TERRIER PARSON RUSSELL
Let’s Talk Breed Education!
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Official Standard of the Parson Russell Terrier General Appearance: The Parson Russell Terrier was developed in the south of England in the 1800's as a white terrier to work European red fox both above and below ground. The terrier was named for the Reverend John Russell, whose terriers trailed hounds and bolted foxes from dens so the hunt could ride on. To function as a working terrier, he must possess certain characteristics: a ready attitude, alert and confident; balance in height and length; medium in size and bone, suggesting strength and endurance. Important to breed type is a natural appearance: harsh, weatherproof coat with a compact construction and clean silhouette. The coat is broken or smooth. He has a small, flexible chest to enable him to pursue his quarry underground and sufficient length of leg to follow the hounds. Old scars and injuries, the result of honorable work or accident, should not be allowed to prejudice a terrier’ s chance in the show ring, unless they interfere with movement or utility for work or breeding. Size, Substance, Proportion: Size - The ideal height of a mature dog is 14 inches at the highest point of the shoulder blade, and bitches 13 inches. Terriers whose heights measure either slightly larger or smaller than the ideal are not to be penalized in the show ring provided other points of their conformation, especially balance, are consistent with the working aspects of the standard. Larger dogs must remain spannable and smaller dogs must continue to exhibit breed type and sufficient bone to allow them to work successfully. The weight of a terrier in hard working condition is usually between 13 to 17 pounds. Proportion - Balance is the keystone of the terrier's anatomy. The chief points of consideration are the relative proportions of skull and foreface, head and frame, height at withers and length of body. The height at withers is slightly greater than the distance from the withers to tail, i.e. by possibly 1 to 1½ inches on a 14 inch dog. The measurement will vary according to height. Substance - The terrier is of medium bone, not so heavy as to appear coarse or so light as to appear racy. The conformation of the whole frame is indicative of strength and endurance. Disqualification - Height under 12 inches or over 15 inches. Head: Head - Strong and in good proportion to the rest of the body, so the appearance of balance is maintained. Expression - Keen, direct, full of life and intelligence. Eyes - Almond shaped, dark in color, moderate in size, not protruding. Dark rims are desirable, however where the coat surrounding the eye is white, the eye rim may be pink. Ears - Small "V"- shaped drop ears of moderate thickness carried forward close to the head with the tip so as to cover the orifice and pointing toward the eye. Fold is level with the top of the skull or slightly above. When alert, ear tips do not extend below the corner of the eye. Skull - Flat with muzzle and back skull in parallel planes. Fairly broad between the ears, narrowing slightly to the eyes. The stop is well defined but not prominent. Muzzle - Length from nose to stop is slightly shorter than the distance from stop to occiput. Strong and rectangular, measuring in width approximately 2/3 that of the backskull between the ears. Jaws - Upper and lower are of fair and punishing strength. Nose - Must be black and fully pigmented. Bite - Teeth are large with complete dentition in a perfect scissors bite, i.e., upper teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and teeth set square to the jaws.
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Faults - Snipey muzzle, weak or coarse head. Light or yellow eye, round eye. Hound ear, fleshy ear, rounded tips. Level bite, missing teeth. Four or more missing pre-molars, incisors or canines is a fault. Disqualifications - Prick ears. Liver color nose. Overshot, undershot or wry mouth. Neck, Topline, Body: Neck - Clean and muscular, moderately arched, of fair length, gradually widening so as to blend well into the shoulders. Topline - Strong, straight, and level in motion, the loin of moderate length. Body - In overall length to height proportion, the dog appears approximately square and balanced. The back is neither short nor long. The back gives no appearance of slackness but is laterally flexible, so that he may turn around in an earth. Tuck-up is moderate. Chest: Narrow and of moderate depth, giving an athletic rather than heavily-chested appearance; must be flexible and compressible. The ribs are fairly well sprung, oval rather than round, not extending past the level of the elbow. Tail - Docked so the tip is approximately level to the skull. Set on not too high, but so that a level topline, with a very slight arch over the loin, is maintained. Carried gaily when in motion, but when baiting or at rest may be held level but not below the horizontal. Faults - Chest not spannable or shallow; barrel ribs. Tail set low or carried low to or over the back, i.e. squirrel tail. Forequarters: Shoulders - Long and sloping, well laid back, cleanly cut at the withers. Point of shoulder sits in a plane behind the point of the prosternum. The shoulder blade and upper arm are of approximately the same length; forelegs are placed well under the dog. Elbows hang perpendicular to the body, working free of the sides. Legs are strong and straight with good bone. Joints turn neither in nor out. Pasterns firm and nearly straight. Feet - Round, cat-like, very compact, the pads thick and tough, the toes moderately arched pointing forward, turned neither in nor out. Fault - Hare feet. Hindquarters: Strong and muscular, smoothly molded, with good angulation and bend of stifle. Hocks near the ground, parallel, and driving in action. Feet as in front. Coat: Smooth and Broken: Whether smooth or broken, a double coat of good sheen, naturally harsh, close and dense, straight with no suggestion of kink. There is a clear outline with only a hint of eyebrows and beard if natural to the coat. No sculptured furnishings. The terrier is shown in his natural appearance not excessively groomed. Sculpturing is to be severely penalized. Faults - Soft, silky, woolly, or curly topcoat. Lacking undercoat. Excessive grooming and sculpturing. Color: White, white with black or tan markings, or a combination of these, tri-color. Colors are clear. As long as the terrier is predominantly white, moderate body markings are not to be faulted. Grizzle is acceptable and should not be confused with brindle. Disqualification - Brindle markings. Gait: Movement or action is the crucial test of conformation. A tireless ground covering trot displaying good reach in front with the hindquarters providing plenty of drive. Pasterns break lightly on forward motion with no hint of hackney-like action or goose-stepping. The action is straight in front and rear.
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Temperament: Bold and friendly. Athletic and clever. At work he is a game hunter, tenacious, courageous, and single minded. At home he is playful, exuberant and overwhelmingly affectionate. He is an independent and energetic terrier and requires his due portion of attention. He should not be quarrelsome. Shyness should not be confused with submissiveness. Submissiveness is not a fault. Sparring is not acceptable. Fault: Shyness. Disqualification - Overt aggression toward another dog. Spanning : To measure a terrier's chest, span from behind, raising only the front feet from the ground, and compress gently. Directly behind the elbows is the smaller, firm part of the chest. The central part is usually larger but should feel rather elastic. Span with hands tightly behind the elbows on the forward portion of the chest. The chest must be easily spanned by average size hands. Thumbs should meet at the spine and fingers should meet under the chest. This is a significant factor and a critical part of the judging process. The dog cannot be correctly judged without this procedure. Disqualifications: Height under 12 inches or over 15 inches. Prick ears, liver nose. Overshot, undershot or wry mouth. Brindle markings. Overt aggression toward another dog.
Approved: July 13, 2004 Effective: September 29, 2004
Parson Russell TERRIER BY THE PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA
T he Judges Education Committee for the Parson Russell Ter- rier Association of America would like to take this oppor- tunity to both review and emphasize several fundamental aspects for consideration with our judges when judging the Parson Russell Terrier:
• Grooming • Spanning • Proportions • Temperament
Grooming: The approved breed standard is specific in calling for the Parson Russell Terrier to be shown “in his natural appearance not excessively groomed.” This is expanded upon in the Coat section with the statement: “No sculpted furnishings.” “Excessive grooming and sculpturing” are specifically defined as a fault, which would include scissoring or clippering and/or excessive use of product such as sprays and chalk. The standard also states, “There is a clear outline with only a hint of eyebrows and beard if natural to the coat.” We ask that all judges are mindful of the clear descriptions within the standard related to grooming and all listed coat faults: Soft, silky, wooly, or curly top- coat; lacking undercoat; excessive grooming and sculpturing. Spanning: Our standard provides clear direction on the impor- tance of spanning in assessment of the breed and the procedure to com- plete. The chest must be easily spannable by average-sized hands. This is a significant factor and a critical part of the judging process. Span- ning is a component of a breed-specific examination in our breed, and a dog cannot be correctly judged without completing this procedure. In addition to the description with our standard, the AKC produced a procedural video on spanning in collaboration with the PRTAA as well as the parent clubs for the Border Terrier and the Russell Terrier. We recommend all current and prospective judges to view the instructional video. The procedural video is hosted within the AKC Canine College at https://www.caninecollege.akc.org/pages/procedural-videos. Proportions: Understanding proper proportion in our breed can be tricky if one does not carefully study this section of our standard. Ideal proportion is described as, “The height at withers is slightly greater than the distance from the withers to tail, i.e. by possibly 1 to 1½ inches on a 14 inch dog.” A trap that we find some are falling into is focusing on height being slightly greater than the length without considering the measuring points and how that affects the overall outline and picture of the breed. Height slightly greater than length may lead some to look for a “cobby” dog in outline; however, our standard is specific in defining the measuring points for length as from the withers to the tail. When applied to the overall dog, this would result in an outline of slightly longer than tall when the front assembly is accounted for in profile. While mentioning proportion, we would be remiss if not remind- ing that the standard does have height of under 12 inches or over 15 inches as disqualifying faults. If you question whether a dog is within the allowable range, the only proper way to determine is to measure.
Temperament: For the Parson Russell to function as a working Terrier, in addition to certain physical traits, he must possess a ready attitude, be alert and confident. The tempera- ment section of the standard describes the Parson Russell as, “Bold and friendly. Athletic and clever. At work he is a game hunter, tenacious, courageous, and single minded.” A reluc- tant, shy, or frightened Parson cannot do the job they were bred to do. Shyness, defined in the standard as a fault, must not be confused with submissiveness, which is not to be faulted. Our breed is not to be sparred, as the desired response when sparring is not typical for the Parson Russell. Overt aggression toward another dog is a disqualification in the breed. In the end, our desire is for the Parson Russell to remain as close as possible in form to their original function. At work, they are able to trail the hounds, and bolt and work European Red Fox, both above and underneath the ground. At home, they are to be playful, exuberant, and overwhelmingly affectionate. Following is a link to view our Judges Education Pow- erPoint Presentation. We hope that all current and prospec- tive judges take the time to review: https://storage.googleapis. com/.../presentation... We appreciate the thoughtful consideration for the points reviewed in this article, and our judges’ commitment to judge in accordance to the standard. If you should desire further information on judging the Parson Russell Terrier, or you are seeking education as a prospective judge, please contact any of our parent club approved mentors. The list of approved men- tors is posted on the AKC website at: http://images.akc.org/.../ mentors/Parson_Russell_Terrier.pdf.
Thank you, Mary Strom Chairperson PRTAA Judges Education PRTAA Vice President
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PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER BY PAT HASTINGS
(A version of this article appeared in the March 2012 issue of SHOWSIGHT.)
T his article is unlike what you may be used to reading, since it is writ- ten neither by the parent club education committee nor by a longtime breeder. Although I have never bred, owned or shown Parson Russell Terriers, it is a breed that I am very familiar with and have been watching and learning about since way before it was accepted into AKC and became the Parson Rus- sell Terrier. My study of the breed includes having evaluated almost 100 eight-week-old Parson litters and watching many of those pup- pies grow up. On a more general- background note, I have been an AKC judge for 31 years and I am currently approved to judge the Working, Terrier, Toy, Non- Sporting, and Herding Groups, a number of Hound Breeds, Junior Showmanship, and Best in Show. Of all the breeds I judge, I hear more complaints about the quality of Parson Russell Terrier judging than most other breeds combined. It is easy to blame judges when exhibitors see dogs winning that are so widely varied in type, make and shape, coat, color, and soundness. However, I would argue that the judges are not entirely to blame. The par- ent club, breeders, exhibitors, and judges all own the chal- lenges of judging the Parson Russell Terrier. First and foremost among the challenges is that, from the current Parson Russell Terrier
Overgroomed vs. Correct
standard, it is very difficult to determine exactly what is required for breed type. In this regard, it appears that breeders are as confused as judges, and if the breeders are left to interpret things to their liking instead of to specifications within the standard, what is a judge supposed to do? When there is no consistency in the dogs being bred and shown, the judge is the one who shoulders the blame when placements seem to be all over the map. In the case of the Parson Russell Terrier, the blame may, in part, live in the breed standard. I believe that the most misunderstood piece of this standard is under Size, Substance, Propor- tion. Size is pretty clear-cut: At the highest point of the shoulder, 14 inches for dogs and 13 inches for bitches; slightly larger or smaller is acceptable on an otherwise well-balanced, quality dog. This appears to be what most breeders are breeding for and what you usually see in the show ring. Sub- stance calls for the bone to be medium, in order for the dogs to do their job. Too heavy-boned and they appear coarse and may lack agility in their work; too light-boned and they appear racy, unlike the hard-working Terriers they are meant to be. I think most breeders are doing a good job here as well. Proportion includes skull and foreface, head and frame, height at withers and length of body. It is the height-to-length aspect that seems to be the hardest to understand, both by breeders and by judges. “Of all the breeds I judge, I hear more complaints about the quality of Parson Russell Terrier judging than most other breeds combined. It is easy to blame judges when exhibitors see dogs winning that are so widely varied in type, make and shape, coat, color, and soundness. However, I would argue that the judges are not entirely to blame. The parent club, breeders, exhibitors, and judges all own the challenges of judging the Parson Russell Terrier.”
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JUDGING THE PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER
“If the best dog is over-groomed, do you want it to win in spite
of the grooming or should it lose to an inferior dog that is shown in a nature state? The more dogs that are groomed literally to a fault and win, and are then advertised for those wins, the more the over-grooming is ignored by other judges, and the more the competition think they need to over-groom in order to win.”
Head Overly Groomed vs. Correct
“The height at withers is slightly greater than distance from the withers to tail, i.e. by possibly 1-1½ inches on a 14 inch dog.” So, if you have a 14-inch dog, the standard calls for a measurement from the withers to the tail to be 12½-13 inches. But there is still the area in front of the withers to either the prosternum or point of the shoulder (this is not addressed in the standard) and the area from the tail to the ischium (point of the buttocks) to be added into the mix. Subtract the 1-1½ inches then, and you have a dog that is close to being rectangular— not off-square but actually longer than tall. It also would make a difference if you are measuring from the highest point of the with- ers or from the end of the withers, where the back begins, but again, that specific is not addressed in the standard. The Sealyham Terrier illustrated standard addresses this as a square within a rectangle, which is a perfect description. The above-mentioned numbers are the exact measurements in the standard under Size, Substance, Proportion; BUT under Neck, Topline, Body, it says: “In over- all length to height proportion, the dog appears approximately square and balanced.” Almost every picture in the Introduction to the Parson Russell Terrier is an example of a square dog. And you blame judges for not understanding your breed? Who is to blame here? The judges, the breeders, the parent club, AKC? I know the PRTAA works very hard on their judges’ education, but these kinds of contradictions make judging the breed all that much more problematic. Another area of total confusion is in the grooming. Remember, Parsons are sup- posed to be medium-boned. Why, then, are so many exhibitors and/or their handlers grooming the dogs to look like they are heavy-boned? Forget for a moment the fact that they should never be heavy-boned; the standard specifically states that “sculpturing is to be severely penalized.” Also, the standard says, “Whether smooth or broken, a double coat of good sheen, naturally harsh, close and dense…” I guarantee that you cannot see a good sheen or a harsh natural coat when it is full of chalk and hair spray. Furthermore, “a clean outline with only a hint of eyebrows and beard if natural to the coat” is a far cry from trying to duplicate the furnishings of a Wire Fox Terrier. Soft, silky, wooly coats are to be faulted because these types of coats would provide little protection to the dog while working; however, a judge cannot identify these faults readily when the coat is full of products. Of course, all dogs have shortcomings, and it is the exhibitor’s job to minimize the appearance of shortcomings. But it is the breeder’s job to breed for strengths. Hiding unacceptable coat types in the ring does not eliminate them from the gene pool. The blame here lays with the exhibitor or handler, not the judge. If the best dog is over-groomed, do you want it to win in spite of the grooming or should it lose to an inferior dog that is shown in a nature state? The more dogs that are groomed literally to a fault and win, and are then advertised for those wins, the more the over-grooming is ignored by other judges, and the more the competition think they need to over-groom in order to win. Then the new people who are coming into the breed see what is winning, so they think that is what the breed is supposed to look like. Over time, this cycle leads the breed away from what is required for its original pur- pose. Remember, the original purpose of the breed defines type. Both coat types should have the same silhouette from a distance, but the over-groomed Parsons no longer have that silhouette.
Speaking of coat types, we are seeing fewer and fewer smooth-coated Parsons in the ring. Breeders tell me that they cannot win with them because their heads look so different without the furnishings. I feel this problem does lie with the judges. The furnishings may make the dog look cuter, but cute is not part of the standard. If we always examine the head with our hands and actually wrap our hand around the muzzle, we soon realize that it is just as easy to judge the smooth as the broken. So, judges, have a hand around the muzzle, not a hand in eliminating the smooth coats from the gene pool. Also, the standard says teeth large with complete dentition in a perfect scissors bite. So please, judges, pay attention. We don’t need to open the entire jaw, but we do need to make sure that the mouths are staying cor- rect. When we judges don’t pay attention to mouths, then the exhibitors stop worrying about them. This is another area where judg- ing can influence what breeders are doing. The Parson Russell Terrier is a working Ter- rier, and their teeth are tools of their trade. So watch those mouths carefully because bites and missing teeth can become a serious prob- lem in a breed very quickly and can be very difficult to correct.
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JUDGING THE PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER
“The breed has been around since the 1800s and was bred strictly to be a working Terrier, no matter what name it is known by. So, above all, we must remember that a Parson Russell Terrier is a versatile worker, both above and below the ground, who trailed hounds and bolted foxes from dens.
a Terrier breed called the Russell Terrier, which is the shorter, longer version of John Rus- sell’s ideal Terrier. So, although a rose by any other name would smell as sweet, a Parson by another name could be another breed-type from the same original stock. The breed has been around since the 1800s and was bred strictly to be a working Ter- rier, no matter what name it is known by. So, above all, we must remember that a Parson Russell Terrier is a versatile worker, both above and below the ground, who trailed hounds and bolted foxes from dens. To function as a working Terrier, these dogs must possess the characteristics needed for their job. In judging the breed, prioritizing by function is absolutely necessary. A written standard is a blueprint that allows the dog to do the job for which it was created. So, if the standard is what describes type, a dog that is not able to perform the work for which it was created lacks type. The structure of a Parson Russell Terrier has nothing out of the norm from any generic working dog: Good angles, good balance of bones, good straight legs, and strong joints; all of the pieces fit properly together to create a sound, balanced working Terrier. If the dog is made right and is in good condition, its topline will be correct both standing and moving, and the dog will move soundly. If something is wrong with the topline (the slight arch over the loin is the muscling on a good-conditioned dog, never a rise in the spine) or if the dog is not moving correctly, something is wrong with its structure. Don’t forget the cat foot with good, thick, tough pads that protect the dog from stones, burrs, and other hazards while working. This is a breed that has a temperament to do the job for which it was created. At the same time, the Parson is a great family pet and gets along with other dogs. Many times, they are required to work with other dogs and this is why dog-aggressiveness is a disquali- fication. So again, judges, please pay attention to this aspect, as we are seeing more and more dogs that are dog aggressive. Sparring is not acceptable. All of us need to remember that purpose is the key to all aspects of all breed standards, and “sound” means physically, mentally, and functionally. To function as a working Terrier, these dogs must possess the characteristics needed for their job. In judging the breed, prioritizing by function is absolutely necessary.”
Proportions should be longer than tall (close to rectangular), off-square or square.
The chest is a critical aspect of type in the Parson. It is supposed to be athletic, not heavy-chested, in appearance. It is sup- posed to be of moderate depth and narrow, not slab-sided; the ribs are supposed to be oval, rather than round, and not to extend below the elbow. The chest must be flex- ible and compressible. Spanning is, to quote the standard, “a significant factor and a critical part of the judging process. The dog cannot be correctly judged without this procedure.” There is no excuse for any judge not to span each and every Parson in his or her ring. Most exhibitors will tell you that only about one in five judges adhere to this part of the judging process, and that is totally unacceptable. Any judge who does not know how to span correctly, or is uncomfortable span- ning a dog, should contact any member of the Parson Russell Terrier judges’ educa- tion committee, who would be more than happy to provide guidance. (Hint: An average man’s hand is the size of a CD, so compare yours.) Another challenge seems to come from the breed’s name. The breed that is now known as the Parson Russell Terrier was originally called the Jack Russell Terrier when the breed club was founded in 1985 in the US. They wanted to use the name “Par- son,” but it was copyright-protected in the US at the time and consequently unavail- able. The Parson is the breed that was devel- oped and bred by the Reverend John Russell in England in the 19th century. Jack Rus- sell Terrier is still the name used among the working-Terrier folks, but the Jack Russell Terrier can come in quite an assortment of sizes and shapes, since the dogs’ work- ing ability is the most important part of the standard to them. In 1990, the Kennel Club in England recognized the breed as the Parson Jack Russell Terrier, and in 2000, the AKC accepted the breed into the Ter- rier Group under the name of Jack Russell Terrier. Later, the name was changed world- wide to the Parson Russell Terrier. To add to this name shuffling, AKC has now accepted
ABOUT THE AUTHOR Pat Hastings has been involved in the Dog World since 1959. She has been a breeder, an exhibitor, a professional handler, an active club member, a judge, an author, and an educator. She has chaired many shows, including National Specialties. She is the author of four best-selling, award-winning books and is the producer of the very popular “Puppy Puzzle” DVD. She is a highly respected educator in the Dog World and has always endeavored to teach by example, to approach all aspects of the Sport with respect, common sense, and personal
integrity. She has presented seminars around the world for over 30 years. Pat is a great believer in the value of mentoring, and her years of dedication to the sport of dogs have led to her being awarded both the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Doberman Pinscher Club of America and the America Kennel Club Lifetime Achievement Award in Conformation.
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Judging the PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER
By Mary Strom-Bernard
W hen the Parson Russell entered into the AKC Terrier Group in 1997, the com- ment I heard most often was, “How should I judge the breed?” No two look alike. With so many types, judges seemed to face a challenge in deciding what the correct breed type should be. Adding to this were many breeders that were new to the world of AKC dog shows, and new to the breed, so they were unsure as well. Parsons have certainly gained some consistency since those days, though we still have our chal- lenges—especially when talking about consistent breed type, and form following function. In this article on judging Par- sons, I will assume you have read the breed standard and do not need me to quote it word for word. Instead, I will highlight the areas of the breed standard that I feel are of great importance in judging our breed, as well as areas where I feel the breed in general may be drifting away from the current standard. Since the Parson Russell Terrier was bred to work both above and below the ground, his structure had to be indica- tive of this dual function. One key point of this breed’s structure is that the Parson Russell should not have the typical ter- rier front. With a typical terrier front, the dog has a long shoulder with a 45 degree layback, and a slightly shorter upper arm that is also turned slightly forward, which then limits the amount of forechest that is visible from the side. Th e Parson Russell forequarters should be long, sloping, and well laid back, with the point of shoulder sitting in a plane behind the point of pro sternum, which makes the silhouette of the Parson quite di ff erent from that of the oth-
Fig. 2: Good Proportions
Fig. 1: Lifting Legs off of the Table
er terrier breeds with more of a flat front. Th e ideal Parson should have a proster- num that can be both felt and seen. (See figure 1.) In judging the Parson Russell Terrier, the first priority should be that of identi- fying the proper silhouette. Th e outline should be that of a dog that is of medium bone, and the proportions of a terrier that is not square, but “o ff square.” Height at withers is slightly greater than the dis- tance from the withers to tail, i.e. by pos- sibly 1–1 1–2 inches on a 14 inch dog. Th is means that the Parson Russell Terrier stands with plenty of leg underneath him, with no appearance of being short on leg. (See figure 2.) Parsons should be able to travel a large amount of acreage with a tireless and ground covering trot. Currently, one of the major departures from the standard that I have observed is that of a shorter leg. Th is will begin to impede the terrier’s func- tion in the field as he is moving through tall brush and grasses, keeping up with the hounds, and covering often uneven terrain. Th e second departure from the standard in looking at the silhouette is the shorter back. While a shorter backed Terrier is often more showy, it is incorrect for the Parson Russell. Th e Parson Russell is slightly longer in loin than many ter- riers, which allows for greater flexibility
above and below the earth. Th e Parson Russell should never appear to be cobby, short coupled, coarse, or heavy in bone and substance. When assessing the Parson Russell on the exam table, you would naturally approach the dog straight, greet the dog, and start to examine the head and bite. Our breed standard does state that it is a severe fault for any Parson to be missing more than four teeth, so you would want to look at all the teeth to determine the lack of four or more—please be gentle. Th e young Parson can be wiggly and wagging; however, they are also sensi- tive, as well as having very long mem- ories. One judge prying their mouth open and giving a rough exam will be remembered for a lifetime. Th ere is a saying that the eyes are the window into the soul. Th is is certainly true with dogs. Whether round, oval, or almond, each eye shape gives the dog a dif- ferent expression. In Parsons, the eyes are to be almond shaped and dark in color. Almond shaped eyes are important in a working terrier as they are less likely to sustain injury than that of a round eye or one that protrudes. Th e round eye will often look larger—more prominent—and it gives the Parson a sometimes softer look, but round eyes are still incorrect. Th e Par- son standard does state that dark eye rims
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Fig. 4: Very Nice Ear and Eye
Fig. 3: Very Nice Head and Eye
“THERE IS A SAYING THAT THE EYES ARE THE WINDOW INTO THE SOUL. This is certainly true with dogs.”
are desirable, but our standard is one of the few that allows for the rims not to be pigmented when the coat around the eye is white. Th e ears are to be small and V shaped, with the ear tip extending no fur- ther than the corner of the eye; however, longer ears are becoming much more com- mon in the breed. Th e combination of both the round eye and the longer ear on a Parson will start to remind you of another breed altogether, since there are several Terrier standards that ask for a round or circular eye. (See figures 3 and 4.)
Th e second part of the table exam which can be di ffi cult is spanning. Parson Rus- sells, Border Terriers, and the Russell Ter- rier are the only three Terrier breeds that require spanning as per their breed stan- dard. Spanning is a very important part of the judging process for the Parson Russell. For Parson Russell breeders, it is always very disappointing when a judge fails to span or does it in a half-hearted man- ner—as if to signify that it means little in their judging process. Th e dog cannot be correctly judged without this procedure.
With that said, if you are going to judge Parsons and you are uncomfortable with spanning, then practice and learn how to span properly until you feel very secure in your ability. Th ere are several ways to span a Parson. Some judges ask to have the dog turned sideways on the table, and then the judge comes from behind the dog to span them. However, I much prefer that the dog is moved to the rear of the table, while the judge walks to the back of the table and spans the dog, still facing forward, from
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Fig. 6: Proportions of Idea Grooming
Fig. 7: Overgroom and Long Beard
behind. Young Parsons are not used to being turned crosswise on the table, and it is a much more familiar sensation for them to simply be moved to the rear of the table. It is also easier for the exhibitor to manage this maneuver. When spanning, please know what the correct depth of chest is for your hands, as depth of chest is not always seen, but is easily felt. Someone with smaller hands is going to have thumbs and fingers that clearly do not meet, and someone with long fingers or large hands is going to have hands and fingers that overlap. So mind your gap! To give you an idea of what size of chest is correct you can use a regular DVD and wrap your fingers around it. If your fingers do not meet when wrapping them around the DVD, then look at the
size of the gap between your fingers and that is approximately the same gap that you should have when spanning a Parson with a correctly sized chest. For a person with large hands and or very long fingers, your fingers are likely to overlap around the DVD with no gap. Keep in mind that you cannot properly span a Parson with- out lifting the front feet o ff the exam table, as your hands need to fit under the dog’s front legs and feel the very smallest part of the chest. Th e second reason for spanning is flexibility. We want that chest to have some spring to it; if you span the chest, and feel absolutely no give or spring to it, then that is just as wrong for the breed as a chest that is very large. A dog with a larger yet very flexible chest can still do the work, but a dog with a rigid, hard, or incorrectly shaped chest—no matter what the diameter—cannot do the work well. (See figure 5.) Despite the wording in our standard, I still see Parsons that are excessively groomed. Most of the Parsons I see that are over groomed are not with breeder- owner handlers. If you look at a Parson and it completely reminds you of another Terrier breed, then the dog either has poor breed type, has been excessively groomed, or both. Th e legs should not be flu ff ed and sprayed, the coat should be in a truly natural appearance, harsh and showing no
evidence of scissoring or clipping. Sculpted furnishings are to be severely penalized (See figures 6 and 7.) Th ough there can still be some variation in breed type in Parsons, when you look at a Parson that has large round eyes (how- ever adorable that may be), heavy cheeks, or a very coarse and exaggerated head, then the breed type is wrong. Our breed will be greatly helped in achieving better consistency with educated judges that are knowledgeable in the correct breed type. As a breeder judge, I would much rather reward excellent breed type and adequate movement, than poor breed type and a large side gait. Correct movement for a Parson is to be ground covering and tire- less—any exaggerated movements either in the front or the rear take away e ffi ciency in covering many miles out in the field for a day of hunting. While I have touched on several specif- ics in detail, judges still need to know the breed standard and judge the whole dog— not just the parts and pieces of the dog. Be sure to reward the virtues of the dog and penalize those faults to the extent that they depart from the standard. Never judge a Parson on cuteness, as I am very sure that the word ‘cute’ cannot be found anywhere in our breed standard; besides, breeders will respect you more for rewarding cor- rect breed type than cuteness.
Fig. 5: Span DVD with Gap
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OF HOUNDS AND TERRIERS By Nancy L. Dougherty T he Parson Russell Ter- rier was developed exclusively to work with foxhounds in England by the Rev. “Parson” Jack Russell and terriers, and the Parson’s terriers accompanied the hounds on long journeys to and from the meets. Th e Parson Russell Terrier was not intended to be carried on horseback but rather was expected to travel with the hounds.
a hunting day. His job is of great importance and his terriers are the tools of his trade. He has great knowledge of the fox and the ter- rier, and he knows every earth in his hunted country. Th is is where you learn about the conformation of the Parson. If they are too short in the back it is more di ffi cult for them to turn around in a tunnel. If they are too big in the chest they will have great di ffi - culty getting to a fox underground—and getting back out. If they lack bone and sub- stance, have short legs, a weak muzzle or big ears, or if they have no length of neck they will be dealt a great deal of punishment by a fox. It they lack a waterproof coat they will su ff er in the wet and cold. It all comes together and makes sense. Sometimes we breeders feel that the Parson Russell Terrier is not taken seri- ously in the AKC ring. But don’t underes- timate this breed. It is one of the few terri- ers that can boast that not only it can, but does today what it was developed for well over one hundred years ago. Parson Rus- sell fanciers are proud of the fact that this terrier remains a serious working terrier and yet is a particularly handsome dog in the show ring. And as an added attraction, the Parson is the best of companions. He is intelligent, fun-loving, a ff ectionate and the best of companions.
in the mid-1800’s. Th e terrier required enough leg and substance to get across the countryside with hounds but still be able to go underground for the purpose of bolting the fox. Th e original distinguish- ing characteristics of this terrier were the harsh, weatherproof jacket, a hint of eye- brow and beard, and predominantly white in color. Rev. Russell was often referred to as “the father of the wirehaired fox terrier” in the 1800s and his bloodlines can be found in old fox terrier pedigrees. Th e Parson also comes in a smooth coat although not seen as often. Th e smooth coat must also be weatherproof. No working Parson Russell Terrier can run with a pack of hounds in full cry, but an intelligent terrier can keep with the hunt. Th ese terriers are quite capable of running the line (scent), but when a fox- hound opens on that line he will quickly leave the terrier behind. Of course, a fox- hound is a running machine where a ter- rier is not. In Rev. Russell’s day there were no motorized vehicles to transport hounds
In the United States people work their terriers to such vermin as groundhog, but there is no substitute for a Parson going to ground after a red fox, its true quarry. While many must pursue whatever quarry is in their area if they want to work their terriers in the fi eld, it is a great pity to see the Parson altered and often miniaturized for small quarry, the result being lack of bone, substance, type and size. Having hunted in Great Britain a fair amount, the most magni fi cent sight I have ever seen is a pack of foxhounds watching and waiting while the terriers to bolt the fox that they have run to ground. Suddenly, the fox decides he had better quit the premises and out he bolts like a streak. Within a split second the hounds are behind him with a great roar and the chase is on again. Th is is what foxhounds and terriers are all about—this is what the Parson Russell Terrier was bred for! Much as I loved hunting on horseback well in excess of forty years, it is a education to accompany the terrierman in the UK on
“In the United States people work their terriers to such vermin as groundhog,
BUT THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR A PARSON GOING TO GROUND AFTER A RED FOX, ITS TRUE QUARRY.”
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PARSON RUSSELL TERRIER Questions & Answers
JULIE FELTEN I reside in Wauconda, Illinois, a north- west suburb of Chicago. I am employed as an insurance agent specializing in home and auto products. Outside of dogs, I enjoy spending time with my family and friends, music, bird watch- ing and shopping. I’ve had dogs since my early childhood and have been showing for about thirty years. I’ve been an AKC Breeder Judge since 2000. I have bred/owned over 75 AKC Parson Champions to date, many finishing out of the Bred by Exhibitor classes. I am an AKC Breeder of Merit producing multiple group winning, national/specialty winners and all breed Best In Show honors. MARY STROM- BERNARD
I live in western Massachusetts with my five Parsons, a Wire Fox Terrier and a Russell Terrier. Outside of dogs, I work a demanding, full-time job in bank man- agement. For fun, I like to ski, snowshoe, kayak and travel. I have been showing dogs for about twenty years. I am not a judge, but am pleased to say that my only judging assignment was Parson Sweep- stakes at Montgomery County in 2013. NANCY
DOUGHERTY I live in southeastern Chester County, Pennsylvania and I work in the field of steeplechase horseracing. My husband and I have a pack of Penn-Marydel Foxhounds, so fox-hunting is a big part of my life. I have been involved with show dogs for about fifty years, starting with foxhounds, then Parson Russell Terriers (through fox-hunting) and Dachshunds. I have been judging since 2002 and have had Parsons for over thirty years.
I currently live in Carlton, Oregon, just an hour drive from Portland, Ore- gon. Outside of dogs, I enjoy horseback riding and working on the Rose City Classic Student Art Contest. My husband and I are professional wildlife photog- raphers. We also have photographed several National and Regional Special- ties along with doing candid photos for
a variety of clients. I have been showing and breeding dogs for just under thirty years. I have been judging for nine years. SALLY YANCEY I live in Greensboro, North Carolina. My hobbies include golf and pickle-ball. I’ve had dogs my entire life—over forty years in Parson Russell Terriers and judg- ing the breed for over thirty years. I am also an AWTA den trial judge along with AKC Earthdog. I have been fortunate enough to judge the National Specialty at MCKC and in Canada. My judging has taken me all over the US as well as the UK and Germany.
I live in east central Wiscon- sin. Outside of dogs, I have many interests including trail-riding, training and horse-camping with my horses, raising rare breed poultry/waterfowl and showing and caring of my fiber goats, rare breed sheep and alpacas. I’ve been in purebred dogs for years,
but started serious showing in 1981. I’ve been a Sighthound breeder since 1985 and a Parson breeder since 2001, although I’ve owned Parsons since 1979 (English imports). I started judging in 1997 and was granted the Parson in 2000.
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1. Describe the breed in three words. KB: Tenacious, independent and affectionate. ND: Handsome, smart and ready. KD: Clever, tough and devoted. JF: Bold, friendly and athletic. MSB: Energetic, playful and great companions. SY: True Working Terrier.
SY: The shorter backs and straight fronts mean less flexibil- ity and stride. This may be more pleasing to the eye but it is not correct in Parsons. 4. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are better now than they were when you first started judging? Why or why not? KB: I don’t judge, but I don’t feel that the breed is better than when we were first AKC recognized. We don’t have the history and long-term breeders that more established breeds have. I think the Russell Terrier has hurt the Par- son, as the Russells are charming and so easy to live with. ND: Yes and no. I have seen some outstanding Parsons which I am happy to say have been well rewarded by group judges. But I have also seen less than stellar Par- sons where it is clear the exhibitor does not know the breed and worse, does not want to learn. KD: Yes, as a breed, I feel there has been improvement since they were first recognized—more consistency, better breed type. JF: The strongest quality in the breed was in the formative years of AKC recognition 2000-2004. So I’d have to say overall better when I first started judging. There have been a few standouts along the way, but overall, the breed is losing depth of quality. Many long time quality breeders have quit and the breed still suffers from out- standing males not being utilized by fellow breeders. MSB: Yes. I see huge strides having been made in shoul- ders and overall balance, though I see a definite need of more uniformity in the overall profile. Far too often I see Parsons that are square in profile rather than off-square. Coats have become vastly improved, where as we used to have many curly and wavy coated Parsons, most of the coats now are flat with sufficient undercoat. SY: There were certainly some good ones from back in the day, but I believe today’s Parsons are in good shape with a little more size and substance. 5. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? KB: Spanning! I rarely see a judge span correctly and I’m not sure they truly understand why it is of paramount impor- tance to the breed. Spanning is critical component to the judging process. If a dog can’t be spanned, it cannot do the job it was bred to do. ND: This is a working breed still greatly used in the UK, its country of origin. The Parson must have the substance and pluck to work and yet be flexible enough to work
2. What are your “must have” traits in this breed? KB: Moderation, keenness and effortless movement. ND: Must have breed type, harsh coat and the ability to work under and above ground. KD: Four “must haves” in the breed are: proper body length- to-height (not too short-backed), type, coat (not over- groomed) and good temperament. JF: Sufficient length of leg, approximately square with an appealing headpiece. Good substance, in proper balance and plenty of dog behind a correctly set tail. A properly groomed, harsh, double-coated weather-proof jacket, small, flexible chest and tireless ground-covering trot displaying good reach in front with the hindquarters providing plenty of drive. Alert, happy and confident temperament is a must! MSB: Excellent breed type. Correct profile—off-square and a straight, flat coat with no curl, wave or kink. SY: I look for a balanced Terrier with good free movement, nice, harsh jacket and a spannable chest. 3. Are there any traits in this breed you fear are becoming exaggerated? KB: I can’t say I see exaggeration, however, I think poor fronts are an issue. My greatest fear is that this breed will lose the fire that makes it the Parson. I see far too many Parsons in the ring with their tails down—this should never be the case! ND: I despise creative grooming; sculpting or exaggerating the natural coat. Clean and tidy is the best presentation. I’d like to see breeders concentrate on breed type and correct conformation. Pay attention to shoulder layback and good rears, attributes that allow the Parson to do its job. KD: Over-grooming is still haunting this breed. They are a working breed first and foremost. JF: The tendency to breed long and low. MSB: I feel that the over-grooming in the breed is far too common. I often see Parsons groomed to resemble other breeds and not resembling the wash and wear dog they are supposed to be.
“i look for A bAlAnced terrier with good free movement, nice, hArsh jAcket And A spAnnAble chest.”
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underground. A 14-inch Parson can do the job just as well as a 12-inch terrier, depending on the terrain. Nothing irritates me more than a judge announcing that a 14-inch terrier is too big. It constitutes not knowing the breed at all. KD: The most misunderstood thing that many judges exhibit are lack of understanding of proportion and spanning/judging the chest. The Parson is slightly longer than tall. It is not the same proportion from point of shoulder to bid docks as withers to ground. A dog that is too short would have more difficulty turn- ing around in an earth burrow in order to get out. Also, a puppy will generally have a smaller spannable chest than an adult. It’s not just about spanability, it’s also about compressibility. JF: The PRT is medium in temperament and should never be expected to have the same amount of show gene as his cousin the Wire Fox Terrier. Not that you want a dead head (which should never be rewarded), but the Parson is a pack dog that is expected to get along, thus the reason he is not sparred. Never allow speed gaiting in your ring. The Parson should always be shown at a brisk walk and not judged or rewarded based on another’s breed standard. MSB: I think judges often reward the square profile versus the correct off-square profile. While a square profile can be more pleasing to the eye, it is incorrect for the Parson Russell Terrier. There are also Parsons being shown that do not have sufficient leg underneath them. I would emphasize to any judge to be sure of the correct profile and remember to span. I don’t see too many judges that actually forget to span but I do see many judges that go forward and do not use the information that they receive from the process of spanning and they reward dogs that are deep chested and not truly spannable. SY: That a Parson is just another Smooth Fox Terrier. 6. Is there anything else you’d like to share about the breed? Please elaborate. KB: The Parson is an incredibly smart and funny little dog. However, they are challenging for even an experienced dog owner. When left to their own devices, they will find a way to entertain themselves. Once they have their mind set on something, it’s hard to redirect them, whether they are after a critter or trying to get a toy from the top of the refrigerator! ND: The Parson is the best of companion dogs. Parsons are very intelligent, have a super personality and are simply full of fun. They are always ready to participate in anything you may be doing. I wouldn’t be without one. Being a Terrier, however, one per household is enough and never even think of having two bitches or two dogs housed together. JF: Please learn to span the breed correctly and do not just go through the motions. It’s critical to know why and
what to feel for. His chest is his hallmark and should be easily spanned, flexible and correctly shaped. He is one of only three working terrier breeds that is still actively used for natural earth work in this country. Please help us preserve his working roots! MSB: I am hopeful that our Judges Education Committee, on which I serve, will have an Illustrated Standard com- pleted and available to judges by the end of the year. I believe an Illustrated Standard will be a very useful tool for judges that seek to judge our breed. SY: We are seeing dwindling numbers in our breed in con- formation as well as performance. I think a lot of us old- timers are phasing out, but I hate to see that the breed, once ever so popular, will now be something that is rare.
7. And, for a bit of humor: what’s the funniest thing you’ve ever experienced at a dog show?
KB: In the ring, my Parson barking at an airplane flying overhead. Outside the ring, the most recent was our man- nequin head that we used to display a fancy hat at Morris & Essex. We drove it around posed as a passenger with different hats. ND: I think the funniest thing that ever happened to me happened just last year. I was showing my Foxhound bitch indoors. She was still very inexperienced and no breed in this world can hook your leg like a Foxhound. As I was finishing going around, it happened and I took about three giant steps almost into the arms of the judge! A look of absolute surprise and alarm was on the judge’s face. But I did not fall and I did not knock the judge over. We all had a good laugh over it. As for Parsons, my friend’s male Parson was on the table being examined when he politely removed a flower from the judge’s lapel. So much like a Parson! KD: The funniest thing that’s happened to me at a dog show were exhibitors going to the AKC Rep and Superinten- dent complaining that the same person was judging the same breeds two days in a row—it was my twin sister. JF: What happens at Montgomery stays at Montgomery. MSB: I am not sure this is so much funny but cute. The han- dler that handles my dogs has an adorable daughter and we have taken many candid photos of her since she was quite young. We were at a local dog show and the ador- able daughter was tired and upset, lots of tears and her father told her something to the effect that she should stop crying and that Mary did not want to see her cry. Her very serious answer, “I forgot how.” How does one ever argue with that? SY: Humorous now, but not so funny then. On the way to a show, being picked up at the airport on the hottest day of the year and then transported in a small, pink pickup truck to the motel—three people had to fit in the front. On top of that, the driver was asking us for directions and we had never been to this place!
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