Yorkshire Terrier Breed Magazine - Showsight

Yorkshire Terrier Breed Magazine features information, expert articles, and stunning photos from AKC judges, breeders, and owners.


Let’s Talk Breed Education!

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Official Standard of the Yorkshire Terrier General Appearance: That of a long-haired toy terrier whose blue and tan coat is parted on the face and from the base of the skull to the end of the tail and hangs evenly and quite straight down each side of body. The body is neat, compact and well proportioned. The dog's high head carriage and confident manner should give the appearance of vigor and self-importance. Head : Small and rather flat on top, the skull not too prominent or round, the muzzle not too long, with the bite neither undershot nor overshot and teeth sound. Either scissors bite or level bite is acceptable. The nose is black. Eyes are medium in size and not too prominent; dark in color and sparkling with a sharp, intelligent expression. Eye rims are dark. Ears are small, V-shaped, carried erect and set not too far apart. Body: Well proportioned and very compact. The back is rather short, the backline level, with height at shoulder the same as at the rump. Legs and Feet : Forelegs should be straight, elbows neither in nor out. Hind legs straight when viewed from behind, but stifles are moderately bent when viewed from the sides. Feet are round with black toenails. Dewclaws, if any, are generally removed from the hind legs. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. Tail : Docked to a medium length and carried slightly higher than the level of the back. Coat : Quality, texture and quantity of coat are of prime importance. Hair is glossy, fine and silky in texture. Coat on the body is moderately long and perfectly straight (not wavy). It may be trimmed to floor length to give ease of movement and a neater appearance, if desired. The fall on the head is long, tied with one bow in center of head or parted in the middle and tied with two bows. Hair on muzzle is very long. Hair should be trimmed short on tips of ears and may be trimmed on feet to give them a neat appearance. Colors : Puppies are born black and tan and are normally darker in body color, showing an intermingling of black hair in the tan until they are matured. Color of hair on body and richness of tan on head and legs are of prime importance in adult dogs, to which the following color requirements apply: Blue - Is a dark steel-blue, not a silver-blue and not mingled with fawn, bronzy or black hairs. Tan - All tan hair is darker at the roots than in the middle, shading to still lighter tan at the tips. There should be no sooty or black hair intermingled with any of the tan. Color on Body: The blue extends over the body from back of neck to root of tail. Hair on tail is a darker blue, especially at end of tail. Headfall: A rich golden tan, deeper in color at sides of head, at ear roots and on the muzzle, with ears a deep rich tan. Tan color should not extend down on back of neck. Chest and Legs: A bright, rich tan, not extending above the elbow on the forelegs nor above the stifle on the hind legs. Weight: Must not exceed seven pounds. Disqualifications : Any solid color or combination of colors other than blue and tan as described above. Any white markings other than a small white spot on the forechest that does not exceed 1 inch at its longest dimension.

Approved July 10, 2007 Effective October 1, 2007


A s a Breeder for the past 54 years, and a Judge for the past 39 years. I hope I can enlighten those who are new Judges to this very controversial dog. The outstanding Breed CHARAC- TERISTICS of the Yorkshire Terrier are COAT, COLOR and TEXTURE. Howev- er, for many exhibitors and Judges this seems to be a problem. The general appearance for a Yor- kie is that of a long haired TOY TER- RIER who has a STEEL BLUE and TAN coat that is parted from the base of the skull to the end of tail, and hangs evenly and very straight down each side of the body. Each strand appears to be individual. The coat is distinctively long, silky, glowing and reflects light. The clear metallic color, the single coat and the texture are of the utmost importance in evaluating this breed. The ideal tex- ture of the coat is SILK; Yorkie’s do NOT HAVE FUR. The coat can be compared to human hair. A clue to this is that on a 100 degree day the coat will still feel SILKY and COOL to the touch. Puppies are born black and will start to show markings of gold on the ears and legs first with intermingling black hairs in the tan until they reach maturi- ty. The change from a puppy coat takes quite a long time. Judging the puppies

you can see the changing by checking the part line and shoulder line. It can take from twelve to eighteen months for a complete adult coat. Yorkie’s do not shed, it is a continuously growing coat. Often times you will see a young dog with a full coat and proper color and the dark puppy hair still showing at the bottom of the coat. The correct color of Steel Blue and correct coat texture in our breed are very difficult to achieve. It demands two very different and distinct genes in the DNA to make the LUSTROUS STEEL BLUE and SILKY TEXTURE. THE BLACK BODY COAT: never does and never can break to STEEL BLUE in the adult dog. It is a recessive problem. This is caused by the presence of the gene “gg” instead of the proper gene “GG”. This means both parents of a BLACK DOG must carry the recessive gene “g” even if the parents appear to have a Steel Blue coat. It also means that a Black Dog carries no gene for STEEL BLUE. Judges should never FAVOR A BLACK DOG You will never find an entry of Yor- kie’s that are all the same color. Some will be too light and some far too dark, nearly black. Look for the Bright Steel Blue with a very silky texture, with- out any approach to BLACKNESS. Tex- ture can tell you a great deal because some coats will look steel blue howev- er when you touch them the will feel

wooly or cottony. This is called a Cleri- cal Grey coat. In Europe, the Judges table always has a bristle brush to use. When you brush a really clean silky coat it falls straight in place. Without a brush you can run your hands down the coat, pick it up and if it has the right tex- ture and quality of the coat it will fall right in place. QUALITY, TEXTURE AND QUANITITY OF COAT ARE OF PRIME IMPORTANCE. THE HEAD is one of the Yorkie’s most distinctive features. It is balanced, without being fragile or course. The skull is flat on top, not too prominent or round, definitely not a Chihuahua head. Muzzle not too long, in balance with size of the head. The distance from the stop over the crown to the back of the skull and the measurement from the outside set of ear to ear should be approxi- mately the same length. A “pussycat” or “doll face” will have too short a muzzle and too deep a stop to have correct proportions. THE EYES are expressive, full of sparkle and intelligence, with dark eye rims. Oval eyes are preferred. They should not have small, beady, large round or protruding eyes. THE HEAD FALL should be a rich golden tan, deeper in color at the sides of the head, at the ear roots and the muzzle. The ears are a deep rich tan.



Color should not extend down the back of the neck. SHADING is the key word here and a solid RED COLOR OR A SOLID GOLD COLOR HEAD WITH OUT SHADING IS NOT CORRECT. IT MUST BE COMPLETELY FREE OF ANY REMAINING BLACK OR SOOTY GRAY HAIRS LEFT FROM PUPPYHOOD. The Yorkie gives the appearance of self-importance and vigor. They should not be exaggerated in any part. Stand- ing about eight inches at the withers, it should be the same length from with- ers to tail as they are from withers to ground. A Yorkie who is low on leg or too high station gives an incorrect over- all appearance. The Yorkie is well pro- portioned and very compact. The back is level, with the height at the shoulders the same as at the rump. YORKIES are a sturdy, well-knit dogs with no extremes. In relationship to the body, the neck should not be too long or too short. The lack of Spring of Rib, or a long loin is a serious fault. Ribs should be oval, gradu- ally rounded at the base and reaching to the elbows, with ample fore chest. The back should be level from the withers

to set on of the tail. There should be NO DIP BEHIND THE SHOULDERS. Sway back, camel back and low tail sets are serious faults. Forelegs are straight, hindquarters are well muscled and straight when viewed from behind. Stifles are moder- ately bent and not over angulated like a German Shepard. The Yorkie moves with a free, confident gait in a parallel motion. Crossing, weaving, and moving close or single tracking are all incorrect. WHEN A YORKIE HAS A CORRECT COAT YOU CAN SEE THE OUTLINE OF THE DOG UNDERNEATH A fluffy or cotton coat will obscure the outline, making it more difficult to evaluate gait or structure. THE TAIL is docked to a medium length and carried slightly higher than the level of the topline. Many Yor- kie’s carry their tails in a higher posi- tion when they are moving, however when the tail is carried only slightly higher than the topline it should not be penalized. With regards to the undocked tail carriage, in my opinion, such a tail

should meet the same requirements as that of the docked tail. Neither a long, gay tail nor a long, squirrel tail are acceptable. The point being, the length of the tail should not alter the correct tail carriage. Running gold is when the tan exceeds the desired marking pattern. The golds should not extend above the elbow on the fore legs or above the sti- fles on the hind legs. Yorkshire Terriers are Toy dogs. The ideal weight should not exceed seven pounds with the size and balance remaining proportionate. DISQUALIFICATION: Any solid color or combination of colors other than blue and tan as described above. Any white markings other than a small white spot on the fore chest that does not exceed one inch as its longest dimension. In closing, just remember under that glamorous coat and red bow is a little dog whose roots go back to being a farm dog for the purpose of killing rats and he should be sound no matter how pretty he looks. S HOW S IGHT M AGAZINE , S EPTEMBER 2018 • 417


T his little knight of the carpet is eminently an English pro- duction, or manufacture, if we may us the term, and occupies a most prominent position in the canine world of being considered by many the handsomest of all long-haired Terriers, and has been appropriately termed by one writer “ the little Yorkshire swell.” The charming, aristocratic little dog we now know at the Yorkshire Terrier has been identified as such for but a comparatively short period, the Kennel Club adopting this nomenclature in their Stud Book in 1886. Prior to this date the name had been hanging about him for some few years, because the titles of rough, broken-haired, or Scotch terrier, under which he was first known, were most misleading.. During the early days of dog shows the classes in which he competed included ter- riers of almost any variety, from the cross- bred mongrel to the Dandie Dinmont, the Skye terrier, and the Bedlington. It was not uncommon sight to see wire- haired Fox terriers, with others of a silkier coat under the one common heading of “ Rough or Broken-Haired Terriers. As a fact, a Broken-Haired Terrier should have been altogether a short-coated dog.. The Yorkshire is a long coated to a a greater extent than any other variety of the terrier, nor was the title Scotch terrier, by which he was most frequently known, at all adaptable to him. How the name of “Scotch terrier” became attached to a dog which so thor-

oughly had its home in Yorkshire and Lan- cashire is somewhat difficult to determine, if it can be determined at all, because it was noted that the first of them originally came from Scotland, where they had been acci- dentally produced from a cross between the silky-coated Skye terrier (the Clydesdale) and the black and tan terrier. One could scarcely expect that a pretty dog, partaking in a degree after both its par- ents, could be produced from a first cross between a smooth-coated dog, and a long- coated bitch or vice versa. Maybe, two or three animals so bred had been brought by some of the Paisley weav- ers into Yorkshire. There, suitably admired, took pains to perpetuate the strain. There appears to be something feasible and practi- cal in this part of the history. Originally the Yorkshire was a bigger dog than he is to-day, specimens from 10 pounds to 14 pounds were not at all uncom- mon, so repeatedly classes had been provid- ed for them in two sections – dogs over 8 pounds and dogs under that weight. A Yorkshire Terrier Club was formed in 1886 and the comparatively few peo- ple keep the variety. The Club however issued a description, which is as follows: GENERAL APPEARANCE: The general appearance should be that of a long-coated pet dog, the coat hanging quite straight and evenly down each side, a parting extending from the nose to the end of the tail. The animal should be very compact and neat, the carriage being very sprightly, bearing an important air. Although the frame is hidden

Mrs. M. A. Foster’s immortal Huddsersfield Ben, bred by W. Eastwood of Huddersfield was born in 1865 and died in 1871. He is the progenitor of all our best Yorkshire Terriers, and will ever remain the greatest pillar of the breed.

Huddersfield Ben (1865-1871); bred by Mr. W. Eastwood


beneath a mantle of hair, the general outline should be such as to suggest the existence of vigorous and well-proportioned body. HEAD: Should be rather small and flat, not too prominent or round in the skull, rather broad at the muzzle, a perfectly black nose, the hair on the muzzle very long, which should be a rich deep tan, not sooty or grey. Under the chin, long hair, and about the same colour as the center of the head, which should be a bright, golden tan, and not on any account intermingled with dark or sooty hairs. Hair on the sides of the head should be very long, and a few shades deeper tan than the center of the head, especially about the ear-roots. EYES: Medium in size, dark in colour, hav- ing a sharp, intelligent expression, and placed so as to look directly forward; they should not be prominent. The edges of the eye lids should also be of a dark colour. EARS: Cut or uncut, if cut, quite erect, if not cut, to be small V – shaped and carried semi- erect, covered with short hair, colour to be a deep dark tan. MOUTH: Good even mouth,, teeth as sound as possible. A dog having lost a tooth or two through accident, not the least objectionable, providing the jaws are even. BODY: Very compact and a good loin, and level on the top of the back. COAT: The hair as long and straight as possi- ble (not wavy), which should be glossy, like silk (not woolly), colour, a bright steel blue, extend- ing from the back of the head to the root of the tail, and on no account intermingled the with fawn, light, or dark hairs. LEGS: Quite straight, which should be of a bright golden tan, and well covered with hair a few shades lighter at the ends than at the roots. FEET: As round as possible, toe nails black. TAIL: Cut to a medium length, with plenty of hair, darker blue in colour than the rest of the body, especially at the end of the tail, and car- ried a little higher than the level of the back. WEIGHT: Divided into two classes, viz; under five pounds and over five pounds, but not to exceed 12 pounds. REFERENCES P.H. Coombs and M.A. Foster; Photos courtesy of The Yorkshire Terrier by S. Jessop

Overdale Marquis

Ch. Prince Regent of Soham; owned by Lady E. Windham Dawson. (Photo by W. Guiver)

Hopwood Camellia; owned by Miss E. Martin. (Photo by Morath’s Studios, Liverpool)

Dan Dee of Comer (age 12 months); owned by Mrs. B. P. Holliday. (Photo by J. Parkes Foy)

Peona of Phylreyne; owned by Mrs. F. C. Raine. (Photo by Philip Pershke, Ltd.)

Ch. Spendour of Invincia; owned by Mrs. A. Swan.

Ch. Wee Don of Atherleigh; owned by Mr. W. Hayes. (Photo by Kay and Foley Bolton)

Ch. Starlight; owned by Mrs. V. Hargreaves.

Ch. Kelsbro’ Minnie; owned by Mr. H. Cross. (Painting by Taylor)

Ch. Bradford Harry; owned by Mr. P. H. Coombs, Maine.

Ch. Vemair Parkview Preview; owned by Mrs. V. M. Mair. (Photo by Taylor Sunderland)




A s a breeder since 1963, and a judge since 1979, I hope I can enlighten those who now judge, and those who hope to judge, this very controversial breed. As I go through my judging pro- cedure I hope to make you aware of the breed characteristics that set this breed apart from the other toy breeds. These are coat, color and texture. The standard currently in use was approved on April 12 th , 1966. In my opinion it is a very good Standard. Sadly, many of the Yorkshire Terriers exhibited today do not come close to meeting the criteria described therein. I will now relate step by step, the pro- cedure I follow when judging my breed. Having assembled the class I have the exhibits stand so that I may take a first look at each dog’s outline. This is each exhibits first chance to say to me, “I am truly typical of my breed.” I then take them around the ring in order to observe the ability of each to maintain the correct outline and overall balance when moving. Additionally, I am looking for that confident and self- important air so important to the breed. I am now ready to examine each exhibit on the table. As I do so, I first check the side view of the dog for cor- rect proportions. A four-pound head on a six-pound dog is not acceptable. Next, go around to the front of the dog and look at them as they face you. Extend your hand and then approach. For the most part Yorkie’s do not mind being examined, however every once in a while one may go for you. Please bear this in mind when approaching each exhibit. I take the dog’s head in my hands and look for a rather flat head. The skull should not be too prominent or round. Similarly, the muzzle should not be overly long. The eyes should be of medium size and not overly prominent. Dark in color and sparkling with a sharp intellident expression. Oval shaped eyes are preferred, not round eyes. A large round eye is generally found with a too round a skull. A “small beady eye” is highly undesirable and detracts from expression. Ears are small and set high on the skull and not too far apart.

Head color is darker at the roots than in the middle, shading to still lighter tan at the tips. You need to fan out the head hair to see the shading. There should be no sooty or black hair intermingled with any of the tan. Puppies are born black and tan are normally darker in col- or, showing an intermingling of black hair in the tan until they matured. Richness of tan on the head and legs are of prime importance in all adult dogs. Scissors bite preferred, size of teeth in direct proportion to size of dog. Lips, nose and eye rims should always be black. Next, I run my hands down to check the length of neck and lay back of shoul- ders, follow down the leg to make sure they are not out at the elbows, forelegs are straight. Moving to the side, run my hands over the back to check for a level topline and a proper tail set. While at the side, I check coat color and texture and look for running tan. Running tan is when the tan extends down on the back of the neck or above the elbows on the forelegs and above the stifles on the hind legs. Moving to the rear I check for sound- ness of the rear legs, proper angulation, hind legs are straight when viewed from behind, stifles are moderately bent when viewed from the side. An over angulated dog will single tract while moving. A straight stifle or straight hock will cause a dog to be high in the rear. Placing my hands on the shoulders and drawing them back to the rear I can evaluate the body. We want a compact, well-bodied animal with a good spring of rib and adequate depth of brisket and fore chest. Overly long bodies or exag- gerated short ones are both undesir- able. The ideal spring of rib is oval in shape with sufficient depth to meet the elbows. At this point I have the dogs move in a triangle. My reason for a triangle is that I can see the rear going, the topline going across and the front as it returns, and when they stop in front of me I can see expression. When they are all back in line I like to stand in the middle of the ring and look at each dog carefully. I compare individual dog to the breed standard. Then I compare the dogs to each other

and evaluate which individual dog best exemplifies the breed standard. Moving them all together again I make my placements.Keywords here are breed type and balance. Example: A Yorkshire Terrier that has a pretty head and face furnishing to the floor are truly wonderful when they are totally in keeping with the rest of the animal,with a good front,sound rear and level topline. Otherwise, all you have is a pretty head, lacking breed type. A Yorkshire Terrier with a sensation- al coat that moves well and has a poor head, is simply a sound well-coated ani- mal lacking true breed type. Any Yorkshire Terrier, which is over- done in any department, has lost its over- all balance and its true Breed Type. ABOUT THE AUTHOR I was born and educated in Con- necticut and hold a Master’s Degree in Finance. Retired as a Bank Officer after 30 years of service. My involve- ment with breeding and showing began in 1963 after I was given a Champion Yorkshire Terrier for my birthday. This was not my first experience with dogs. My father raised Norwich Terriers and Smooth Fox Terriers. As an exhibitor and breeder of York- shire Terriers, Old English Sheepdogs, Pekingese and Shih Tzu. We have very successfully campaigned to Best In Shows. Winning World Champion with two of my Yorkshire Terriers. At the present time from Turyanne AKC reg. lines the following Breeders Casino, Gayelyn, Rembrandt’s, High Hopes, Fenway’s, Charizma, over 250 American Champion. In Europe and additional 30-40. Approved to Judge in 1979 and at the present time I judge Best In Show, the Toy Group and Non-Sporting Group and Junior’s. Active Member in the following Dog Clubs: Yorkshire Ter- rier Club of America, Judges Educa- tion, past treasurer. Yorkshire Terrier Club of Greater New York, Vice Presi- dent, Assistant Show Chairman. Past Treasurer. Naugatuck Vally Kennel Club, President, and past Treasurer. Progressive Dog Club of Greater New York, President.



yorkshire terrier

(A version of this article originally appeared in the YTCA Heritage, 1970 through 1983, which was published and copyrighted by the YTCA in 1985.)


same goes for moving with the group. DO NOT run up anyone’s rear and do not let it happen to you. Check the judging proce- dure and the gaiting pattern being used, and in which direction to face the dog on the table. Position your dog as the judge has indicated, check his topline, straighten the coat, if necessary, and use your bait to have the dog ready in his best pose for the judge’s first impression. On the ground, allow enough room between yourself and the other exhibitors to work. Pose your dog, straighten his coat, and bait him to work his ears. Draw attention to your dog’s good points and hide the bad. By this I mean that if he has a good topline but an excellent head, then a 45-degree angle toward the judge will help a lot to draw attention away from the topline. Good neck and legs can be accentuated by subtle hand gestures. The handler’s body posture plays an important part in the ring and is something that you will have to learn to “play by ear,” according to what you “read” from the judge’s body language. For instance, a judge with an aggressive body pose is going to be sub- consciously turned off by you if your body language is also aggres- sive. Similarly, a passive pose is going to turn off the passive-type judge. So act accordingly. Good luck in the ring, and remember to be a good sport. WHEN SETTING UP YOUR DOG, STAY IN LINE. THERE IS NOTHING MORE NOVICE-LOOKING OR ANNOYING TO A JUDGE THAN AN EXHIBITOR UPSTAGING

T he correct presentation of our breed is of utmost importance. Not only the immaculate groom- ing of dog and handler, but also the ring training and presentation of both are crucial. This article gives some of my thoughts on the subject, which might be helpful to you.

THE DAY BEFORE THE SHOW: At home, we have to take our dog(s) out of oil-shampoo, condition and dry. I always dry from the part down the back first, then the sides and feet, leav- ing head fall, face, and front of neck until last. Wrap, if it is a dog you usually wrap. Next, check the tack box, making sure you have everything you will need: lead, brush, comb, spray bottle, bows, towels, bait, etc. Prepare the dog crate. CLOTHES – COLORS AND STYLE: Carefully select your own wardrobe. Remember, this is a dog show, not a cocktail party. (That’s later!) Much thought should be given to this subject. Do not try to out-dress the judge. If he or she is a conservative dresser, you may turn him or her off with too flamboyant an outfit. “Slight- ly understate, rather than overstate,” is the rule here. Shoes MUST be comfortable and supportive. DAY OF THE SHOW: Leave the house or motel in time to arrive at the showgrounds two hours prior to your scheduled ring time. Allow an hour per dog for grooming. You should park the car and set up as close to the ring as possible. Do allow yourself plenty of time. Most judges work at the rate of two minutes per dog, some allow three minutes. Here again, allow sufficient time to arrive at ringside unflustered. Pick up you armband and wait for the steward to call your class. Once in the ring, place yourself and your dog in the most advantageous position—it is not necessary to be first in line. If your dog is not a fast mover or is bothered by other dogs behind him, he is going to look incredibly bad while moving or turning to look at the dog following him. With a slow dog, the end or middle of the line is the best place. A fast-moving dog, of course, is going to look its best up front. When setting up your dog, stay in line. There is nothing more novice-looking or annoying to a judge than an exhibitor upstaging another exhibitor and ending up in the middle of the ring. The



A breeder searching for just the right combination of genes to produce that elusive “perfect dog” often overlooks a major factor—temperament. What good is the most beautiful specimen if you can’t stand to live with him, or he won’t show or work, or he attacks everything in sight, including you? Bearing in mind that the ideal tempera- ment in one breed may include traits that are totally undesirable in another, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of a breed’s original purpose or function before temperament can be adequately assessed. Furthermore, genetically transmitted temper- ament can be profoundly influenced by environment. Since a pup’s basic personality is formed by the time he is four months old, and can thereafter be only slightly modified, breeders have a serious responsibility to their pups and to prospective owners to ensure that as much care is taken with mental and emotional soundness as with physical attributes. Fortunately, we have at our disposal some excellent tools for objectively assessing temperament in young pups and for modifying any traits found to be less than ideal. The first of these tools is puppy temperament testing, also referred to as aptitude testing or personality profiles. Per- formed at the age of seven weeks, before acquired learning has had a chance for impact, testing shows which basic personality traits the pup has inherited, such as dominance or submissiveness and independence or social attraction to humans. It is critically impor- tant to remember that how a pup relates to his dam and littermates is not necessarily an indication of his reactions to people, new situ- ations, or strange sights and sounds. To obtain the most objective results possible, pups are tested individually, away from the dam and littermates. We have seen some little bullies go to pieces at this point, before testing has even begun. Without the rest of the crew to impress or to back him up, he is suddenly just a tiny fella in a great big world! Testing is done in an area that is new to the pups, relatively free from distractions, and preferably by someone who is not familiar to the pups. Many a pup that comes readily, tail a-wagging to whomever feeds and plays with him, will show distrust of (or complete lack of interest in) a stranger. Without some special attention to this trait, how can you expect this little guy to tolerate strange judges going over him or really “ask for it” in the show ring? It must be remembered that puppy temperament testing is not a “pass/fail” situation, nor is it an absolute determination of what the pup will be like for the rest of his life. Training and experience have a major impact on a pup between seven and sixteen weeks. Testing, however, can show where you stand at the threshold, in which direction to head to come closer to the ideal, or which han- dling methods to employ in working with a certain personality type. Tests are usually graded on a scale ranging from one extreme to another, aggression to shyness, for instance. By observing and recording a pup’s reaction to a few simple exercises, you can get a very accurate indication of his inherited orientation to life. For- tunately, the majority of pups fall somewhere in the middle of the range. (The skills necessary to handle the extremes are beyond the scope of most of us!) Perfect objectivity in testing is impossible to obtain, since all pups will not react “exactly” in one of five or six different ways. We have learned to pick the most closely described response or even to give the pup a “half-score” if he incorporates elements of two related responses. Remember, it is not a final score you’re after; it is simply a profile of the pup’s range of behavioral and emotional responses. It certainly can be argued that experienced breeders can accu- rately assess temperament in their pups. However, what is “spunky” to one person might be “downright mean” to another. Puppy tests offer the happy alternative through a common language and a more objective approach.

Beauty IS AS



(A version of this article originally appeared in the YTCA Heritage, 1970 through 1983, which was published and copyrighted by the YTCA in 1985.)



if-you-can,” for instance, consists of the owner trying to run away from the pup. (Caution: With very small breeds, make sure you don’t succeed in getting too far away or the pup may feel abandoned and become very insecure.) The pup’s having to keep track of you reinforces the idea that you are the leader and he is the fol- lower, and it establishes a lifelong pattern of attentiveness. (It’s also great exercise for you and the pup!) Every time the pup “catches” you, he gets lots of praise, which further boosts his confidence. If you have been diligent during this period, the twelve to sixteen week “age of mischief” will not be overly taxing. Dur- ing this time, the pup’s flight instinct begins to develop, and he realizes that he is not literally attached to you. He may try to assert his own dominance, test to see if you really mean what you say, or run away and ignore you. Left to his own devices, a pup of this age can get into plenty of trouble, so he should be confined when not strictly supervised. This is the time to begin more serious training. Sessions can be longer and the subject matter more complicated, but training should still be free from major distractions. Regular training sessions of short duration will prove more valuable than sporadic ones that seem, to the pup, to last forever. For better or worse, the pup’s basic per- sonality is now set. If there is still room for improvement, keep working. Although at this point, only slight modifications can be made. It is a breeder’s burden, and also his great joy, to develop the skills necessary to identify inherited temperament traits and to use all the knowledge at his disposal to enhance or modify that personality. That “perfect dog” will be all the more beautiful with his confidence, common sense, and good manners! REFERENCES Bartlett, Melissa, “Puppy Personality Pro- file.” Off-Lead, March, 1982. Campbell, William E. Behavior Problems in Dogs. American Veterinary Publications, 1975. Fox, Dr. Michael W., Understanding Your Dog. Conrad, McCann, Geoghegan, 1972. O ’ Kelley, Joyce, “Super Dogs Are Made, Not Born.” Off-Lead, July-October, 1978. Pfaffenberger, Clarence J., The New knowl- edge of Dog Behavior. Howell, 1963.

and vacuum cleaners should be introduced gradually, and the pup should be allowed to explore larger areas for brief periods. Toward the end of this period, individual attention sessions should begin with each pup. Gentle handling sessions, brushing, foot caressing, and mouth examinations let the pup know that he’s more than just a member of a pack—he’s also a separate, special little entity. Up to this time, the pup has focused primarily on learning to be a dog, and most of his actions have been prompted by instinct. By the age of seven weeks, his brain has fully matured. He now has the learning capacity of an adult dog—if not the attention span. From seven to twelve weeks, then, a conscientious breeder is exceedingly busy! At no other time in a pup’s life will his ability be greater to form bonds of affection and devotion, and events will now permanently affect his atti- tude toward humans and his willingness to accept their direction. What the pup learns during this time will become a basic part of his personality and will stay with him for life. It is particularly important at the beginning of this period to avoid painful or frightening experiences, as the pup can now remember fear. If something totally beyond your control should occur to scare a pup, do not over-react. Make as little of the incident as possible. Laugh if you can, give the pup a kiss and a hug, and go immediately on to something a little safer. Convey to the pup the idea that lots of things might be scary to little guys, but when he grows up, he’ll be a lot braver. His socialization must begin in ear- nest, however, and supervised play can be provided with children, other adults, and animals other than his dam and litter- mates. He should be taken for walks and short car rides and encouraged to explore new sights, sounds, and smells. Gentle but consistent discipline will help to com- plete his housetraining, and the pup can be introduced to simple obedience com- mands such as sit, down, stand, and stay. It is imperative to teach the pup to come when called before the end of this period, while he is still in the “following” stage. Lead training can also be easily accom- plished now; loose leads only. The pup’s pack instinct develops as he matures, and it must be established in his mind early on that humans are the pack leaders. Much of a pup’s training at this stage can be accom- plished in the form of games. “Catch-me-

The usefulness is limited, though, unless careful consideration is given to another valuable tool that is available to breeders; knowledge of the critical periods of puppy development. A puppy which at seven weeks shows an inherited tendency for outgoingness, resilience, and poise can easily become a cringing, fearful little soul by sixteen weeks if his mental and emo- tional well-being are not carefully nur- tured and encouraged. Research over the last 40 years has served to accentuate the awesome responsibility that a breeder has to ensure that his or her pups go out into the world displaying the optimum tem- perament characteristics of their breed. Attention from birth to these critical peri- ods of development—which represent the average timeframe for the average pup— will enable a pup to achieve the maximum potential from his inherited genes and breed instincts. During the neonatal period, from birth to three weeks, the pup is mentally and emotionally insulated from his environ- ment. His needs are physical; food, sleep, warmth, and massage. He will respond to physical stimuli such as touching, being cold or hot, or having a gas pain. One of the more delicate times for the psyche of the dog is from three to four weeks. His circuits are now connected, so to speak, and all of his senses are working. Suddenly, he can see and hear, taste and smell. Care should be taken that his first impressions are pleasant ones! Don’t try to wean him, remove him from the litter, or alter his environment. Give him time to adjust gradually to all of this new input. From four to seven weeks, the pup’s main concern is learning his canine iden- tity. Social order in the litter is established and the pup learns appropriate “doggie” greeting patterns, play gestures, and domi- nant and submissive postures. It is essential that the dam be there to play with, super- vise, and discipline or reassure the pups. Weaning can be accomplished during this time, but pups that are totally removed from their mother before the end of this period are apt to be noisy and nervous their whole lives. Housetraining can be started now by the simple expedient of enlarging the pup’s area. On his own, he will begin to move away from the nest to urinate and defecate, and his natural instinct for clean- liness can be easily encouraged to become a habit for the rest of his life. Normal house- hold noises such as telephones, doorbells,




D espite our many foreign importations, and in the opinion of this breeder/ judge, the Yorkshire Terrier is still the prettiest and most elegant of the Toy dogs in the American show ring today. As this name implies, he is a prod- uct of the “County of Broad Acres”, and his origin dates from the advent of dog shows in the middle of the 19th century. They were first bred by the workingmen/fanciers of Leeds and Halifax, though they were not designat- ed as “Yorkshire Terriers” at the time. When first exhibited the breed had sev- eral designations some of which were “Scotch Terrier”, “Rough or Broken Haired Terrier”, “Broken-haired Scotch” and “Yorkshire Terrier” and the “Toy Terrier rough”. In 1860 at the Birmingham show, crude Yorkie prototypes were all exhib- ited as Skye Terriers. The following year at the Leeds show the same pro- genitors of the breed were shown as “Scotch Terriers”. By 1886 the breed had attained a greater state of perfection causing the Kennel Club to adopt the classification still in use today — “Yorkshire Terrier”. The present-day Yorkshire Terrier has several outstanding breed charac- teristics, the most important of which are coast, color and texture. Let us first discuss head color. To quote the standard: “All tan is darker at the roots than in the middle, shading to a still lighter tan at the tips”. In my opinion, the key word in this phrase is shading. Neither an Irish Red, nor a solid tan gold head is correct. This being said, it is true that some Yorkies, especially those with the requisite dark steel blue body coat, may take longer to clear in the head. However, even these specimens should have cleared by the

age of two. When in doubt by checking the color at the base of the ear may be helpful. Puppies should show signs of the head color that will be present at adulthood from the age of six months. Conversely, puppies six months or older having solid black on the back of the ear will very rarely clear in adult- hood. They will probably retain strong thumbprints and a very sooty head as mature specimens. Our Standard specifies one color for the body coat “Dark Steel Blue”. Further, “this Dark Steel Blue always lacks any approach to blackness”. In the ring today it is impossible to find entire entries possessing this much sought after color. This being the case what must be considered and deemed accept- able would be a distinct metallic color on a coat that is of a lustrous silky tex- ture. The colors should always reflect a certain amount of brilliance and light and never be drab and dull. The coat should also feel cool to the touch, even in great summer heat. Most importantly, remember that acceptable colors by range from above a pale gray to the highly desired dark steel blue, none of which bear the slightest resemblance to black patent leather. Remember Yorkshire Terriers do not have fur, they have hair just like you and I. This is a wash and wear dog and the hair should look like a person with clean long hair that sparkles and shines the texture will tell you when you have the real thing. Now we will discuss tails. These are to be docked to a medium length and, per the standard, to be carried slightly higher than the level of the back. How- ever, many Yorkies carry their tails in an upright position while gaiting, which is allowed. A tail that is carried in the “slightly higher” position mentioned in the standard should not be penalized,

nor should it be construed to indicate shyness in any form. A Yorkie with its’ tail flattened against its rump loses the breed’s proper outline. Such an exhibit also would be lacking the sparkle the Yorkie should display. As regards undocked tail carriages, in the author’s opinion such a tail should meet the same requirements as one that has been docked and as is noted above. Neither a long gay tail, nor a long squir- rel tail, are acceptable, the point being that the length of the tail should not alter the tail’s correct carriage. I will not delve deeply into structure in this article as it is my opinion that all dogs should have good fronts and rears, level top lines and good dentition unless otherwise specified by the indi- vidual breed’s standard. In the Yorkie balance is of particular importance, whether the exhibit is four or five pounds or six to seven pounds. Per the standard and by eye measure- ment proper balance is as noted here: Body Length: The forward point of the brisket to the after tip of the pelvis. Body Height: Top of the withers to the ground. Back: The five vertebrae between the withers and the loin, (ninth and thirteenth vertebrae inclusive). Backline: Also called the top line, from the neck to the base of tail, includ- ing withers, back, loin and croup. By Eye Measurements, this is a square dog the body height and body length all of equal measurements. The Standard does not describe eye measurement but it does say the following: The body is very compact, rather short, with a level back line and with the height at the shoulders the same as the rump. It also emphasizes that a well-balanced outline is very impor- tant and is obtained by having the


ideal length of neck, the ideal length of straight level back as well as the ideal length of leg. This overall harmonious effect, where every part fits properly, gives one the desired well-balanced Yorkshire Terrier. Additionally, it is equally obvious that a Yorkie with no neck, short legs and too long a back can never achieve the balance required by the standard. &oUUect 0oYePent: The Yorkshire Terrier is a trotter. The motion is harmonious, smooth, typ- ically with an air of self-importance and vigor. He moves in a straight line with free and easy strides. The tail should not be flying back and forth like a rud- der. The coat should not be flying in all directions caused by eggbeater like leg movement. Rather, the correctly built Yorkshire Terrier should move very smoothly and with ease. My greatest concern, both as a breeder and as a judge, is that some breeders are selling bitches as show quality but not for breeding. Typically, these bitches are under four pounds and much too small to be successfully bred. Good breeders will not breed bitches under five pounds. Our gene pool is very limited as we have less than a dozen breeders who have developed a line. The litters are very inconsistent in any litter at maturity you can have a two-pound adult, a five-pound adult and a fourth generation throwback that matures to be seven to ten pounds. For a small bitch to have birth weights so irregular causes problems. Obviously, these factors do not influ- ence choice of a male Yorkshire Terrier. In short, the Yorkshire Terrier has evolved from a workingman’s compan- ion to one of the most glamorous stars of the Toy Group. Reference from this article The Illus- trated Discussion, Breed Standard, Early Book by P.H. Coombs and Mrs. Kolbert’s experience of 48 years in the


my birthday. This was not my first experience with dogs. My father raised Norwich Terriers and Smooth Fox Terriers. As an exhibitor and breeder of York- shire Terriers, Old English Sheepdogs, Pekingese and Shih Tzu. We have very successfully campaigned to Best In Shows. Winning World Champion with two of my Yorkshire Terriers. At the present time from Turyanne AKC reg. lines the following Breeders Casino, Gayelyn, Rembrandt’s, High Hopes, Fenway’s, Charizma, over 250 American Champion. In Europe and additional 30-40. Approved to Judge in 1979 and at the present time I judge Best In Show, the Toy Group and Non-Sporting Group and Junior’s. I have judged the fol- lowing over sea’s show: Deutscher Yorkshire Terrier Club, Wurttemberg, Germany. The Eurodogshow, Kortrijk, Belgium. Europasieger Zuctschau der

Russenhunde, Dortmund, Germany. The 1988 Club Cani Campania, Bolo- gna, Italy. The Irish Kennel Club, Balls Bridge, Dublin, Ireland. The Deutschen Malteser Club and Yorkshire Terrier Club, Dortmund, Germany. Society Canine de Bourgogne, Verona, Italy. Midland Counties Canine Society, Staf- ford, England. International Canina Campionato Europea, Verona, Italy. All Breed Dog Show at Vantaa, Helsin- ki, Finland. The first American Judge Invited to Judge the All Unions Poodle Club of Moscow, Russia. The Associa- tion for Toy dogs in Denmark. Active Member in the following Dog Clubs: Yorkshire Terrier Club of Amer- ica, Judges Education, past treasurer. Yorkshire Terrier Club of Greater New York, Vice President, Assistant Show Chairman. Past Treasurer. Naugatuck Vally Kennel Club, President, and past Treasurer. Progressive Dog Club of Greater New York, President.

breed and a Judge since 1979. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Kathleen B. Kolbert, Judge 3196

I was born and educated in Con- necticut and holds a Master’s Degree in Finance. Retired as a Bank Officer after 30 years of service. My involve- ment with breeding and showing began in 1963 after I was given a Champion Yorkshire Terrier for


By Janet Jackson Steppin’ Up Yorkshire Terriers THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER IN AMERICA

O n February 8, 2009 I had the honor of judg- ing Dogs and Intersex at the Yorkshire Ter- rier Club of America, Inc. National Special- ty. Coincidentally, that year marked my 30th year in the Breed. I must say that the Yorkshire Terrier Breed is in pretty good shape in the United States. Th e Yorkie is 6th in popularity of all breeds and the Number One Toy dog in America. We have come a long way in these past thirty years. Th e toplines are remarkably better than years gone by and the general showmanship and training of the dogs is much better as is the grooming. Due to our championship requirements in the US, class dogs are not shown in full coat as they are in the European countries. It takes several years for an exhibit to acquire a truly full coat with facial furnishings to the fl oor. We have more shows and thus more opportuni- ties to put titles on our dogs than many of the foreign breeders. I think this is a good thing since the American show dog has a chance to be a multi purpose and family dog. Most of our show dogs are pets fi rst and the AKC has continued to add extra events and titles for companion events so we can actually put titles on both ends of the name. Yorkshire Terriers are good in obedi- ence but great in agility. We have quite a few Th erapy dogs and even some accom- plished at tracking. Some will go on to be campaigned as Champions while others can move right into companion events. Th e Grand Champion program of which I was a bit skeptical at fi rst has been a huge success. Owner/handlers can com- pete for points and titles locally or even go on to higher levels on their own without need for an advertising campaign or a pro- fessional handler. It gives us the oppor- tunity to see many of the young cham- pions go on to maturity rather retire way

too soon after the 15th point. I’m rather anxious to see if the new Owner/Handler series, which will allow competition right up through Best In Show for the amateur, goes as far as the Grand Champion scheme. We need to increase our entries which have declined in recent years. But once more, in a breed that takes up to four years to fully mature, we will have an opportunity to see some fi ne youngsters in the ring again upon maturity. Recently we have been added to the AKC list of Earth Dogs which opens up a whole new venue for our little terriers.

Smoky—American War Dog Hero.

I have attended my fi rst EarthDog trial and I want to do it! Th ank goodness we can still dock the tails and AKC has stuck with us to preserve our original standards allowing us the opportunity to keep this little terrier as such. How I wish our for- eign counterparts would have fought hard- er to preserve our breed standards. Strange that a breed originated in England must now be seen in America as it was intended to be. Th e look of the Yorkshire “Terrier” is completely distorted by way of a tail of fl owing hair curled over the back and not “slightly higher” as described. A couple of things I see that really need attention are the front assembly and the compact body. Th e dogs with steep upright

Smoky Bronze at AKC Dog Museum War Dog Memorial, Artist Susan Bahary.

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