked. Sound is sound. Papillons are great stars in agility because of their basic sound- ness and trainability. Papillon gait is free. Remembering that in Europe this is a Continental Toy Spaniel, the movement is light, free and not restricted. Now we have considered the long list of traits we want in our lovely Papil- lon. Please realize we are quite greedy here. We want it all. We want a beau- tiful, well-balanced, sound, graceful, elegant and fine-boned dog with all the lovely type points of head, ears, coat tail and feet and we insist on the won- derful temperament, character, intelli- gence and ability to be a superb com- panion. We want the whole dog. Dear judges, do your best to pick the best whole dog.
Continental Toy Spaniel. The erect ear is the papillon (butterfly) and the drop ear is the phalene (drop winged night moth). In the US, our butterflies and moths are all Papillons and judged together as one breed. Papillon ears also are fringed with silky coat. The ears are well fringed. So with ears we want size, shape, set and also fringe. The Papillon skull is somewhat small for the size of the dog and some- what rounded on top. The muzzle is fine and tapered and the muzzle is one- third the length of the skull with a well defined stop. The nose is black. The bite is scissored. Another type point is the tail, which should be long, set high and well arched over the back. The tail is an indicator of degree of happiness. Papillons tend to register high on the happiness scale. Papillon coat is single, something not all that common in dog breeds. The coat should be silky, fine and resilient, somewhat long without covering the dog’s outline. Tails are well plumed with long silky hair. Hair can grow over the toes and be trimmed to a point to exaggerate the longer hare feet. Temperament is very much a part of type. Papillons tend to think a lot of themselves. They like showing off and they like people. They are lovely dogs to live with and they like other Papil- lons. One is nice several are better. We say they are like potato chips—hard to have just one.
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PAPILLONS: A BREED Q & A
LOU ANN KING My husband, Terry, and I share our home with our Papillons, 4 cats and a canary. We have two daughters, Stephanie (and son-in- law, Clay) and Danielle, and four grandchildren, Adam (17), Trin- ity (15), Sophia (9) and Stella (2). Terry and I are very fortunate to have them all living nearby. Both my children and my grandchildren have all grown up with the Papil- lons so it truly has been a fam- ily affair. For me, my involvement with dogs in general and Papillons in particular, has always been a deeply personal experience, one that I feel has made me a broader minded person with wonderful friends all over the world, all connected because of this delightfully enchant- ing breed. I am a member of a number of Papillon organiza- tions, including The Butterfly Dog (Papillon) Club (England), the Greater Chicagoland Papillon Club, the Papillon Club of Iowa, where I served as President while we worked and gained show giving status, and the Papillon Club of America, where I currently serve as the Treasurer and Judges Educa- tion Chair. My involvement with Papillons is now in it’s 40th year, with well over 200 homebred champions. SANDRA SCHUMACHER
and bred her first litter in 1999. Since then, numerous multi- titled Papillons bear the TopFlite name, including High-in Trial, National and specialty winners in the US and Canada. Particular highlights include winning both BBE classes at a recent National, chosen Best BBE at several Nationals and spe- cialties, as well as producing the Top Obedience Papillon in PCA rankings and competitors on multiple Canadian Agility World teams. I served on the board of the Papillon Club of America for 16 consecutive years, holding office as Treasurer and President. I am also active in my local obedience/agility and all-breed clubs, fulfilling numerous positions and duties over the years. My husband and I live in Montana. He spends his time golfing and tending to his hobby vineyard, while I train and travel to dog shows. 1. What is the first thing you look at when you are evaluating a Papillon? LK: The first things I look for are head shape and expression, but that does not mean that is the whole of the dog; but if they are not pretty, with proper head shape and expres- sion, why go any further? SS: Attitude is important. Is he happy to be here and ready to do what his handler asks? 2. What special features of the breed do you prize? LK: The head as a whole must be small with the proper pro- portion, a well-defined stop, the dark rounded eyes must be placed properly, as well as the skull being not too wide or too narrow, along with being slightly rounded between the ears. The skull should not be flat. The pig- ment needs to be black. There is no differential between the sexes—they should all be Papillons. “ATTITUDE IS IMPORTANT. IS HE HAPPY TO BE HERE AND READY TO DO WHAT HIS HANDLER ASKS?”
I started in 4-H with an English Springer Spaniel and switched to Papillons because a smaller dog was easier travelling companion. Showing in obedience (prior to the introduction of agility and all the many other events that AKC now offers), I soon realized that Papil- lons were mostly owner-handled in the conformation ring and many entries had titles at both ends. I acquired my first Papillon in 1979
Photo by CPM
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“ONE MUST JUDGE AS A WHOLE. IT IS NOT ABOUT PARTS AND PIECES.” papillon Q&A WITH LOU ANN KING & SANDY SC HUMACHER
SS: Papillons are intelligent and enjoy having something to do. Most are athletic and willing to please. All these prop- er Papillon characteristics make them easy to train. The easy-to-care-for coat (if correct) is one of the reasons that I choose the breed. I don’t like to spend my time groom- ing, so the “polyester” coat is the perfect solution for me to have an elegant dog that doesn’t require constant care. In my opinion, if Paps didn’t shed, they would be perfect! 3. What are the major structural issues you see in the breed? LK: Where do I start? Fronts, rears and top lines all need to have some very serious review. The standard says, “Fore- legs slender, fine-boned and must be straight. Top line the backline is straight and level.” I don’t see how you can make any interpretation of “must be straight” in my mind—“must” is a strong word. As far as top lines, a top line that is not straight and level is an indication of faulty structure, which starts with the legs. SS: Poor fronts and poor toplines. Solid, functioning struc- ture is important for the many athletic venues in which Papillons compete. No matter how elegant an individual
is, he is not a good Papillon if the structure is poor and he can’t move elegantly and sound.
4. What are the most important point of the Papillon head?
LK: I don’t believe there is one most important part of the head; if it isn’t all there, it isn’t all there. One must judge as a whole. It is not about parts and pieces. SS: I do not think this is a “head breed.” The standard calls for a small head, but the head must be in balance and fit the dog wearing it without being heavy or cutesy. There is no preferred size in our standard, nor is there any size difference between sexes, so overall proportion and balance for the dog’s height are very important for the head and other aspects. The set and carriage of the ears affect expression and the appearance of the head. While ears are the hallmark of the breed, a pretty head is not all about ears. The set of the eye makes a big impact on the handsomeness of the head. A light eye detracts from Papillon expression. 5. How important is temperament to you in breeding and showing? LK: Temperament is very important, as it is who Papillons are. It is their essence. Without the ‘never have a bad day’, keen intelligence and happy demeanor, it is not a Papillon. SS: Extremely important. Some Papillons will not respond to attention-getters (whistles, squeaks, rattles) from judges. We often see dogs ignoring and even snubbing a judge’s attempts to get expression. Such a reaction is not an indication of temperament and should not be faulted. Papillons are friendly and outgoing; however, they like their own people best and prefer to work for them. 6. Is there anything else you’d like to add? LK: Let me say that one should not ever take a Papillon for its bits and pieces, it should be considered as a whole, but that being said, if the choice is between a dog with mediocre breed quality and great legs, and one that is stunning breed type with a rear that is not good, then I chose the stunning breed type. Without breed type, one just has a dog, but with a lovely-shaped head, dark eye, proper ear set, rounded large ears with fringe, silky flat coat, fine-boned with a level top line and a high set tail that has the proper arch. And of course, the most delight- ful, happy temperament—it is the whole package and I have devoted 39 years of my life to this little breed which totally has me wrapped around their little paws!
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PAPILLONS: The BuTTerfly in review
gardening. I’ve been involved with the dog world and han- dling for 54 years. I’ve been a judging for 36 years. JERRILIN NAYLOR
I currently live in Bixby, OK, which is basically now just a suburb of Tulsa, although I spent most of my adult life in Fort Worth, TX, with short stints in Atlan- ta, GA and Joplin, MO. I work remotely from home as a software engineer for Change Healthcare of Fort Worth, TX,
We have lived in San Antonio, Texas, Royal Oak, MI, and now LaGrange, KY, while raising, breeding, showing and judging the Papillon. This all began in the late seventies. During this span of years, I studied photography besides concentrat- ing on Papillons. I was the editor for Pap Talk when it was a full color edition in the mid 2000s. My daughter Jane Snider and I
Asheville, NC and Nashville, TN. I am involved in Pharmacy computer network products and services used in Retail Phar- macies. I have been involved with dogs since my days hunting in Jr. and Sr. High School. I have been breeding, exhibiting and doing agility with Cockers and Papillons for the last 20 years. I have been judging since 2009. ARLENE CZECH
wrote, The Papillon Visual , which is a color pictorial book representing the Papillon with photos to the breed standard. I recently became a Papillon AKC judge in the past 3 years. I began showing the Papillon in 1978-79.
I live in Naples, FL. I am retired. Along with dogs, I do gardening for our 2 houses, including Orchids. I have been involved in the dog world for almost 60 years and judging for 49 years.
I live in Chuluota, Florida, a very small town east of Orlan- do without a traffic light! Outside of dogs—is there really life outside dogs?--we live and breathe dogs at my house! I have three wonderful children including my daughter, Cheslie, who is also heavily involved in the sport. I enjoy spending time with my children & spoiling my new granddaughter. I have been in dogs since the early 90s. I started in obedi- ence and then found the conformation ring. The rest is history! I am a new judge and I am looking forward to my upcoming assignments. JANE SNIDER
I live in St. Davids, Ontario, Canada. It is a small village in the confines of Niaga- ra-On-Lake, very near Niagara Falls. Dogs do take up the majority of my activities. But, when I’m not doing something with dogs, my husband and I like to ride in motorcycle charity rides that are fund rais-
ers for hospitals and children in need. Also, out of necessity, I do landscaping and gardening around the property, although I do really enjoy it! My, it’s been forty-one years since I bought my first purebred dog. It seems just like yesterday! I’ve been showing and breeding for all of those years. But it was Giant Schnauzers that came first. Papillons came later on. I’ve been judging now for twenty years. What a new exciting adven- ture! So much more to learn! MICHAEL HILL
I live in Franklin, TN right outside of Nashville. We have been here two years and we love it. We love trying new restau- rants especially if they are ‘foodie’. That is why I work out, because I love to eat. I have been in dogs with my mother Jerrilin Naylor since 1978. I took some time off to get married, have a family and finish my degree in Graphic Design and Art History. I have shown dogs since that time and I
I live in St. Thomas, Ontario, Cana- da. Outside of dogs, I enjoy reading and
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have been judging since 2012. I still love to exhibit because it keeps me sharp and understanding the pressures of the ring. SA NDY WA LKER
the Phalene. Other must haves are fine bone, silky coat, level top line, proper outline and a well-arched tail. Those are points that help to define a Papillon and distin- guish them from other Toy breeds. Papillons also must have a happy, alert and friendly temperament as outlined in the standard. They should not be wallflowers! I also look for a sound moving Papillon. JS: An elegant profile should lure you to the Papillon. A small, beautiful head with large ears that have rounded tips; Papillon in French means “Butterfly”. Fine-boned structure, light, dainty and of lively action; distinguished from other breeds by its beautiful butterfly-like ears. Bal- anced and moves. SW: The breed must have a silky coat, proper slightly longer than tall proportion, daintiness and a correct, abruptly thinner muzzle where it attaches to the head. Large, well-rounded ears are a breed characteristic and sound movement completes the picture. 3. Are there any traits in this breed you fear are becoming exaggerated? JH: Long and low dogs, as well as heavily boned dogs, are seen too frequently. I see too many crooked legs and east- west fronts. Backs should be straight and level--too many dogs with high hipbones. AC: Overdone emphasis on ears and fringing. A real butterfly could never fly with overburdened wings. Lack of leg length. OG: The standard reads ears are to be well fringed with hair of medium length, but I’m seeing some ears that are so heavily fringed, with hair so long, that the ears overpow- er the total look of the dog. People are getting obsessed with long, heavy hair on the ears. MH: Although I’d not call them exaggerations as such, how- ever there seems to be an increasing number of Papillons with heavier than ideal bone, we also see heads larger than called for and the correct head proportions are not seen as often as we should like. Heavier bone, a larger headpiece without the correct proportion makes for an atypical, and not very appealing, exhibit. JN: I see far too many large Papillons today that are being shown. Inexperienced breeders keep them and build their breeding program from them and they are coarse in bone and head. They need to refresh the breed standard often, and breed bone of light and dainty. Breed heads that are small and not large, very simple if they are dedicated. AP: The standard states that the breed should be “slightly longer than tall”. Slightly does not mean a train! Long and low has been a problem in Papillons for quite some time. JS: Large heads, ugh! Per the standard, the head is small. Incorrect coats and lack of coats. The standard states: abundant, long, fine, silky, flowing, straight with
I live in Stow, MA and spent my career as a Biologist first in Allergy and Immu- nology and later making drugs (notably Factor 9 Fc for Hemophilia). I also make hand-dipped chocolates. I grew up in dogs. My parents started in Bedlington Terriers and moved to Min Pins. I started judging obedience in the 80s and began with Papillons in breed in 1990.
1. Describe the breed in three words. JH: Elegant, fine-boned and lively. AC: Elegant in motion, intelligent in performance, attentive and affectionate. OG: Papillons are friendly, lively and active. They have the mind of a big breed! MH: Elegant, dainty and lively. JN: To describe the Papillon in 3 words is of “fine-boned, light and dainty.” AP: Fine-boned, dainty and elegant! Also important are hap- py, alert and friendly. Those few words are of the utmost importance when understanding the Papillon. JS: Fine-boned and dainty! SW: Fine-boned, dainty and elegant. 2. What are your “must have” traits in this breed? JH: Fine-boned is stated in the standard many times. I think we mean it! Proper size, elegance, beautiful butterfly or Phalene ears. Ears should have rounded tips, not pointed and should be at 45 degrees to the head. A Papillon should never be cobby or square, the body is slightly longer than tall. OG: I like to see a correct coat, beautiful and flowing, and of course, single. The ears should be large with nice fringing. I like a well-proportioned head with a pleasing expression and a happy, animated attitude showing easy and sound movement. MH: Head proportion and size, ear set and size, eye and expression. JN: The traits they must have are the hallmark of the breed—big, rounded, beautiful ears with fringes. This gives the visual of the butterfly. AP: It is a must for a Papillon to have large, round, well- fringed ears. Ears are the hallmark of the breed whether it is the erect ear of the Papillon or the drop ear of
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resilient quality, flat on back and sides of body. A profuse frill on chest. There is no undercoat. Flat tails affect the profile. Standard: tail long, set high and carried well arched over the body. Cat feet and exhibitors trimming to be cat footed. Per the standard: front and hind feet thin and elongated (hare-like). SW: I think we are losing our heads and the daintiness that the standard is so specific in its description. The dogs are coarser but perhaps a bit sounder and more glamorous. 4. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are better now than they were when you first started judging? Why or why not? JH: The breed seems to remain relatively consistent. There are a large number of dedicated preservation breeders who strive to keep the breed consistent and strong. AC: The dogs now are better on the whole. Many have bred out poor movement, bad proportions and generally adhering to the standard. One thing the breeders are not following closely is the pure dark color on the ear. The standard says some white may appear on the ear as long as it does not destroy the butterfly appearance. I am see- ing champions in the ring with white on the top of the ear, in the middle, etc. This is a no-no. OG: I think the breed is better now than when I started judging. I see many more specimens that have better structure and are sound in movement. It seemed before that breeding was all about the head. Now, we have beau- tiful dogs with great heads and good movement. MH: Breeders have done a great job in producing more consistency in general style and size as well as an overall improvement in construction and gait. Papillons of today tend to have more coat and fringing than 30 or 40 years ago, which is a good attribute; however, today there seem to be more exhibits with a double coat. JN: The Papillons today that have been bred by master breeders (there are several) are far superior to when I first began in 1978. A better coat has been introduced and better fringes and type. Although there were some good specimens in the late seventies, most came from Europe, England and Sweden. Before these beautiful imports arrived, the American Papillons were sparse in coat and temperament. So yes, they have improved by far in these respects. AP: I have just started judging; however, I think the breed is moving forward. You can see that breeders are working hard to breed typey, sound Papillons. JS: I have not been judging long enough to answer that correctly. Although, exhibiting over the past 20 years, I honestly feel some breeders struggle with staying on course with fine-boned and dainty dogs. There is a chal- lenge with the clearly defined white blazes, nose band and symmetry today. The AKC Standard defines these
as preferred and desirable traits, and honestly, I would rather see preferred traits than not. SW: I think they are bigger, more glamorous and perhaps more generic, but when a good one appears, it is wonder- ful to behold. 5. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? JH: Body markings are not to be a consideration, only those that are required on the head (ears and eyes) as outlined in the standard (color other than white must cover both ears, back and front, and extend to cover around both eyes). It was a challenge to finish a black/tan/white bitch from my last litter as she had a tan front leg. Far too many judges faulted her for that, even though the standard clearly states that anything to do with body markings is without importance. This is a single-coated breed--there is never an undercoat. We also have a size DQ, so please measure if you question height to be over 12 inches. The Phalene (drop ear) is judged exactly like the Papillon (butterfly ear), except for ear carriage. AC: Most judges are impressed with cuteness! They pay no attention to the structure or soundness. OG: I think they misunderstand the fine-boned structure as it relates to the range in size allowed in the breed. There is a vast size range, but no matter what size, the Papillon must be light, dainty, elegant and have a fine- boned structure. Also, judges are rewarding dogs with too much coat. A straight, single coat with resilient quality will lie smoother on the body, not obscuring the outline of the dog. MH: Proportion of the head and that it should be small. A Papillon must have a single coat. The quantity of ear fringing (whilst attractive) is not paramount JN: I know for a fact new judges misunderstand the breed because they tell me so in discussion. They think the Papillon is either too small or too large. They need to read the standard as it states 8-12 inches. Anything in that range that is fine-boned and light and dainty is correct. Their biggest downfall is not understanding what coarse means—with size often there comes coarse and clumpy. AP: A Papillon is not just a pretty head! Along with the fine points of the breed, they need to be able to move properly with laid back shoulders and well angulated rears. A beautiful Papillon with fluid movement it is breathtaking! They are happy, alert and friendly dogs! A Papillon that shies away or has the tail down does not exhibit proper Papillon temperament and should not be rewarded when judging. JS: New and old judges get fixated on choosing a small or a large Papillon. Judges can have a large dog and a small dog in their winners line up. Please do not be a judge who is focused on putting up one size. The size is 8-11
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7. And, for a bit of humor: What’s the funniest thing you’ve ever experienced at a dog show? AC: My handling experience is awful. That is why I had hired handlers in conformation. Many times I heard a judge point to me in the ring and comment, “In spite of the handler…” But I did excel in Obedience rings. Most amusing was the time I did the whole Basic Obedience performance while my dog went over and sat with the judge in the center. OG: There was a Mastiff puppy in the Working adult group being judged. He decided to lay down--sprawling over the matting and cement floor. No coaxing or pulling on the leash would make him get up. Each of the breeds took their turn at the individuals. He just laid and watched. Finally, when the group was going around all together, he decided to join them and got up! Thank goodness! Otherwise, the Toy dogs coming in next would have had a bark attack! MH: As a judge, being on the receiving end of something I’ve read of as embarrassing to an exhibitor. Gaiting around the ring and back to me, a lady exhibitor with a large breed had a longer style dress that was buttoned all the way down the front. With every several steps, but- tons came undone, so that by the time she arrived back to me there were precious few holding it together. What could we do? The exhibitor, the ring steward and I had a good chuckle. JN: I guess the funniest thing I ever witnessed at a dog show is a judge actually losing her drawers (pants) and not knowing it until she couldn’t walk any further. She did a great job of making light of it by bending over and pulling them up and then threw her arms in the air as if to say, ‘Voila!’ She went right on and finished a great job of judging. AP: As dog show people can attest, if there is a show within driving distance the weekend warriors will day trip. Dog people define “within driving distance” very liberally. We wake up in the middle of the night to arrive at the dog show at o’dark thirty! On one of these day trips, I hastily grabbed my clothes and shoes. I arrived at the show to find that I had my shoes of two styles and two different colors. If you can’t laugh at yourself, it will be a long day at the dog show! JS: I was at a National for Judges Education; I will not say the breed. The judge was walking along the line-up in the center of the ring and their pants fell down to their knees before they realized it. You could only imagine…! They recovered gracefully but it truly was funny, I am sorry, but it was. Watch that happen to me now—eek! SW: My CH/OTCH attempting to retrieve the mat as well as her glove. She was not successful, but has a great time trying.
inches. Fault over 11 inches. DQ over 12 inches. You can call for a wicket. It is up to the judge to find the Papillon that meets the requirements and best exhibits the AKC Standard. Please understand the importance when judg- ing the head of the Papillon. There are a lot of details to tune into such as the importance of ears, shape of eyes and black pigment. SW: The Swedish influence on the breed has improved many things, including teeth, but the standards are quite differ- ent as are the looks. 6. Is there anything else you’d like to share about the breed? JH: I compete in AKC performance events with my Papillons and Cockers so efficient and unhindered movement with speed, grace and agility are very important in this breed. Papillons are alert and friendly and should not be shy or aggressive. Tails should be carried up, typically over the back and never down or tucked between the legs. A defined white blaze and nose band and symmetrical markings are icing on the cake. Black, well-pigmented nose, eye rims and lips, color covering both ears, back and front and over both eyes is a must. OG: This breed is very active and willing to please. They learn very quickly and are very dependable, making them great candidates for all sorts of sport, performance and obedience events. Their happiness is contagious! MH: Starting in the breed in 1970, I had the good fortune to mix with and learn from many of North America’s great breeders of the time, plus several of the important UK breeders. Having had the opportunity of viewing dogs from that time and forward to the present day is a trea- sure. I would like to mention one trait that I have noticed creeping in that is sad to see, incorrect temperament. A Papillon with a sharp temperament is totally foreign; they are friendly Toy dogs, not working Terriers. AP: Papillons are a wonderful breed! They love to play and just be dogs. They are not hyper dogs, but outgoing dogs with a fun loving personality. They want to be the life of the party and will work the crowd if given the opportu- nity. Papillons are also very intelligent dogs, excelling in obedience, tracking and agility. They are big dogs in a little package: the “do it all” Toy dog. JS: Papillons have an unconditional devotion to their own- ers and are generally owner-handled. They are more captivated by their owners than anyone else. So cut them some slack, if they do not look at you when judging. This is an elegant Toy dog with a beautiful profile. A Toy dog that can move around the ring with good movement that is free, quick easy, graceful, not paddle footed, or stiff in hip movement. SW: The breed should imply a lightness overall, as the but- terfly it is named after.
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THOUGHTS ON JUDGING PAPILLONS by CHARLOTTE CLEM MCGOWAN
W hat is it about Papillons that makes a really good example of the breed? First, judges need to view the breed as a “fancy” breed that is a sound breed. I use the word “fancy” to say that the Papillon has exaggerated type points. In Europe, the breed is called Epagneul Nain Continental , or Continental Toy Spaniel. Th ere are two varieties: Papillon (erect ear) and Phalene (drop ear) and in Europe they are shown as separate variet- ies. Th e exception is the UK where both varieties are shown together. Th is is also true in the US and Canada. Any sporting judge will immediately think of soundness as a necessary ingredient for a spaniel. Any toy judge will think of a toy as a fancy little companion with a delightful tempera- ment. Th e best judge will put both notions together when judging the Papillon. What are the fancy type points and how should they be prioritized? In this question is the art of judging the Papil- lon! Another good question is what points are most di ffi cult to breed and retain? As a breeder judge, I am always considering the question on the breeding side and judges may wish to consider this as well. Hardest to breed: on this list come perfect head and ears, proper coat and basic sound structure—fronts, rears and
toplines. Another constant breeding issue is length of leg. Short-legged Papillons can be genetically persistent. Th e correct outline can be illusive. Th e proper build, which is never coarse but dainty and ele- gant while not fragile or spindly can at times be di ffi cult to breed. Temperament must always be kept in mind. Papillons should be smart, friendly, happy gregari- ous dogs. Th ey should never snap, bite or slink around the ring with tails down. EARS Consider ears. Papillon ears are large whether the ear is erect or drop. Ear shape is broad at the base and very ROUND at the tips. Th en comes ear set. Th ink of the Monarch butterfly. Th ink of the wing set. Th at’s what we want. Th is breed is Papillon (butterfly) or Phalene (dropped wing night moth) and whether we are talking butterflies or moths, we are looking for the proper set of ears at 45 degrees o ff the skull. Now comes fringe. Breeders are fond of the double-fringed ear with fringe on the inside and outside of the ear. Clear red and whites tend to have less fringe than other colors. Th e ear size and fringing help create the butterfly look. However, given a choice between correct huge ears of the right set and shape that are lightly
fringed and a small pointed ear with tons of fringe, go for the huge ear with the correct set. Th e last thing we want: small pointed, fringeless ears. Low set ears are also unwanted. HEAD Now to head shape. Th e head, when correct, is a lovely thing to behold. Th e standard starts out clearly stating the head is small. Th is would be small in pro- portion to the size of the dog. Th e head is never coarse. Th e muzzle is ⅓ and the skull is ⅔ of the head length. Th e stop is well defined. Th e muzzle is finer than the skull and tapers gracefully. Eyes are set in low and are sparkling, nearly black and round. As a breeder, the most undesirable head is one with a long, coarse muzzle and a sliding stop. I find it amusing that this most awful fault in the head, the lack of stop, is referred to by some breeders as a “sheltie head!” As a judge, be aware of stop. Be aware of head proportion: ⅓ muzzle to ⅔ skull. Th e eyes are dark, round and set on line with the stop. Light eyes are ugly. Eye rim pigment is black. BODY & COAT Other fancy points should be on your radar screen. Tailset should be high, with
“THINK OF THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY. THINK OF THE WING SET. THAT’S WHAT WE WANT.”
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the tail arching up over the back and then the tip making contact with the body to make a teacup handle. Th e tail should not wave in the air ala Siberian Husky. Th at’s a tail too loose and it destroys the outline. Neither should the tail be smack flat on the back, kinked or immobile. Th e teacup tail balances the large ears and helps create the distinctive Papillon outline. Coat is impor- tant. Here some judges have a hard time. Th e coat is single (no undercoat), silky, straight and ideally abundant. Th is is a hard grocery list of traits. Some of the most abun- dant coats may be double. Double is wrong. Anything that is not silky is wrong. Getting silky and abundant is a trick. Recently an exhibitor with a really high-class dog had a judge tell her that her dog had too much coat. He picked a dog with sparse coat and minimal fringe. Th e dog he missed had good coat and lovely fringe. Th e most com- mon error is that judges pick the biggest coat as opposed the silkiest coat. I like to say a silky coat feels expensive. More fancy points include feet. Papil- lons have hare feet. Th is is a dainty, elon- gated foot to fit a dainty dog. Probably round feet are required of the majority of breeds. Even full sized spaniels. But we want a hare foot with center toes elon- gated and fringe tapered to exaggerate the length of the foot. Not wanted: fat, round feet with all the fringe cut o ff . TEMPERAMENT Temperament cannot be overlooked. No excuses, please. Papillons are ideally one of the most pleasant breeds to live with. Why else would they have been so popular with royalty and the wealthy merchant class for so many hundreds of years? Th ey are smart, friendly, gay, lively, athletic and gregarious. Th ey have high self-esteem. Th ey are charming! Th ey get along with other Papillons. We say they are like potato chips! One is nice, several are better. Th ey prefer Papillons to oth- er breeds. Th ey are large dogs in a small package. Why then, would you ever tol- erate a dog that slinks around the ring, is shy, snaps or tries to be invisible? It is true that some Papillons do not like their mouths opened. You, the judge, need to learn how to do it quickly and gently. A beginner puppy may need a little encour- agement but should not be shy. Do not tolerate bad temperament. SILHOUETTE If you are going to judge this breed, understand the breed outline. Th is breed
is slightly longer than tall. It is elegant. It is not short legged. Th e ears are large and the tail is mobile, set high with a teacup handle carriage. Th e coat never obscures this outline. Th e dog’s outline and ele- gance require good structure—su ffi cient neck, well laid shoulders, level topline, sound rear. Problems: we have so many bad toplines one judge asked me if Papil- lons should be high in the rear! No, No! Level topline! STRUCTURE Papillons should be sound. Like some other toy dogs, patella luxation is a minor problem. No one wants this. You don’t pick a luxated dog for breeding stock. Don’t rotate stifles on the table, please! But if you feel of the dog and hear that nasty little “click” guess what! Th e other problem that can occur is the open font. You may find this in Chihuahuas and Pomeranians. It is okay in Chihuahuas. It is not okay in Papillons. As a judge, you are not expected to go over the skull with scientific precision. Just be aware and if you just happen to find a big hole, this is not good breeding stock! SIZE Some words about size: there is a HUGE range in Papillons. Th e range is 8-11 inches
DQ at 12 inches. Th at’s 4 big inches in a toy breed! As a breeder, totally personal opinion outside the standard, I prefer not to breed any bitch under 9 inches. People who don’t come from toys are used to big males, smaller bitches. Toy breeders like bitches big enough to breed. Some tiny (under 9 inches), dainty bitches are gor- geous, precious and make superlative pets for the discriminating. Some are capable of being bred. Th ey deserve their champi- onships. Judge by the standard, judge the dog on quality not size. But don’t overlook the beautiful bigger bitch just because she is bigger or the small, dainty elegant male who goes so well with the good breedable bitch. Basically, judge to quality, not to size. MARKINGS Th ey are the frosting on the cake. Sym- metrical face markings are preferred, but get the best head, ears, outline, tempera- ment, body, legs etc. Th at’s more impor- tant. I have no problems with a solid head or a less than symmetrical blaze. Read the standard. It isn’t a fault. Ticking occurs. It goes with being a spaniel. Some people don’t like it. It isn’t a fault. Don’t treat it like a fault. Finally, pick the best whole dog. Th e situation needs careful consideration by Papillon judges to help the breed and breeders in the right direction.
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by SANDY VAILLANCOURT & JOLENE ROUDEBUSH
V ersatility definition: Capable of or adapted for turn- ing easily from one another of various tasks, fields of endeavor. Th e definition aptly describes the Papillon dog. A “happy, alert and friendly” dog that is “light, dainty and of lively action” the Papillon is able to adapt and excel in many venues. Papillons have been some of the top dogs of all time in the physically and mentally demanding sports of agility, obedience and rally. Papillons are successful in tracking competitions. Th e breed standard may state “elegant and fine-boned”; but they are also sturdy, sound, and agile; with a great work ethic which makes this breed well suited for companion events. Papillons excel at agility. In the 2014 ranking of the AKC Top 25 All Breed Agility Dogs—the most represented breeds are Papillons and Shetland Sheepdogs; with 5 each. Th e AKC Lifetime Top 10 All Breed Agility rankings include Papillons at #1 and #6. Th e intelligence of the Papillon makes it a superb choice for obedience and rally. Th e Papillon is considered one of the top 10 brightest dogs and the challenges of obedience make them a super obedience and rally partner. Competitive Obedience and Rally present challenges that no other sport does. In addition to teaching the correct heel position, the dog must also do many exercises that require them to be as precise and as close to perfect as possible. In addition to their good nature and high intelligence, Papil- lons possess the most important aspect of a service dog—the desire to spend time with humans. Considered a “companion dog” the desire to spend time with their human makes the papillon an ideal choice for therapy and service dog work. Th ey are trained as Hear- ing Aid dog, Seizure Alert dog and Psychiatric Support dogs. Papillons have started doing Barn Hunt and Lure Coursing, now that the AKC as opened these venues to them. To showcase the versatility of the breed, the Papillon Club of America honors its members each year who compete in Obedi- ence, Rally, Agility, Tracking and Th erapy. PCA members can earn a Versatile Papillon Award, Versatile Papillon Advance or a Versatile Papillon Excellent Award. O ff ered at the Papillon Club National Specialty show is a friendly competition, “All Arounder Challenge”. Papillons com- pete in the Conformation, Obedience, Rally and Agility Trials during the National Specialty. Th e overall winner is selected from the highest qualifying scores.
Th e Papillon may be purse-sized, but packed inside is one of the smartest of all dogs—a clever, active dog that excels at almost anything dogs do. A truly versatile breed; capable of going from the conformation ring to doing agility, obedience, etc. to cud- dling on your lap.
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JUDGING THE PAPILLON
By Sharon Newcomb
he hallmark of the Papil- lon breed is, of course, the large, rounded, set at “forty-five degrees when alert”, ears that remind you of the wings of the
butterfly. Notice the instruction, forty-five degrees when alert. In repose, the ears may be lower. We are starting to see ears set too high on the head. Th ey should never be higher than forty-five degrees. Judges seem to be OK to use the higher ear sets but will ignore an otherwise nice dog if he dares to relax his ears below forty-five degrees. Sev- eral years ago the general consensus was that the ears couldn’t be too big. One of our most respected judges, Edd Bivin, said they can be too big and we didn’t agree. He was right. Recently I have rethought that as I have seen two dogs that have ears so large they almost look like cartoons.
“I have seen two dogs that have ears so large THEY ALMOST LOOK LIKE CARTOONS.”
to move. Th e standard calls for “free, quick, easy, graceful, not paddled-footed, or sti ff in hip movements.” Th is breed does not ask for a “well laid back shoulder”. Only laid back for freedom of movement. Th is is not a ‘reach and drive’ breed. Th e use of the word “quick” is not about the dog moving fast. Quick is used to tell you that the stroke of the foot stays on the ground a very short time. QUICK is the timing of the foot hitting the ground and leaving the ground. It makes for a shorter stride and almost moves on top of the ground like a bug skimming across the water. Th e standard says, “ Th e head is small, the muzzle is fine, abruptly thinner than
the head. Th e proportions of muzzle to back skull is ⅓ muzzle to ⅔ backskull.” We are seeing more and more dogs with big heads and thick long muzzles that lack the correct proportions. If you have a prop- er head and muzzle you really don’t even have to shave the whiskers. We have people literally shaving the whole head with a ten blade to try to reduce the size. We also have people shaving the hair on the front of the legs and the feet trying to reduce the size of the bone. Tails are another thing that is evidently not understood. Th e standard clearly calls for “well-arched over the back.” We have many dogs being shown with “snap” tails,
One of the questions that I am often asked is, “How much is too much bone?” Th e standard says, “fine boned” four times. It is not about too much bone, it is the shape of the bone. It says “hare footed”, which lets us know the shape of the bone. Bladed bone goes with hare footed. You never see round bone with a hare foot. So, if the foot is the right shape, then you have the lighter, fine bone. Th e lighter, fine-boned, hare-footed dog gives us a clue as to how the dog is going
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“Looking at the Papillon in profile you should see the beautiful, small head, LARGE EARS ON ONE END AND THE HIGH, ARCHY TAIL ON THE OTHER.”
(laying flat on the back with no daylight under them). We have judges rewarding dogs with snap tails who wouldn’t think of putting up a dog with his tail down. One is just as bad as the other. Neither is correct. Th ey both spoil the outline of the dog. Th ere should be daylight between the back and the arch of the tail. Th e Papillon is single coated. Double coats appear to be dense and round. When gaiting away, there will be no movement of the pants. Double coats seldom get any length to the pants. Th e whole dog just gives you an impression of round. One of our most famous students of dogs, well- known judge Richard Beauchamp says, “If it is round, it is wrong.” To me, outline is extremely important. Th e Papillon is slightly longer in body
than the height at the wither. Slightly is an interesting word. What is slightly? “Small in amount, not great”, says Webster’s Dic- tionary . I have a friend, Terry Miller, who says, “Put your toes on the edge of Grand Canyon, now step up slightly.” A Papillon does not stand over a lot of ground. Th e standard also calls for “neck of medium length.” It is not a necky breed. Temperament almost goes with- out saying. Th ey are a happy breed and very smart. Th ey should never be shy or aggressive. Looking at the Papillon in profile you should see the beautiful, small head, large ears on one end and the high, archy tail on the other. I have been fortunate enough to judge Th e Papillon National in four countries, US, UK, Sweden and Canada. My impres- sions were that the dogs in the US and Cana- da were very similar in breed type. Th e entry in Sweden for the most part was larger dogs and not as fine-boned as ours. I thought over- all quality was best in the UK. BIO Mrs. Sharon Newcomb has about 50 years of experience with dogs. She is a successful breeder, owner/handler, pro- fessional handler, trainer (obedience and
one field trial lab) and an AKC conforma- tion judge of 35 years. Mrs. Newcomb has bred or owned: Weimaraners, Miniature Poodles, Shetland Sheepdogs, Pomera- nians, Pekingese, German Shepherd Dogs, Doberman Pincers, Papillions, Anato- lian Shepherds, Pointers, Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas. Mrs. Newcomb is approved to judge the Toy Group, the Herding Group and sev- eral breeds in all the other AKC Groups. She has earned AKC Best in Show awards with Pomeranians, Papillons, Chihua- huas, Pointers, Shetland Sheepdogs and German Shepherds. Mrs. Newcomb is a noted teacher and lecturer. She has instructed both confir- mation and obedience classes and has pre- sented seminars on German Shepherds, Papillons, Anatolian Shepherds and Chi- huahuas. Additionally, she has presented canine health lectures concerning diet and vaccinations. Mrs. Newcomb is well known across the US and around the world. She has judged in England, Ireland, Canada, Mexico, China, Sweden and Korea. She showed her first Pap in the mid 70s. She has been breeding with her daughter, Elyse Vandermolen, Clearlake Papillons, for the last 20 years.
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