Let’s Talk Breed Education!
YORKSHIRE TERRIER 1. Where do you live? What do you do “outside” of dogs? 2. How many years in Yorkies? Showing? Judging? Breeding? 3. What, in your opinion, is the secret to a successful breeding program? 4. Being #10 out of 192 AKC breeds is a pretty large accomplishment for a small dog. To what do you attribute this popularity?
coat conditioning are critical to maintain the color, as not all diets have sufficient copper and l-tyrosine for the pigment. It’s frustrating when you are showing a dog that is naturally dark to come across judges who are afraid to put it up since they think it’s too dark or might be dyed. Or you have the judges with cataracts that cannot see the coat is blue, as to them it looks black because they cannot see the shading. It’s tough to find a sire who is naturally dark, as so many dogs in the ring are colored. If we were to revise our standard to to allow any shade of blue, but give preference to the darker blue, it would certainly make a difference. When I started in dogs, the judges had alcohol on the table to test for color, but many judges just accept the added color. At times I feel judges place more empha- sis on grooming than the quality of the dog under the coat. Is the Yorkie’s popularity an advantage in the Toy group? I don’t feel the Yorkie’s popularity matters, as judges seem to have a clear preference for Pekes and they are not anywhere near as popular. In my opinion, Yorkies are doing better in group as the quality of our breed has improved with time. My favorite dog show memory? My bitch Vixen, GCHS Rose- mark’s Saint Or Sinner, winning best of breed at the AKC National Dog Show five years ago. She was one of the three bitch specials Tonia Holibaugh was handling that year and all three won best of breed that year: Vixen the Yorkie, Adele the Maltese and Roxy the Lhasa Apso. I would love to see more meaningful DNA tests become avail- able for health issues. At this point, the only thing we are really able to test for is blindness, which is not a huge issue with our breed. I want to see more work done on the diseases that have a bigger impact on health and longevity. And please, just because you’ve had the DNA testing done, it does not mean your dog has no health issues, as the test covers none of the really big issues, such as PLE, liver shunt, Leggs-Calves-Perthes, etc. MARY INGERSOLL I live just north of Tam-
5. The only DQ in your Standard is for Color. How much trouble is it to attain, and keep, correct coat and coloration? 6. Is the Yorkie’s popularity an advantage in the Toy group? 7. What is your favorite dog show memory? 8. Is there anything else you’ d like to share about the breed? Please elaborate. ROSANNE FETT I live northeast of Dallas, Texas on an acreage. I work full time as a mortgage loan officer, and love to cook and bake. The Yorkies take up most of my free time. I got my first Yorkie as a pet 37 years ago and he convinced me that I loved this amazing breed and wanted to be involved. When my youngest daughter hit junior high in 1991, I finally had free time to do something for me, and bought my first show Yorkie. Like many other newbies to our sport, the bitch I bought was not show quality, but I was fortunate enough to breed to an outstand- ing dog and my first litter of Yorkies produced my first champion. I was hooked! I did not breed much at that point, but I loved having puppies and the challenge of breeding what I hoped would be the ideal dog, and in 2004, we bought some land and built a house with a dog room and dog runs so I could do this right. The secret to a successful breeding program? You have to be ruthlessly honest about the faults of your bitch and breed to the best possible sire who will correct those faults. If you can’t do this, then develop relationships with knowledgeable friends who will help you with decisions and listen to them. You can’t have one stud dog and assume he will produce the same with all of your bitch- es. As much as I love my Leo, I know he is not the best dog for one of my girls, but using one of his sons on that bitch produces outstanding puppies. What do I attribute to the breed’s popularity? Yorkies are amaz- ing companions, as they are incredibly intelligent, instinctive to the needs of their family, and full of love. Of course, it does not hurt that they are absolutely beautiful dogs. The only DQ in your Standard is for Color. How much trouble is it to attain, and keep, correct coat and coloration? As someone who started out with very light dogs, I can tell you it’s extremely difficult to attain that dark blue silk we so desire. I have learned a lot about what to look for: blue skin on the sides of the dog and a purple/blue cast to the tongue are essential for a blue dog. Diet and
pa, Florida in Trinity. I love to cook and also, given the opportunity, deep sea fish. I have been breeding and showing Yorkies since 2004. The secret to being a suc- cessful breeder? To begin with, you must know and understand the standard. A dog breeder, in my honest opinion, should be able to recite the standard for your breed by heart. If ever asked a question, they should know
“THE SECRET TO A SUCCESSFUL BREEDING PROGRAM? YOU HAVE TO BE RUTHLESSLY HONEST ABOUT THE FAULTS OF YOUR BITCH AND BREED TO THE BEST POSSIBLE SIRE WHO WILL CORRECT THOSE FAULTS.”
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Yorkshire Terrier Q& A
the answer from the breed standard. As a breeder, it is also impor- tant to understand the standard for your breed. Next, as a breeder, you should endeavor to produce as close to the standard as you possibly can. Your dogs should be genetical- ly tested for all things inherent to your breed so you are produc- ing healthy animals. It is also important to learn from your mis- takes and not repeat them. Once is a mistake, the second time is a decision. Being number ten in the AKC list, really doesn’t mean a lot to me. It just means that many Yorkies are being bred and registered. It does not speak to quality of the dogs at all. Yorkies are popular because first of all they are beautiful. They are also very smart and adaptable and can be easily trained to do just about anything. The color DQ is subject to individual interpretation. My dark steel blue may not be your dark steel blue. When I started in 2004, the dogs were much lighter, and no one seemed to care. Now you see many dogs that are nearly black in the ring. When breeding, it is important to know the pedigree and what is back there in color to try to achieve the right color. Then do not dilute it with lighter dogs. Is the breed’s popularity an advantage in the Toy Group? Cur- rently we have several amazing Specials out that are consistently winning in group. I do not attribute this to the breed popularity. I attribute it to the quality of the dogs in competition. My favorite dog show memory was several years at our Central Florida Yorkshire Terrier Specialty. Jonathan Chamberlin was our judge. He had just lined up his placements in the breed ring and one of the handlers, who had cancer, and has since passed, feinted in the ring. She was fine, just light headed. Jonathan took the microphone and said, “listen, we are all going to die and some of us might die in the show right, but NOT IN MY SHOW RING and on my watch. It brought a lot of laughter and levity to the crowd. I am very passionate about the Yorkie breed, its health and pres- ervation and producing the best I can. Lately I have become pas- sionate about mentoring newbies. We need more exhibitors. When you sell a show dog to a newbie, please sell them the best you have. Then please take them under your wing, help them gain confidence and become successful. Teach them what they need to know and encourage them. Remember, we were all new once. JACKIE KUK I breed and show Yorkshire Terriers under the prefix JaLa, along with my mom, Laura Vance. Togeth- er for over 10 years we have dedicated our lives to this breed that we both cherish so much. I couldn’t have done any of this without her. Together we strive to preserve the breed and produce Yorkshire Terriers that will help the breed for many generations to come. I live in Northern Indiana and work full time as a small animal veterinarian. Most of my free time is spent with my dogs in some capacity, or with my family. I attended my first show as an exhibitor in 2005 and had my first litter a year later. I took a break for several years during vet school, but am so happy to be back out in the ring. The secret to a successful breeding program? Two key rules. 1. Being honest with yourself. If you dismiss faults or health issues
in your own dogs, you are only fooling yourself. I always try to be more critical of our own dogs than I am of those owned by others. 2. Don’t compromise good structure and movement for a pretty face or coat. We were told years ago when we started to get the ‘cake’ (structure) right first and then work on the frosting (coat/head). This advice has served us well. What do I attribute the breed’s popularity? They are smart, loyal and tenacious little toy terriers with hearts of gold and mischief. Their personalities are second to none, and two is always better than one. They make wonderful companions and are very portable, which is good because they love to be with their people. How much trouble is it to attain, and keep, correct coat and col- oration? It can be very difficult to attain and keep, especially when first starting out. Mostly because it can be difficult to understand what correct coat and coloration actually are. I have found that if you focus on the correct shading of the tan, the correct blue color will follow, and therefore so will the texture. Correct color and tex- ture go hand in hand in this breed. Is the Yorkie’s popularity an advantage in the Toy group? I don’t believe a breed’s popularity helps it to place in the group ring. There are other factors that are able to provide an advantage though. My favorite dog show memory? My mom and I were at the Cleveland Crown Classic in 2011, with our first bred by champion, GCH JaLa’s Rile Me Up. It was our last show together, and he was up against the #1 Yorkshire Terrier All Systems the entire cluster. On the last day he was awarded Best of Breed under respected judge Mr. Fred Basset. Riley and I went on to win a Group 4 among a very large toy entry. We floated home, and that night his precious silk coat was cut off, in preparation for me to leave for vet school. Learning to show and breed Yorkshire Terriers is very challeng- ing, but that also means that the rewards are so great. My hope for the breed is to see and assist new exhibitors in any way I can. If you are interested in learning about the breed, grooming or showing and “They are smart, loyal and tenacious little toy terriers with hearts of gold and mischief. Their person- alities are second to none, and two is always better than one. They make won- derful companions and are very portable, which is good because they love to be with their people.”
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Yorkshire Terrier Q& A
“If you are interested in showing Yorkies, know that the Yorkshire Terrier is a breed that requires patience! It takes a lot of time and dedication to grow and maintain a show coat. Some grow coat quickly and others may take years to grow a fully mature coat.”
you see me at a show, come on over. I love sharing this passion and can talk Yorkie all day. MICHELE SHUTE I live in Grand Prairie, Texas. I have been a high school math teacher for nine years. I also have a dog show bow business called Win- ning Topknots and often spend my evenings working on bow orders while catch- ing up on my favorite TV shows. My bows have been worn by many Yorkies in the show ring, including several top Yorkies over the past few years. Besides showing, my dogs also recently started modeling for Chewy.com . They have modeled apparel, diapers and belly bands, and first aid and recovery products for Chewy’s website. I got my first pet Yorkshire Terrier in 2004 and attended my first dog show as a spectator in 2007. I started going to dog shows occasionally over the next three years where I was able to watch and learn what was involved with showing Yorkies. In April 2010 I decided I wanted to start showing and began looking for a show puppy. By the end of that year, I got my first show Yorkie, and our first dog show together was in March 2011. I have now been showing and breeding Yorkies for 8 ½ years and have finished 13 Champions (12 Yorkies, one Long Coat Chihuahua) and five Grand Champions. I also have two Yorkies that have earned their Silver Grand Championships, won multiple group placements, and have been top ranked in breed and all-breed points. The secret to a successful breeding program? Breeding healthy, sound dogs should always be the first goal in any breeding program. I utilize the current health testing that is available and use those results to help guide some of my breeding decisions. After health and soundness, my first rule for breeding is to breed for the type I want to produce without sacrificing structure and movement. It is important to have a picture in your mind for what your ideal Yorkie would look like. How I interpret the standard and the look I like may not be what another Yorkie breeder likes, but the important thing is to know what YOU like and to always keep this picture in mind when selecting sires and evaluating puppies. You also have to know which faults you absolutely cannot accept and which faults you can live with, as there is no perfect puppy. Finally, never just breed to the convenient sire; breed to a sire that you feel could pro- duce the best possible puppies with your bitch. I am still fairly new
to breeding Yorkies and only produce one or two litters a year on average, but those are the rules I use to guide my breeding decisions. What do I attribute to the breed’s popularity? Yorkies are an intelligent, loving, energetic dog in a cute, little package. I think the first thing that attracted me to this small breed was its beauty! I loved the beautiful long, silky blue and tan coat and the topknot with a little red bow. Even when kept in a shorter hair trim, the Yorkshire Terrier is still adorable. As I became more familiar with Yorkies, I fell in love with their energetic and playful personalities. I think Yorkie owners love the small size and look of the Yorkie, as well as the larger-than-life personality of the breed. How much trouble is it to attain, and keep, correct coat and coloration? Half of our breed standard focuses on coat texture, color and color pattern. The color should be a dark steel blue (not jet black or silver) and a rich, shaded tan. The coat should be glossy, fine, and silky in texture. Obtaining correct color and texture is very difficult. The gold in a mature adult should be a rich, shaded tan. It should not be cream-colored, sooty with dark hairs, or red-brown. Many dark coats I see are either soft or coarse in texture instead of the correct silk, but I have seen several Yorkies with beautiful cor- rect silky, dark blue coats so it is possible! You also have to keep in mind, especially with bitches each heat cycle, that most Yorkies will get lighter each year as they age. I would not completely eliminate a nice Yorkie in my breeding program just because the color may be lighter that I’d prefer, but breeding toward getting consistent cor- rect color and texture is a goal to work toward. I do want to say that as much emphasis as our standard puts on coat color and texture, I hope that judges and Yorkie exhibitors remember that our breed should not only be a coat hanger. The Yorkshire Terrier is a toy ter- rier and should have breed type, high head carriage, attitude, and sound structure underneath that coat! Is the Yorkie’s popularity an advantage in the Toy group? I’m not sure that it is necessarily an advantage as I see other breeds place in the group more frequently, but in the past few years I have seen Yorkies placing in the group more consistently. When you have a Yorkie in specials coat, beautifully groomed and presented well, with good structure and movement, it is hard not to take notice in the group ring. One of my favorite memories was when I won Best in Special- ty show at the 2015 Bluebonnet Yorkshire Terrier Specialty with BISS GCHS CH Magic Country Fast and Fuogin (Phil). My sec- ond favorite memory was when Phil and I won Select Dog at the 2016 Westminster Dog Show among a fabulous entry of about 27 male specials. If you are interested in showing Yorkies, know that the York- shire Terrier is a breed that requires patience! It takes a lot of time and dedication to grow and maintain a show coat. Some grow coat quickly and others may take years to grow a fully mature coat. Yor- kies are such wonderful little dogs, but they can be quite stubborn at times so, again, patience is a must. Once you get started, I’m sure you’ll fall in love with the breed just as I have!
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History of the YO R K S H I R E TERRIER BY KATHLEEN KOLBERT TURYANNE AKC REG.
T his little knight of the carpet is eminently an English pro- duction, or manufacture, if we may us the term, and occupies a most prominent position in the canine world of being considered by many the handsomest of all long-haired Terriers, and has been appropriately termed by one writer “ the little Yorkshire swell.” The charming, aristocratic little dog we now know at the Yorkshire Terrier has been identified as such for but a comparatively short period, the Kennel Club adopting this nomenclature in their Stud Book in 1886. Prior to this date the name had been hanging about him for some few years, because the titles of rough, broken-haired, or Scotch terrier, under which he was first known, were most misleading.. During the early days of dog shows the classes in which he competed included ter- riers of almost any variety, from the cross- bred mongrel to the Dandie Dinmont, the Skye terrier, and the Bedlington. It was not uncommon sight to see wire- haired Fox terriers, with others of a silkier coat under the one common heading of “ Rough or Broken-Haired Terriers. As a fact, a Broken-Haired Terrier should have been altogether a short-coated dog.. The Yorkshire is a long coated to a a greater extent than any other variety of the terrier, nor was the title Scotch terrier, by which he was most frequently known, at all adaptable to him. How the name of “Scotch terrier” became attached to a dog which so thor-
oughly had its home in Yorkshire and Lan- cashire is somewhat difficult to determine, if it can be determined at all, because it was noted that the first of them originally came from Scotland, where they had been acci- dentally produced from a cross between the silky-coated Skye terrier (the Clydesdale) and the black and tan terrier. One could scarcely expect that a pretty dog, partaking in a degree after both its par- ents, could be produced from a first cross between a smooth-coated dog, and a long- coated bitch or vice versa. Maybe, two or three animals so bred had been brought by some of the Paisley weav- ers into Yorkshire. There, suitably admired, took pains to perpetuate the strain. There appears to be something feasible and practi- cal in this part of the history. Originally the Yorkshire was a bigger dog than he is to-day, specimens from 10 pounds to 14 pounds were not at all uncom- mon, so repeatedly classes had been provid- ed for them in two sections – dogs over 8 pounds and dogs under that weight. A Yorkshire Terrier Club was formed in 1886 and the comparatively few peo- ple keep the variety. The Club however issued a description, which is as follows: GENERAL APPEARANCE: The general appearance should be that of a long-coated pet dog, the coat hanging quite straight and evenly down each side, a parting extending from the nose to the end of the tail. The animal should be very compact and neat, the carriage being very sprightly, bearing an important air. Although the frame is hidden
Mrs. M. A. Foster’s immortal Huddsersfield Ben, bred by W. Eastwood of Huddersfield was born in 1865 and died in 1871. He is the progenitor of all our best Yorkshire Terriers, and will ever remain the greatest pillar of the breed.
Huddersfield Ben (1865-1871); bred by Mr. W. Eastwood
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beneath a mantle of hair, the general outline should be such as to suggest the existence of vigorous and well-proportioned body. HEAD: Should be rather small and flat, not too prominent or round in the skull, rather broad at the muzzle, a perfectly black nose, the hair on the muzzle very long, which should be a rich deep tan, not sooty or grey. Under the chin, long hair, and about the same colour as the center of the head, which should be a bright, golden tan, and not on any account intermingled with dark or sooty hairs. Hair on the sides of the head should be very long, and a few shades deeper tan than the center of the head, especially about the ear-roots. EYES: Medium in size, dark in colour, hav- ing a sharp, intelligent expression, and placed so as to look directly forward; they should not be prominent. The edges of the eye lids should also be of a dark colour. EARS: Cut or uncut, if cut, quite erect, if not cut, to be small V – shaped and carried semi- erect, covered with short hair, colour to be a deep dark tan. MOUTH: Good even mouth,, teeth as sound as possible. A dog having lost a tooth or two through accident, not the least objectionable, providing the jaws are even. BODY: Very compact and a good loin, and level on the top of the back. COAT: The hair as long and straight as possi- ble (not wavy), which should be glossy, like silk (not woolly), colour, a bright steel blue, extend- ing from the back of the head to the root of the tail, and on no account intermingled the with fawn, light, or dark hairs. LEGS: Quite straight, which should be of a bright golden tan, and well covered with hair a few shades lighter at the ends than at the roots. FEET: As round as possible, toe nails black. TAIL: Cut to a medium length, with plenty of hair, darker blue in colour than the rest of the body, especially at the end of the tail, and car- ried a little higher than the level of the back. WEIGHT: Divided into two classes, viz; under five pounds and over five pounds, but not to exceed 12 pounds. REFERENCES P.H. Coombs and M.A. Foster; Photos courtesy of The Yorkshire Terrier by S. Jessop
Ch. Prince Regent of Soham; owned by Lady E. Windham Dawson. (Photo by W. Guiver)
Hopwood Camellia; owned by Miss E. Martin. (Photo by Morath’s Studios, Liverpool)
Dan Dee of Comer (age 12 months); owned by Mrs. B. P. Holliday. (Photo by J. Parkes Foy)
Peona of Phylreyne; owned by Mrs. F. C. Raine. (Photo by Philip Pershke, Ltd.)
Ch. Spendour of Invincia; owned by Mrs. A. Swan.
Ch. Wee Don of Atherleigh; owned by Mr. W. Hayes. (Photo by Kay and Foley Bolton)
Ch. Starlight; owned by Mrs. V. Hargreaves.
Ch. Kelsbro’ Minnie; owned by Mr. H. Cross. (Painting by Taylor)
Ch. Bradford Harry; owned by Mr. P. H. Coombs, Maine.
Ch. Vemair Parkview Preview; owned by Mrs. V. M. Mair. (Photo by Taylor Sunderland)
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by KATHLEEN B. KOLBERT, JUDGE Turyanne Yorkshire Terriers AKC Reg. YORKSHIRE TERRIER
A s a breeder since 1963, and a judge since 1979, I hope I can enlighten those who now judge, and those who hope to judge, this very controversial breed. As I go through my judging pro- cedure I hope to make you aware of the breed characteristics that set this breed apart from the other toy breeds. These are coat, color and texture. The standard currently in use was approved on April 12 th , 1966. In my opinion it is a very good Standard. Sadly, many of the Yorkshire Terriers exhibited today do not come close to meeting the criteria described therein. I will now relate step by step, the pro- cedure I follow when judging my breed. Having assembled the class I have the exhibits stand so that I may take a first look at each dog’s outline. This is each exhibits first chance to say to me, “I am truly typical of my breed.” I then take them around the ring in order to observe the ability of each to maintain the correct outline and overall balance when moving. Additionally, I am looking for that confident and self- important air so important to the breed. I am now ready to examine each exhibit on the table. As I do so, I first check the side view of the dog for cor- rect proportions. A four-pound head on a six-pound dog is not acceptable. Next, go around to the front of the dog and look at them as they face you. Extend your hand and then approach. For the most part Yorkie’s do not mind being examined, however every once in a while one may go for you. Please bear this in mind when approaching each exhibit. I take the dog’s head in my hands and look for a rather flat head. The skull should not be too prominent or round. Similarly, the muzzle should not be overly long. The eyes should be of medium size and not overly prominent. Dark in color and sparkling with a sharp intellident expression. Oval shaped eyes are preferred, not round eyes. A large round eye is generally found with a too round a skull. A “small beady eye” is highly undesirable and detracts from expression. Ears are small and set high on the skull and not too far apart.
Head color is darker at the roots than in the middle, shading to still lighter tan at the tips. You need to fan out the head hair to see the shading. There should be no sooty or black hair intermingled with any of the tan. Puppies are born black and tan are normally darker in col- or, showing an intermingling of black hair in the tan until they matured. Richness of tan on the head and legs are of prime importance in all adult dogs. Scissors bite preferred, size of teeth in direct proportion to size of dog. Lips, nose and eye rims should always be black. Next, I run my hands down to check the length of neck and lay back of shoul- ders, follow down the leg to make sure they are not out at the elbows, forelegs are straight. Moving to the side, run my hands over the back to check for a level topline and a proper tail set. While at the side, I check coat color and texture and look for running tan. Running tan is when the tan extends down on the back of the neck or above the elbows on the forelegs and above the stifles on the hind legs. Moving to the rear I check for sound- ness of the rear legs, proper angulation, hind legs are straight when viewed from behind, stifles are moderately bent when viewed from the side. An over angulated dog will single tract while moving. A straight stifle or straight hock will cause a dog to be high in the rear. Placing my hands on the shoulders and drawing them back to the rear I can evaluate the body. We want a compact, well-bodied animal with a good spring of rib and adequate depth of brisket and fore chest. Overly long bodies or exag- gerated short ones are both undesir- able. The ideal spring of rib is oval in shape with sufficient depth to meet the elbows. At this point I have the dogs move in a triangle. My reason for a triangle is that I can see the rear going, the topline going across and the front as it returns, and when they stop in front of me I can see expression. When they are all back in line I like to stand in the middle of the ring and look at each dog carefully. I compare individual dog to the breed standard. Then I compare the dogs to each other
and evaluate which individual dog best exemplifies the breed standard. Moving them all together again I make my placements.Keywords here are breed type and balance. Example: AYorkshire Terrier that has a pretty head and face furnishing to the floor are truly wonderful when they are totally in keeping with the rest of the animal,with a good front, sound rear and level topline. Otherwise, all you have is a pretty head, lacking breed type. A Yorkshire Terrier with a sensation- al coat that moves well and has a poor head, is simply a sound well-coated ani- mal lacking true breed type. Any Yorkshire Terrier, which is over- done in any department, has lost its over- all balance and its true Breed Type. ABOUT THE AUTHOR I was born and educated in Con- necticut and hold a Master’s Degree in Finance. Retired as a Bank Officer after 30 years of service. My involve- ment with breeding and showing began in 1963 after I was given a Champion Yorkshire Terrier for my birthday. This was not my first experience with dogs. My father raised Norwich Terriers and Smooth Fox Terriers. As an exhibitor and breeder of York- shire Terriers, Old English Sheepdogs, Pekingese and Shih Tzu. We have very successfully campaigned to Best In Shows. Winning World Champion with two of my Yorkshire Terriers. At the present time from Turyanne AKC reg. lines the following Breeders Casino, Gayelyn, Rembrandt’s, High Hopes, Fenway’s, Charizma, over 250 American Champion. In Europe and additional 30-40. Approved to Judge in 1979 and at the present time I judge Best In Show, the Toy Group and Non-Sporting Group and Junior’s. Active Member in the following Dog Clubs: Yorkshire Ter- rier Club of America, Judges Educa- tion, past treasurer. Yorkshire Terrier Club of Greater New York, Vice Presi- dent, Assistant Show Chairman. Past Treasurer. Naugatuck Vally Kennel Club, President, and past Treasurer. Progressive Dog Club of Greater New York, President.
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by KATHLEEN B. KOLBERT, JUDGE Turyanne Yorkshire Terriers AKC Reg. YORKSHIRE TERRIER
D espite our many foreign importations, and in the opinion of this breeder/ judge, the Yorkshire Terrier is still the prettiest and most elegant of the Toy dogs in the American show ring today. As this name implies, he is a prod- uct of the “County of Broad Acres”, and his origin dates from the advent of dog shows in the middle of the 19th century. They were first bred by the workingmen/fanciers of Leeds and Halifax, though they were not designat- ed as “Yorkshire Terriers” at the time. When first exhibited the breed had sev- eral designations some of which were “Scotch Terrier”, “Rough or Broken Haired Terrier”, “Broken-haired Scotch” and “Yorkshire Terrier” and the “Toy Terrier rough”. In 1860 at the Birmingham show, crude Yorkie prototypes were all exhib- ited as Skye Terriers. The following year at the Leeds show the same pro- genitors of the breed were shown as “Scotch Terriers”. By 1886 the breed had attained a greater state of perfection causing the Kennel Club to adopt the classification still in use today — “Yorkshire Terrier”. The present-day Yorkshire Terrier has several outstanding breed charac- teristics, the most important of which are coast, color and texture. Let us first discuss head color. To quote the standard: “All tan is darker at the roots than in the middle, shading to a still lighter tan at the tips”. In my opinion, the key word in this phrase is shading. Neither an Irish Red, nor a solid tan gold head is correct. This being said, it is true that some Yorkies, especially those with the requisite dark steel blue body coat, may take longer to clear in the head. However, even these specimens should have cleared by the
age of two. When in doubt by checking the color at the base of the ear may be helpful. Puppies should show signs of the head color that will be present at adulthood from the age of six months. Conversely, puppies six months or older having solid black on the back of the ear will very rarely clear in adult- hood. They will probably retain strong thumbprints and a very sooty head as mature specimens. Our Standard specifies one color for the body coat “Dark Steel Blue”. Further, “this Dark Steel Blue always lacks any approach to blackness”. In the ring today it is impossible to find entire entries possessing this much sought after color. This being the case what must be considered and deemed accept- able would be a distinct metallic color on a coat that is of a lustrous silky tex- ture. The colors should always reflect a certain amount of brilliance and light and never be drab and dull. The coat should also feel cool to the touch, even in great summer heat. Most importantly, remember that acceptable colors by range from above a pale gray to the highly desired dark steel blue, none of which bear the slightest resemblance to black patent leather. Remember Yorkshire Terriers do not have fur, they have hair just like you and I. This is a wash and wear dog and the hair should look like a person with clean long hair that sparkles and shines the texture will tell you when you have the real thing. Now we will discuss tails. These are to be docked to a medium length and, per the standard, to be carried slightly higher than the level of the back. How- ever, many Yorkies carry their tails in an upright position while gaiting, which is allowed. A tail that is carried in the “slightly higher” position mentioned in the standard should not be penalized,
nor should it be construed to indicate shyness in any form. A Yorkie with its’ tail flattened against its rump loses the breed’s proper outline. Such an exhibit also would be lacking the sparkle the Yorkie should display. As regards undocked tail carriages, in the author’s opinion such a tail should meet the same requirements as one that has been docked and as is noted above. Neither a long gay tail, nor a long squir- rel tail, are acceptable, the point being that the length of the tail should not alter the tail’s correct carriage. I will not delve deeply into structure in this article as it is my opinion that all dogs should have good fronts and rears, level top lines and good dentition unless otherwise specified by the indi- vidual breed’s standard. In the Yorkie balance is of particular importance, whether the exhibit is four or five pounds or six to seven pounds. Per the standard and by eye measure- ment proper balance is as noted here: Body Length: The forward point of the brisket to the after tip of the pelvis. Body Height: Top of the withers to the ground. Back: The five vertebrae between the withers and the loin, (ninth and thirteenth vertebrae inclusive). Backline: Also called the top line, from the neck to the base of tail, includ- ing withers, back, loin and croup. By Eye Measurements, this is a square dog the body height and body length all of equal measurements. The Standard does not describe eye measurement but it does say the following: The body is very compact, rather short, with a level back line and with the height at the shoulders the same as the rump. It also emphasizes that a well-balanced outline is very impor- tant and is obtained by having the
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ideal length of neck, the ideal length of straight level back as well as the ideal length of leg. This overall harmonious effect, where every part fits properly, gives one the desired well-balanced Yorkshire Terrier. Additionally, it is equally obvious that a Yorkie with no neck, short legs and too long a back can never achieve the balance required by the standard. &oUUect 0oYePent: The Yorkshire Terrier is a trotter. The motion is harmonious, smooth, typ- ically with an air of self-importance and vigor. He moves in a straight line with free and easy strides. The tail should not be flying back and forth like a rud- der. The coat should not be flying in all directions caused by eggbeater like leg movement. Rather, the correctly built Yorkshire Terrier should move very smoothly and with ease. My greatest concern, both as a breeder and as a judge, is that some breeders are selling bitches as show quality but not for breeding. Typically, these bitches are under four pounds and much too small to be successfully bred. Good breeders will not breed bitches under five pounds. Our gene pool is very limited as we have less than a dozen breeders who have developed a line. The litters are very inconsistent in any litter at maturity you can have a two-pound adult, a five-pound adult and a fourth generation throwback that matures to be seven to ten pounds. For a small bitch to have birth weights so irregular causes problems. Obviously, these factors do not influ- ence choice of a male Yorkshire Terrier. In short, the Yorkshire Terrier has evolved from a workingman’s compan- ion to one of the most glamorous stars of the Toy Group. Reference from this article The Illus- trated Discussion, Breed Standard, Early Book by P.H. Coombs and Mrs. Kolbert’s experience of 48 years in the
“THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER IS A TROTTER. THE MOTION IS HARMONIOUS, SMOOTH, TYPICALLY WITH AN AIR OF SELF-IMPORTANCE AND VIGOR. HE MOVES IN A STRAIGHT LINE WITH FREE AND EASY STRIDES.”
my birthday. This was not my first experience with dogs. My father raised Norwich Terriers and Smooth Fox Terriers. As an exhibitor and breeder of York- shire Terriers, Old English Sheepdogs, Pekingese and Shih Tzu. We have very successfully campaigned to Best In Shows. Winning World Champion with two of my Yorkshire Terriers. At the present time from Turyanne AKC reg. lines the following Breeders Casino, Gayelyn, Rembrandt’s, High Hopes, Fenway’s, Charizma, over 250 American Champion. In Europe and additional 30-40. Approved to Judge in 1979 and at the present time I judge Best In Show, the Toy Group and Non-Sporting Group and Junior’s. I have judged the fol- lowing over sea’s show: Deutscher Yorkshire Terrier Club, Wurttemberg, Germany. The Eurodogshow, Kortrijk, Belgium. Europasieger Zuctschau der
Russenhunde, Dortmund, Germany. The 1988 Club Cani Campania, Bolo- gna, Italy. The Irish Kennel Club, Balls Bridge, Dublin, Ireland. The Deutschen Malteser Club and Yorkshire Terrier Club, Dortmund, Germany. Society Canine de Bourgogne, Verona, Italy. Midland Counties Canine Society, Staf- ford, England. International Canina Campionato Europea, Verona, Italy. All Breed Dog Show at Vantaa, Helsin- ki, Finland. The first American Judge Invited to Judge the All Unions Poodle Club of Moscow, Russia. The Associa- tion for Toy dogs in Denmark. Active Member in the following Dog Clubs: Yorkshire Terrier Club of Amer- ica, Judges Education, past treasurer. Yorkshire Terrier Club of Greater New York, Vice President, Assistant Show Chairman. Past Treasurer. Naugatuck Vally Kennel Club, President, and past Treasurer. Progressive Dog Club of Greater New York, President.
breed and a Judge since 1979. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Kathleen B. Kolbert, Judge 3196
I was born and educated in Con- necticut and holds a Master’s Degree in Finance. Retired as a Bank Officer after 30 years of service. My involve- ment with breeding and showing began in 1963 after I was given a Champion Yorkshire Terrier for
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SIMPLE TALK ON THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER STANDARD by KATHLEEN B. KOLBERT, JUDGE Turyanne Yorkshire Terriers AKC Reg.
A s a Breeder for the past 54 years, and a Judge for the past 39 years. I hope I can enlighten those who are new Judges to this very controversial dog. The outstanding Breed CHARAC- TERISTICS of the Yorkshire Terrier are COAT, COLOR and TEXTURE. Howev- er, for many exhibitors and Judges this seems to be a problem. The general appearance for a Yor- kie is that of a long haired TOY TER- RIER who has a STEEL BLUE and TAN coat that is parted from the base of the skull to the end of tail, and hangs evenly and very straight down each side of the body. Each strand appears to be individual. The coat is distinctively long, silky, glowing and reflects light. The clear metallic color, the single coat and the texture are of the utmost importance in evaluating this breed. The ideal tex- ture of the coat is SILK; Yorkie’s do NOT HAVE FUR. The coat can be compared to human hair. A clue to this is that on a 100 degree day the coat will still feel SILKY and COOL to the touch. Puppies are born black and will start to show markings of gold on the ears and legs first with intermingling black hairs in the tan until they reach maturi- ty. The change from a puppy coat takes quite a long time. Judging the puppies
you can see the changing by checking the part line and shoulder line. It can take from twelve to eighteen months for a complete adult coat. Yorkie’s do not shed, it is a continuously growing coat. Often times you will see a young dog with a full coat and proper color and the dark puppy hair still showing at the bottom of the coat. The correct color of Steel Blue and correct coat texture in our breed are very difficult to achieve. It demands two very different and distinct genes in the DNA to make the LUSTROUS STEEL BLUE and SILKY TEXTURE. THE BLACK BODY COAT: never does and never can break to STEEL BLUE in the adult dog. It is a recessive problem. This is caused by the presence of the gene “gg” instead of the proper gene “GG”. This means both parents of a BLACK DOG must carry the recessive gene “g” even if the parents appear to have a Steel Blue coat. It also means that a Black Dog carries no gene for STEEL BLUE. Judges should never FAVOR A BLACK DOG You will never find an entry of Yor- kie’s that are all the same color. Some will be too light and some far too dark, nearly black. Look for the Bright Steel Blue with a very silky texture, with- out any approach to BLACKNESS. Tex- ture can tell you a great deal because some coats will look steel blue howev- er when you touch them the will feel
wooly or cottony. This is called a Cleri- cal Grey coat. In Europe, the Judges table always has a bristle brush to use. When you brush a really clean silky coat it falls straight in place. Without a brush you can run your hands down the coat, pick it up and if it has the right tex- ture and quality of the coat it will fall right in place. QUALITY, TEXTURE AND QUANITITY OF COAT ARE OF PRIME IMPORTANCE. THE HEAD is one of the Yorkie’s most distinctive features. It is balanced, without being fragile or course. The skull is flat on top, not too prominent or round, definitely not a Chihuahua head. Muzzle not too long, in balance with size of the head. The distance from the stop over the crown to the back of the skull and the measurement from the outside set of ear to ear should be approxi- mately the same length. A “pussycat” or “doll face” will have too short a muzzle and too deep a stop to have correct proportions. THE EYES are expressive, full of sparkle and intelligence, with dark eye rims. Oval eyes are preferred. They should not have small, beady, large round or protruding eyes. THE HEAD FALL should be a rich golden tan, deeper in color at the sides of the head, at the ear roots and the muzzle. The ears are a deep rich tan.
“THE OUTSTANDING BREED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER ARE COAT, COLOR AND TEXTURE.”
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Color should not extend down the back of the neck. SHADING is the key word here and a solid RED COLOR OR A SOLID GOLD COLOR HEAD WITH OUT SHADING IS NOT CORRECT. IT MUST BE COMPLETELY FREE OF ANY REMAINING BLACK OR SOOTY GRAY HAIRS LEFT FROM PUPPYHOOD. The Yorkie gives the appearance of self-importance and vigor. They should not be exaggerated in any part. Stand- ing about eight inches at the withers, it should be the same length from with- ers to tail as they are from withers to ground. A Yorkie who is low on leg or too high station gives an incorrect over- all appearance. The Yorkie is well pro- portioned and very compact. The back is level, with the height at the shoulders the same as at the rump. YORKIES are a sturdy, well-knit dogs with no extremes. In relationship to the body, the neck should not be too long or too short. The lack of Spring of Rib, or a long loin is a serious fault. Ribs should be oval, gradu- ally rounded at the base and reaching to the elbows, with ample fore chest. The back should be level from the withers
to set on of the tail. There should be NO DIP BEHIND THE SHOULDERS. Sway back, camel back and low tail sets are serious faults. Forelegs are straight, hindquarters are well muscled and straight when viewed from behind. Stifles are moder- ately bent and not over angulated like a German Shepard. The Yorkie moves with a free, confident gait in a parallel motion. Crossing, weaving, and moving close or single tracking are all incorrect. WHEN A YORKIE HAS A CORRECT COAT YOU CAN SEE THE OUTLINE OF THE DOG UNDERNEATH A fluffy or cotton coat will obscure the outline, making it more difficult to evaluate gait or structure. THE TAIL is docked to a medium length and carried slightly higher than the level of the topline. Many Yor- kie’s carry their tails in a higher posi- tion when they are moving, however when the tail is carried only slightly higher than the topline it should not be penalized. With regards to the undocked tail carriage, in my opinion, such a tail
should meet the same requirements as that of the docked tail. Neither a long, gay tail nor a long, squirrel tail are acceptable. The point being, the length of the tail should not alter the correct tail carriage. Running gold is when the tan exceeds the desired marking pattern. The golds should not extend above the elbow on the fore legs or above the sti- fles on the hind legs. Yorkshire Terriers are Toy dogs. The ideal weight should not exceed seven pounds with the size and balance remaining proportionate. DISQUALIFICATION: Any solid color or combination of colors other than blue and tan as described above. Any white markings other than a small white spot on the fore chest that does not exceed one inch as its longest dimension. In closing, just remember under that glamorous coat and red bow is a little dog whose roots go back to being a farm dog for the purpose of killing rats and he should be sound no matter how pretty he looks. S HOW S IGHT M AGAZINE , S EPTEMBER 2018 • 417
THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER
WITH SHARON GRIFFON
5. What’s the most common fault you see when travel- ing around the country? The most common fault I see is fronts. 6. Are there any traits in this breed you fear are becoming exaggerated? I think the breed is getting too tall and the breeders are losing the balance. 7. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are bet- ter now than they were when you first started judg- ing? Why or why not? Yes the dogs are better now. Coat texture and color have improved structure and health are also considered. 8. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? New judges look at coats, which is a Hallmark of the breed, but I think they miss a lot of structural faults because the coat hides them. The dogs should not bounce. Movement should be smooth and the topline should remain level. The coat should not move outward because the front feet are kicking it ( due to paddling). The long coat will hide a bad rear also. Toy dogs should be as structurally sound as any other breed .
I live in Michigan ,Lake Orion. A small town north of Detroit. I do a lot of sewing, reading and camping, whenever I have a free moment from the dogs. I’ve been married for fifty two years. I have four sons and fourteen grandchildren. In my other life before dogs, I worked as a registered nurse. I’ve had dogs my whole adult life, I got hooked on showing when I went to a dog show in the early 80s. I started judging in 2000 for AKC and now judge for several different registries and specialty clubs. I’ve been raising and showing Yorkshire Terriers since the 80s. I’ve also finished two Brussels Grif- fons and a Chihuahua. Over the years I’ve owned many other breeds including a Borzoi, German Shepherd, Poodle and Cocker Spaniel. I love to judge and educate the public about my breed.
1. Describe the breed in three words. Feisty, beautiful and balanced.
2. What are your “must have” traits in this breed? The traits I look for first of all is type, topline and movement. 3. This tough little dog surprises people with his spir- it in and out of the ring. Do you ever see shyness in the Yorkie ring? Sometimes a dog is shy,do to how it was exposed,or lack there of, to different experiences as a puppy. 4. Color is so important in judging the Yorkie. Are you happy with the shadings and coloration you see around the country? Overall ,I think the color has improved.There is not so many really light dogs or cottony black coats.
9. And, for a bit of humor: What’s the funniest thing you’ve ever experienced at a dog show?
Funniest thing that ever happened at a dog show was I was judging a single in the class. As the exhibitor was walking around the ring her slacks rolled down to her knees. It shocked me so much I stopped judging and tried to find her a safety pin.
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INSIGHT ON THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER
CH: Length of leg and neck resulting is a body without substance losing compactness. Too much angulation in rear and too straight in the shoulder. Artificial coloring as a result of short cuts due too. No mastery in breeding as the specificity of coat colors are one of the most diffi- cult to achieve naturally resulting in the breed beginning to lose the correct blue and gold shadings as called for in the standard from the genetic pool. KK: In the past few years, the body coat is getting blacker and blacker. This coat color lacks the silky texture that is cool to the touch and which is the essence of the breed. As breeders we should remember the proper steel blue coat color carries the black gene. However, the reverse is not true. Black coat does not carry the desired steel blue gene. Breeders who ignore this fact could cause the Yorkie of the future to end up as a black and tan Terrier, rather than the dark steel blue and shaded gold Terrier that our standard requires. RO: Although it’s not a trait of the breed, over grooming can give an exaggerated, or unnatural, appearance. 4. Do you think the dogs you see in this breed are better now than they were when you first started judging? Why or why not? CH: I believe they are worse. As we are losing many of the old time breeders and exhibitors, the breed does not appear to be attracting a lot of newcomers and real mentors for them. KK: In February of 2016 I judged the Yorkshire Terrier Club of Greater New York Specialty. We had an entry of 136 dogs. I was very impressed with the overall quality of the entry. Top lines have improved greatly. Size and proportions were excellent. Presentation and condition of the coats were outstanding. I did notice one thing which concerned me. Throughout my career, both as a breeder/exhibitor and a judge, we have always had large bitch entries in the Best of Breed class at our Specialties. I have always believed that this was a very good thing. Unhappily, this year the Best of Breed bitch entry was very small. Is this a reflection of the fact that over the past seven to ten years we have seen very few new breeders/exhibitors join our ranks? We must also remember that our dogs may build our fame but using top quality bitches in our breeding programs build our lines. RO: Yes, I believe top lines and color are getting better. 5. What do you think new judges misunderstand about the breed? CH: Not expecting soundness as “they are only a Toy”, mis- reading and misinterpretation of the standard as written.
I am from Southern CA. Outside of dogs, I breed, train and exhibit Arabian horses. I’ve been in the dog world for over fifty years, showing for over 45 years and judging for 16 years. KATHLEEN KOLBERT I live in Naugatuck, Connecticut. In the summer time I work in the gardens. Also when time permits, I am an avid reader of James Patterson, Danielle Steel and Sidney Sheldon. I have been in dogs 52 years, showing for 50 years and judg- ing for 37 years. ROBERT OWEN I live in Elizabethtown, KY, and am a retired public school educator. I am currently the President of the Yorkshire Ter- rier Club of America so I spend a lot of my time working on board business. When I am not doing that, I travel with my family, solve Sudoku and crossword puzzles, and generally enjoy retirement! I bought my first Yorkie 47 years ago and began showing her a few months later. Yorkies have been my passion ever since. After finishing quite a few champions and judging numerous matches and sweepstakes, I applied to the AKC to judge in 2009.
1. Describe the breed in three words. CH: Longhaired Toy Terrier. KK: Elegant, vigorous and self-important. RO: Elegant, lively and loving.
2. What are your “must have” traits in this breed? CH: Sound, balanced, not exaggerated in any manner, specifics in coat color, quality, texture and quantity, able to hold level topline without being hard stacked and moving. KK: An elegant, sound, long-coated Toy Terrier, identified by his straight silky steel blue and clear shaded gold coat, with a beautiful head. RO: I want a level top line, high head carriage and correct movement.
3. Are there any traits in this breed you fear are becoming exaggerated?
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