Cladogram of 161 Domestic Dog Breeds: Breeds that form unique clades supported by 100% of bootstraps are combined into triangles.
For all other branches, a gold star indicates 90% or better, black star 70%−89% and silver star 50%−69% bootstrap support. Breeds are listed on the perimeter of the circle. A small number of dogs do not cluster with the rest of their breed, indicated as follows: *Cane Paratore, +Peruvian Hairless Dog, #Sloughi, @Country-of-Origin Salukis, and ˆMiniature Xoloitzcuintli. (Chart courtesy of www.cell.com)
Mediterranean clade. Yet another breed that is obviously a Sighthound in appear- ance, the Xigou of China (they look like Roman-nosed Salukis) is also unrelated to Salukis or other Sighthounds and is instead genetically an Asian Spitz, more akin to sled dogs! There were 15 breeds (Belgian Ter- vuren, Belgian Sheepdog, Cane Corso, Bull Terrier, Miniature Bull Terrier, Rat Terrier, American Hairless Terrier, Lha- sa Apso, Saluki, Redbone Coonhound, Sloughi, Cane Paratore, Jack Russell Ter- rier, Xoloitzcuintli and Peruvian Hair- less) that formed more than one group-
ing or fell into different subgroups. Many of these are either considered breeds under development (usually newly recognized by the AKC), have distinct populations (such as the Jack Russell) or were sampled from distinct geographic areas. For example, the AKC Saluki formed a different grouping com- pared to Salukis from the Middle East; similarly, the AKC Cane Corso was dis- tinct from Italian Cane Corsos and AKC Tibetan Mastiffs were distinct from ones in China. Less than half the breeds had genetic evidence of crosses with breeds outside
of their clade and only six breeds had genetic evidence of crosses incorpo- rating dogs from eight or more clades. Some breeds shared haplotypes with several clades though. In most such cases, the breed in question either had significant input in the creation of sev- eral other breeds (as is the case with the Pug) or was itself recently created from several other breeds (as is the case with the Chinook). By comparing the shared haplotye lengths between breeds in which the known date of crossing occurred, the researchers were able to use shared
56 • S how S ight M agazine , M ay 2017
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