Showsight Presents the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

CHARLES SPANIEL CAVALIER KING

Let’s Talk Breed Education!

JUDGING THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

BY DR. JOHN V. IOIA

I had the great fortune to be a guest onMay 2, 1997 at the first Cavalier King Charles Spaniel National Specialty, hosted by the ACKCSC in Plymouth Meeting, Penn- sylvania. The entry of 188 held many exceptional speci- mens, but what captivated me was the demeanor of the dogs. Partic- ularly in the Specials Class, all of the exhibits seemed to be wagging in unison. I had never experienced such a happy breed of dog. This simple trait of a “tail in constant motion” gives ample indication as to why the Cavalier is such a joy to own, breed, show, and judge. A judge will often be met by a sniff, a lick, dancing front paws or even a bit of chatter. We ask new judges not to dismiss this as ama- teur handling, but to understand it as a trait that breeders treasure and encourage.

In profile, the balance of the dog should be obvious, making an elegant picture from nose to end of tail in one flowing movement, with proud head carriage and good arch of neck, good reach, and making good use of the hindquarters.

“THE CAVALIER IS DEFINED BY ITS BEAUTIFUL HEAD AND ITS GENTLE, WELCOMING, AND AFFECTIONATE PERSONALITY.”

There are many excellent articles on judging this Royal Breed, and I struggled over what new approach to take. The Cavalier is defined by its beautiful head and its gentle, welcoming, and affec- tionate personality. Otherwise, it’s a fairly generic dog. The Cavalier should give a first impression of grace and ele- gance, gay temperament with royal dignity, and yet maintain the same fearlessness and sporting character of its larger cousins. The natural, silky coat must never appear trimmed or sculpted. The correct Cavalier is a small, well-balanced dog of 13-18 lbs. and 12"-13" height that approaches squareness, although the mea- surement from point of shoulder to point of buttock is slightly lon- ger than the height at the withers. Also, the distance from withers to elbow equals that from elbow to ground. Substance and bone are moderate and in proportion to size. A proper Cavalier should not be weedy, coarse, too large or too small. Be aware of size. There’s a tendency toward bigger dogs, which will make the correct-sized dog appear small, but in all things, quality is the bottom line.

Coming at you, the front legs should also be straight and true; they should not be out at the elbows or exhibit paddling. This is typical, happy Cavalier expression.

SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 2021 | 303

KingsMarq Cavaliers

grand champion CH St Jon Masterpiece Risky Business at KingsMarq Tommy GCHB CH TITANIA BRING ON THE BUBBLY X GCH CH MASTERPIECE NARCISSUS

“With limited showing, this young boy is within 15 points of his Bronze GCH title! Always Owner-Handled!!”

Joni & Richard Marquardt, kingsmarqcavaliers.com, AKC Breeders of Merit

SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, JANUARY 2022 | 153

CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

JUDGING THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

Some examples of typical Cavalier heads and expression: Left, a lovely young female head in repose; middle, a young female alert; right, an alert male. All demonstrate lovely heads.

“CORRECT HEAD TYPE IS AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT OF THIS BREED AND MAKES ITS FIRST IMPRESSION. HERE IS WHERE KNOWLEDGE OF BREED HISTORY AND ORIGIN IS IMPORTANT. THE SHORT NOSE, DEEP STOP, AND GLOBULAR HEAD OF THE ENGLISH TOY SPANIEL IS THE ANTITHESIS OF THE CAVALIER. THE CAVALIER MUST HAVE A SOFT, MELTING EXPRESSION AND THIS IS THE RESULT OF A FLAT-APPEARING SKULL, THE FRONTAL PLACEMENT OF LARGE, ROUND EYES WITH SLIGHT CUSHIONING, FRAMED BY HIGH-SET EARS.”

to allow the head to be carried proudly. The neck should slope gracefully into well- laidback shoulders. Upright shoulders will promote a steeper head carriage, a short- ened stride, and an incorrect gait. There is a growing tendency toward upright shoul- ders and some shortened upper arms. A well-balanced dog should appear square, but is slightly longer than tall. The breed should never appear long and low nor should they be up on leg. Long backs/ short legs are becoming too common. The chest should be moderately deep and reach the elbows, with a slight swell. Cavaliers are short-coupled, meaning there is a short distance from the last rib to the hip or loin. Hindquarters should come down from a good, broad pelvis, very slightly sloped to give an attractive tail carriage. Topline is level... end of discussion. The tail is a projection of the spine and should be level with the topline, carried between two and four o’clock, with three o’clock being ideal. Please be aware that

Correct head type is an essential ele- ment of this breed and makes its first impression. Here is where knowledge of breed history and origin is important. The short nose, deep stop, and globular head of the English Toy Spaniel is the antithesis of the Cavalier. The Cavalier must have a soft, melting expression and this is the result of a flat-appearing skull, the frontal placement of large, round eyes with slight cushioning, framed by high-set ears. The eyes must be large, round, dark brown, lus- trous, and welcoming. Light eyes, promi- nent eyes or eyes surrounded by white are a serious fault as they detract from the expression. “All of the trust and gentleness of the Cavalier’s soul is communicated through its lustrous, limpid eyes.” Ears and ear set are very important and often misjudged. Ears should be set high and not too close together, with long leath- ers and silky hair. Cavaliers can “use” their ears when alert, stiffening the leathers and fanning them forward to frame the face.

This will also raise the ears to a straight line across the topskull. When at ease, the ears may relax and make an otherwise cor- rect skull appear rounded. The adage, “examine them on the table but judge them on the ground,” could never be truer. Don’t expect an exhibit to wag on the table—although they may. Use the table to check bites, ear leather, inspect layback of shoulder, and reinforce opinions made from observation on the ground. Approach the dog with a light heart and hand, cradle the head with both hands, gently check the bite, feel the topskull and origin of ear, ear leather, and move on to neck and shoulder. One more point; a scis- sors bite is preferred, but a level or slightly undershot bite in a young dog could be overlooked, as many correct by 18-24 months. And don’t make checking a bite a test of strength. A heavy hand has ruined many a good Toy dog. A perfect neck has a slight muscular arch at its crest and is of sufficient length

304 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 2021

JUDGING THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

“THE BREED IS FREE-MOVING AND ELEGANT IN ACTION, EXHIBITING GOOD REACH AND DRIVE, COVERING GROUND WHILE MAINTAINING A LEVEL TOPLINE.”

free-stacked. Handlers should be remind- ed not to get down and pose their dog— and this includes juniors. The Cavalier should be moved on a loose lead and at a medium trot. The breed is free-moving and elegant in action, exhibiting good reach and drive, covering ground while maintaining a level topline. Cavaliers do not single track at the trot, although there is some tendency to con- verge as speed increases. Coming at you, the front legs should also be straight and true; they should not be out at the elbows or exhibit paddling. In profile, the balance of the dog should be obvious, making an elegant picture from nose to end of tail, in one flowing movement, with proud head carriage and good arch of neck, good reach, and making good use of the hind- quarters. Remember, the tail is to be in constant motion. Enjoy the experience of this Royal Spaniel.

males, in particular, will posture and flag when excited, but will drop the tail back naturally when relaxed. Cavaliers come in four lovely flavors: Blenheim, with rich chestnut markings on a clear pearly white ground; Tricolor, with jet-black marking on a field of pearly white and rich tan marking over the eyes, on the cheeks, inside the ears, and under the tail; Black and Tan; and Ruby, a whole-colored, rich red. There is no color preference, but heavy ticking on the broken colors is a fault as are white spots on Rubies and Black and Tans. Please keep in mind that the Cavalier is meant to be shown naturally, free-stacked, and the only trimming that is permitted is the hair growing between the pads of the underside of the foot. The Standard states that a trimmed dog is to be so severely penalized as to virtually eliminate it from competition. Judges are expected to respect and enforce this sec- tion of the Standard. Exhibits should be

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dr. John Ioia and his wife, Barbara, have been involved in purebred dogs since 1971, first with Shih Tzu and now with Cavaliers, breeding and showing in conformation, obedience, and rally. John is licensed for all Toy Breeds, about half of the Terriers and Non-Sporting, Best in Show, and Juniors. He received his PhD in Biochemistry from SUNY Downstate Medical Center and his MD from Albany Medical College. He is an Orthopedic Surgeon, practicing in New York’s Hudson Valley.

SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 2021 | 305

Edgar

MBIS CKCSC USA & GROUP PLACING RBISOH MBISS AKC GCHS CH BROOKHAVEN THE DREAM LIVES ON, AW CGCA SELECT DOG • COLUMBIA KC UNDER JUDGE BARBARA DEMPSEY ALDERMAN

BEST OF BREED • COLUMBIA KC UNDER JUDGE DONNELLE RICHARDS

SELECT DOG • DECATUR KC UNDER JUDGE SHARON MASNICK

SELECT DOG • CAHABA VALLEY KC UNDER JUDGE BRIAN MEYER

RBIS CKCSC USA & GROUP PLACING MBISOH MRBISOH AKC GCHB CH LEGENDCREST FINNICKYSKYE DREAM CATCHER, JW AW CGC Catcher

SELECT DOG • MONTGOMERY KC UNDER JUDGE LORRAINE BISSO

OH GRP 3 • CAHABA VALLEY KC

BEST OF BREED • COLUMBIA KC UNDER JUDGE BARBARA DEMPSEY ALDERMAN

BEST IN SHOW OWNER HANDLED • COLUMBIA KC UNDER JUDGE BARBARA DEMPSEY ALDERMAN

BEST OF BREED • DECATUR KC UNDER JUDGE SHARON MASNICK

SELECT DOG AND OH GROUP 4 • HUNTSVILLE KC UNDER JUDGE PAMELA PEAT

SELECT DOG • DECATUR KC UNDER JUDGE DEBORAH BARRETT

SELECT DOG • TENNESSEE VALLEY KC UNDER JUDGE NEENA VAN CAMP

98 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, JANUARY 2022

CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

FINNICKYSKYE CAVALIERS OWNED & SHOWN BY: J IM & SHARON UTYCH

Stevie AKC CH ALMEARA VISIONNAIRE, CGCA

BEST VETERAN • MID FLORIDA CKCSC SPECIALTY AT ROYAL CANIN UNDER JUDGE BOB WHITNEY (CANADA)

Lennyn

BROOKHAVEN NUMBER NINE DREAM

RESERVE WINNERS DOG • COLUMBIA KC UNDER JUDGE LEE WHITTIER

BEST OF WINNERS • DECATUR KC UNDER JUDGE SHARON MASNICK

BEST OF WINNERS • HUNTSVILLE KC UNDER JUDGE PEGGY BEISEL MCILWAINE

RESERVE WINNERS DOG • HUNTSVILLE KC UNDER JUDGE PAMELA PEAT

RESERVE WINNERS DOG • DECATUR KC UNDER JUDGE DEBORAH BARRETT

BEST IN HIS CLASS • AKC PUPPY SWEEPSTAKES

SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, JANUARY 2022 | 99

FINNICKYSKYE CAVALIERS

OWNED & SHOWN BY: J IM & SHARON UTYCH

FATHER AND SON

Edgar MBIS CKCSC USA & GROUP PLACING RBISOH MBISS AKC GCHS CH BROOKHAVEN THE DREAM LIVES ON, AW CGCA

Catcher RBIS CKCSC USA & GROUP PLACING MBISOH MRBISOH AKC GCHB CH LEGENDCREST FINNICKYSKYE DREAM CATCHER, JW AW CGC

100 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, JANUARY 2022

CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

JUDGING THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL BY STEPHANIE ABRAHAM Submitted by the American Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Club J udging the Cavalier well is a bit like catching a genie in a bottle. Just when you think you’ve “got it right,” up jumps some new aspect of the breed to remind you that you really didn’t quite understand it at all! Nonetheless, we persevere, and if you are a careful student, you will find that you can succeed in spite of the pitfalls before you. For one thing, while the Cavalier is a true Toy Spaniel, he should not be light- boned or fragile. Just as his ancestors (bred by the Duke of Marlborough) had “to be able to go all day behind a horse,” so too the modern Cavalier must be a sturdy little dog with good spring of rib to accommodate adequate heart and lung room. He must be easily able to enjoy a good hike with his family. He must be as sound as any good-moving dog is sound—even though he is not called upon to race, or to pull a cart, or to bring a wild boar to bay. In other words, his Toy status does not give him license to be a weakling or unable to physically exert himself. The Cavalier is actually a very sporting dog and those who own one will soon learn that they have a keen penchant to chase things that move—butterflies and birds beware!

306 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 2021

296 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, AUGUST 2021

CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL, NORFOLK TERRIER

*AKC STATS AS OF 6/30/21 SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, AUGUST 2021 | 297

JUDGING THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

whose tail is constantly wagging. Now, a wagging tail is a very nice thing in our Cavaliers, and the tail does wag when the dog is in motion. But as judges, we must remember that these animals are not automatons. When standing, many of them will wag sometimes, and other times... not. As judges, it is up to us to discern that the exhibits we like and want to reward are happy to be in the ring. We can tell this by the expression in the eye, the willingness to do what the handler wishes, and overall “biddability.” Any single dog’s worth should not be mea- sured in terms of wags per minute. Please understand that I am not advocating any Cavalier be rewarded for atypical behavior. Temperament is the very essence of this breed—a glad, kindly expression, friendliness to all, and an abiding, happy outlook on life. There are any number of ways to determine whether or not you are judging a happy dog. Wagging is perhaps one of them, but no Cavalier should be penalized because he forgot his “wagger” at a crucial moment during judging. Quality is all. The head and expression of the Cavalier is a quintessential part of his breed type. The Standard is explicit about many aspects, but one of the things it does not address fully is that there should be cushioning under the eye—to contribute to the dog’s soft, gentle aspect—helping to give that melting “look” that we’ve come to know so well. The dark eyes are frontally placed, round and full—never oblique. Another thing to keep in mind is that while the Standard says that the skull is “Slight- ly rounded, but without dome or peak; it should appear flat because of the high placement of the ears”—it usually appears flat only when the ears are alert. When the dog is at rest, there actually can be a slight rounding at the top of the skull (not a pronounced curve). This is perfectly acceptable in the breed. The Cavalier is not a breed that single tracks at a brisk trot. Rather, his rear legs move parallel to each other though there is slight convergence when speed increases. They should move straight and true—and angulation front and rear should balance so that reach and drive is maximized. Hackney action in front is not acceptable. Again, he may not be doing arduous tasks in the field, but he is built so that he could do whatever came his way (commensurate with his size limitations). Note: TheCavalier was bred to be strictly a companion animal. Along the way, his ances- try undoubtedly included some Sporting and perhaps hunting breeds—with lineage as diverse as the Spanish truffle dog!

Size is another slippery slope for many judges—and breeders alike. While the Stan- dard tells us 12-13" inches at the withers, it is sometimes difficult to grasp the very sig- nificant difference in appearance that varia- tion represents. Add to this the acceptable weight variation of 13-18 lbs and it is easy to see that there is considerable—acceptable— difference in size for this breed. [Then] add gender considerations and the presumption that males are larger than females (but not always in every case), you can appreciate the dilemmas facing judges in the ring. The best solution is to educate your eye by immers- ing yourself in the breed; watching liter- ally scores of Cavaliers in order to sort out what is ok and what is not. Oh, did I for- get? There is no DQ for size. So maybe, just maybe, your best Cavalier in the ring will be a little under or a little over that 12-13" rec- ommendation. We need to remember that the world will not come crashing down if we reward the very best specimen who may be a bit outside the guidelines. Temperament and ring behavior is another area where the unwary judge may find himself wanting. I have encountered any number of judges who are convinced that the only good Cavalier is a Cavalier

SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 2021 | 307

JUDGING THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

While he may exhibit some traits that acknowledge his roots, he was never intended to be anything but a lap dog and companion. Tail carriage is sometimes a stick- ing point for judges. Ideal carriage should not be much above the level of the back, with carriage between 2 and 4 o’clock being acceptable. But remember, males will sometimes pos- ture in the ring and raise the tail. As judges, it is up to us to decide what to do about that. Personally, I would forgive a tail that I deem to be a bit excitable, rather than put up a poorer conformation specimen. Remember, any one of us can see a truly gay tail in the air (it doesn’t take rocket sci- ence), but sometimes I think the easy criticism takes undue precedence when we reward, instead, a dog with straight shoulders or sickle hocks. Bites in the Cavalier sometimes give both judges and breeders abso- lute fits! Our Standard says that “A perfect, regular and complete scissors bite is preferred…” If we are lucky breeders, our hopeful puppy has a scissors bite from birth and never changes. But this breed is notorious for having its occlusion alter over many months and even years. That promising puppy may go from scis- sors to undershot and back to scissors again—I know of one that “came right” at the age of five! Of course, as judges we can only judge on the day, but many judges do tend to give the benefit of the doubt to Cavaliers who are still in the Puppy Classes and have a slightly undershot bite. It’s up to you. Overshot bites are rarely shown and I have never known one to improve. Please do not expect the Cavalier to stand at riveted attention in the ring—or at least not for very long. The Cavalier nature is to fidget and dance about, and this should not be held against him. At the same time, he should be shown on a loose lead and not hard-stacked in the ring. Handlers may get their attention with bait or toys, but bending or kneeling down to re-set a leg on the floor or the grass is not an acceptable way to show this breed. Meticulous stacking is reserved for the table exam.

Just as we want their true, happy nature to shine through with a wag or a dance, we also demand that they not be trimmed. No sculpt- ing, no thinning, no trimming! “Specimens where coat has been altered by trimming, clipping, or by artificial means shall be so severe- ly penalized as to be effectively eliminated from competition.” Judges, please heed this and have the fortitude not to reward the trimmed dog, even if he is the best one before you. Or else, what are Standards for? The Cavalier may not be an easy breed to judge, but he is such a merry, happy dog that most judges enjoy their Cavalier assignments. Just remember to catch and tame that genie in the bottle! For further information on the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, or a list of breeders, visit: ACKCSC.org .

308 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, DECEMBER 2021

THE HISTORY OF THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

BY ROBERT A. SCHROLL

T he Cavalier King Charles Spaniel of today really owes its recreation to three things—an American, paint- ings and prize money. The Cavalier gained its royal stature way back in the 1600s during the rule of the Stuart Kings Charles I and his son Charles II. The dogs were court favor- ites and trailed both monarchs around the various castles, occasionally to the dismay of other subjects. They were prominently featured in the paintings of Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Gainsborough and others. At the end of their reigns and the annexation of Scotland into the Unit- ed Kingdom, they were replaced by other breeds. By the 1800s, the breed had morphed into the very short-faced, dome-headed English Toy Spaniel (or King Charles Spaniels over there). That look and type remained through the 19th century. In the 1920s, an American named Roswell Eldridge noted the absence of the old longer-nosed, flat-skulled span- iels he admired and so for five years offered a prize at Crufts of 25 pounds— a very tidy sum—to the dog and bitch most resembling the dogs in the paint- ings of the old masters. Roads diverge at this point as to how the recreation of the breed truly came about. Some would have you believe

“Young King Charles II of England with his Spaniel” by Van Dyck, c. 1600s. (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)

that Charlie breeders just began to keep their longer-nosed pets and bred them to each other, while still others suggest that Cockers, Papillons and even Welsh Springer Spaniels were added to the gene pool. I believe that the answer tru- ly lies somewhere in between the two. Whatever the case, in 1928 the prize was awarded to a Blenheim dog named Anns Son, and with him in the

center of a table surrounded by breed- ers, a standard was written and the club was formed in 1929. Breed popularity continued to grow until it eventually became the UK’s top toy dog. The first Cavaliers arrived on these shores in 1952 and in 1956 sisters-in- law Gertrude Polk Brown Albrecht and Sally Brown formed a club and approached the AKC to find out how to

“BREED POPULARITY CONTINUED TO GROW UNTIL IT EVENTUALLY BECAME THE UK’S TOP TOY DOG.”

304 • S HOW S IGHT M AGAZINE , J ANUARY 2019

“IN TERMS OF AKC REGISTRATION NUMBERS, IN 2017 THE CAVALIER RANKED THE 19TH MOST POPULAR BREED

IN THE UNITED STATES, TRAILING ONLY THE YORKSHIRE TERRIER.”

get them admitted. Records were kept, shows were held (usually at Trudy’s farm in Louisville, Sutherland) and it languished in the miscellaneous class for twenty years. In 1994, the AKC made it clear that Cavaliers would be recognized with or without a Parent Club. The Border Collie Club went through a similar situ- ation and was recognized without a par- ent club. Faced with this inevitability, twelve concerned breeders (including those with many of the top winning and producing dogs) organized a club, wrote a standard and gathered the support of over one hundred other new members. Cavalier King Charles Spaniels became AKC’s 140th recognized breed on January 1, 1996. In terms of AKC registration num- bers, in 2017 the Cavalier ranked the 19th most popular breed in the United States, trailing only the Yorkshire Terrier. ACKCSC has chosen this article to reprint to honor the author and the his- tory of our breed. Robert Schroll has been selected by the ACKCSC Board of Directors to judge Best of Breed at the club’s 25th Anniversary Celebration in April 2019. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Robert Schroll (Ravenrush Cavaliers): Robert met his partner John Gammon while working for the legendary handler Ted Young, Jr. After moving to Tennessee in 1977, they got their first two Cavaliers, littermates, a black and tan dog and a ruby bitch. They attended their first Cav- alier show in 1980, where the ruby bitch became the first in the US of her color to win a specialty! Since then, they have bred, owned and handled four ACKCSC National Specialty winners, five all-breed BIS winners (including the breed’s first BIS). Additionally, Ravenrush has nine Registry of Merit and three Legion of Merit Cavaliers. Robert and John were both founding officers of the ACKCSC. Robert continues to serve on the Judges Education Committee.

“Study of a King Charles Spaniel” by Chalon, c. 1800. (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.)

(Photo © Downey)

“A King Charles Spaniel” by Manet, c. 1866. (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.)

306 • S HOW S IGHT M AGAZINE , J ANUARY 2019

JUDGING THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL BY STEPHANIE ABRAHAM Submitted by the American Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Club J udging the Cavalier well is a bit like catching a genie in a bottle. Just when you think you’ve “got it right,” up jumps some new aspect of the breed to remind you that you really didn’t quite understand it at all! Nonetheless, we persevere, and if you are a careful student, you will fi nd that you can succeed in spite of the pitfalls before you. For one thing, while the Cavalier is a true Toy Spaniel, he should not be light- boned or fragile. Just as his ancestors (bred by the Duke of Marlborough) had “to be able to go all day behind a horse,” so too the modern Cavalier must be a sturdy little dog with good spring of rib to accommodate adequate heart and lung room. He must be easily able to enjoy a good hike with his family. He must be as sound as any good-moving dog is sound—even though he is not called upon to race, or to pull a cart, or to bring a wild boar to bay. In other words, his Toy status does not give him license to be a weakling or unable to physically exert himself. Th e Cavalier is actually a very sporting dog and those who own one will soon learn that they have a keen penchant to chase things that move—butter fl ies and birds beware!

208 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 2020

JUDGING THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

wagging tail is a very nice thing in our Cavaliers, and the tail does wag when the dog is in motion. But as judges, we must remember that these animals are not automatons. When stand- ing, many of them will wag sometimes and other times...not. As judges, it is up to us to discern that the exhibits we like and want to reward are happy to be in the ring. We can tell this by the expression in the eye, the willingness to do what the han- dler wishes, and overall “biddability.” Any single dog’s worth should not be measured in terms of wags per minute. Please understand that I am not advocating any Cavalier be rewarded for atypical behavior. Temperament is the very essence of this breed—a glad, kindly expression, friendliness to all, and an abiding, happy outlook on life. Th ere are any number of ways to determine whether or not you are judging a happy dog. Wag- ging is perhaps one of them, but no Cavalier should be penal- ized because he forgot his “wagger” at a crucial moment during judging. Quality is all. Th e head and expression of the Cavalier is a quintessential part of his breed type. Th e Standard is explicit about many aspects, but one of the things it does not address fully is that there should be cushioning under the eye—to contribute to the dog’s soft, gentle aspect—helping to give that melting “look” that we’ve come to know so well. Th e dark eyes are frontally placed, round and full—never oblique. Another thing to keep in mind is that while the Standard says that the skull is “Slight- ly rounded, but without dome or peak; it should appear fl at because of the high placement of the ears”—it usually appears fl at only when the ears are alert. When the dog is at rest, there actually can be a slight rounding at the top of the skull (not a pronounced curve). Th is is perfectly acceptable in the breed. Th e Cavalier is not a breed that single tracks at a brisk trot. Rather, his rear legs move parallel to each other though there is slight convergence when speed increases. Th ey should move straight and true—and angulation front and rear should balance so that reach and drive is maximized. Hackney action in front is not acceptable. Again, he may not be doing arduous tasks in the fi eld, but he is built so that he could do whatever came his way (commensurate with his size limitations). Note: Th e Cavalier was bred to be strictly a companion animal. Along the way his ances- try undoubtedly included some Sporting and perhaps hunting breeds—with lineage as diverse as the Spanish tru ffl e dog!

Size is another slippery slope for many judges—and breeders alike. While the Stan- dard tells us 12-13" inches at the withers, it is sometimes di ffi cult to grasp the very sig- ni fi cant di ff erence in appearance that varia- tion represents. Add to this the acceptable weight variation of 13-18 lbs and it is easy to see that there is considerable—acceptable— di ff erence in size for this breed. [ Th en] add gender considerations and the presumption that males are larger than females (but not always in every case), you can appreciate the dilemmas facing judges in the ring. Th e best solution is to educate your eye by immers- ing yourself in the breed; watching literally scores of Cavaliers in order to sort out what is ok and what is not. Oh, did I forget? Th ere is no DQ for size. So maybe, just maybe, your best Cavalier in the ring will be a little under or a little over that 12-13" recommen- dation. We need to remember that the world will not come crashing down if we reward the very best specimen who may be a bit outside the guidelines. Temperament and ring behavior is another area where the unwary judge may fi nd himself wanting. I have encountered any number of judges who are convinced that the only good Cavalier is a Cavalier whose tail is constantly wagging. Now, a

210 | SHOWSIGHT MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 2020

JUDGING THE CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

While he may exhibit some traits that acknowledge his roots, he was never intended to be anything but a lap dog and companion. Tail carriage is sometimes a stick- ing point to judges. Ideal carriage should not be much above the level of the back, with carriage between 2 and 4 o’clock being acceptable. But remember, males will sometimes pos- ture in the ring and raise the tail. As judges, it is up to us to decide what to do about that. Personally, I would forgive a tail that I deem to be a bit excitable, rather than put up a poorer conformation specimen. Remember, any one of us can see a truly gay tail in the air (it doesn’t take rocket sci- ence), but sometimes I think the easy criticism takes undue precedence when we reward, instead, a dog with straight shoulders or sickle hocks. Bites in the Cavalier sometimes give both judges and breeders abso- lute fi ts! Our Standard says that “A perfect, regular and complete scissors bite is preferred…” If we are lucky breeders, our hopeful puppy has a scissors bite from birth and never changes. But this breed is notorious for having its occlusion alter over many months and even years. Th at promising puppy may go from scis- sors to undershot and back to scissors again—I know of one that “came right” at the age of fi ve! Of course, as judges we can only judge on the day, but many judges do tend to give the bene fi t of the doubt to Cavaliers who are still in the Puppy Classes and have a slightly undershot bite. It’s up to you. Overshot bites are rarely shown and I have never known one to improve. Please do not expect the Cavalier to stand at riveted attention in the ring—or at least not for very long. Th e Cavalier nature is to fi dget and dance about, and this should not be held against him. At the same time, he should be shown on a loose lead and not hard stacked in the ring. Handlers may get their attention with bait or toys, but bending or kneeling down to re-set a leg on the fl oor or the grass is not an acceptable way to show this breed. Meticulous stacking is reserved for the table exam.

Just as we want their true, happy nature to shine through with a wag or a dance, we also demand that they not be trimmed. No sculpt- ing, no thinning, no trimming! “Specimens where coat has been altered by trimming, clipping, or by arti fi cial means shall be so severe- ly penalized as to be e ff ectively eliminated from competition.” Judges, please heed this and have the fortitude not to reward the trimmed dog, even if he is the best one before you. Or else, what are Standards for? Th e Cavalier may not be an easy breed to judge, but he is such a merry, happy dog that most judges enjoy their Cavalier assignments. Just remember to catch and tame that genie in the bottle! For further information on the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, or a list of breeders, visit ACKCSC.org .

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DR. SUSAN BARRETT, D.V.M AKC BREEDER OF MERIT | WYNDANCERCAVALIERS.COM

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CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

OUR PRESENT

BISS & Multiple Toy Group Winner GCHGWynDancer Silver Lining

#1 RANKED & TOP 5

2018 & 2019 *

BEAUTIFULLY PRESENTED BY ERIN PIERCY

BRED BY DR. SUSAN BARRETT, DVM www.wyndancercavaliers.com wyndancercavaliers@yahoo.com OWNED BY DR. SUSAN BARRETT, DVM WynDancer Cavalier King Charles Spaniels wyndancercavaliers.com

*ShowSight breed stats as of January, February and March 2018, 2019

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CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL

OUR FUTURE

OUR SINCERE APPRECIATION & THANK YOU TO ALL JUDGES WHO HAVE RECOGNIZED OUR DOGS.

DR. SUSAN BARRETT, D.V.M AKC BREEDER OF MERIT | WYNDANCERCAVALIERS.COM

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CAVALIER KING CHARLES SPANIEL THE

1. Where do you live? What do you do “outside” of dogs? 2. In popularity, Cavaliers currently rank #18 out of 192. Is this huge popularity good or bad? Is it difficult to find breeding stock? Placing puppies? 3. Small dogs can fit into about any situation. Is the Cavalier the ideal household companion? 4. The Cavalier’s attitude is, well, “cavalier.” What about him serves him well in the living room? In the show ring? 5. At what age do you start to see definite signs of show-worthi- ness (or lack thereof)? 6. Showing dogs is not for the faint of heart. What is it that makes it all worthwhile? 7. What is the most important thing about the breed for a novice to keep in mind when judging? 8. What is your ultimate goal for the breed? 9. What is your favorite dog show memory? 10. Is there anything else you’ d like to share about the breed? Please elaborate. PAULA AYERS

LOM and Register of Merits (ROMs) on AKC and CKCSC, USA Ch Brookhaven Fairmont, ROM, AKC and CKCSC, USA Ch Brookhaven Dream Lover, ROM; AKC Ch Orchardhill Brookhav- en Bliss, ROM; Eng.; Ch Pascavale Pancho, ROM; CH Pascavale Stanley, ROM and Ch Pascavale Jamie, ROM. To see the dogs in your house that you believe in, produce the next generation of champions is what every breeder wants to accomplish. Paula has been involved in many areas in the Clubs including Board member Conyers Kennel Club, and presently President of Cavaliers of Greater Atlanta. I live in Madison, Georgia (60 miles east of Atlanta) and I work for Southern Company Services in IT. Is the breed’s huge popularity good or bad? I think being popu- lar can be good and bad. Good because our pet puppies typically go to wonderful loving homes. Bad because being popular can make family’s buy the in thing for the wrong reasons. It is not difficult to find breeding stock, I mostly breed to my own dogs occasionally going to other reputable breeders. Puppies are not hard to place as I only have a few litters each year. I normally have people waiting. Is the Cavalier the ideal household companion? Cavaliers are wonderful pets and do well in most living situations—they are hap- py sitting in your lap or going for a walk in the field. What about the breed serves them well in the living room and in the show ring? Cavalier’s are very “Cavalier”—they love every- one and everything. In the living room they are great with old and young alike. They also do well with other pets. In the show ring they aim to please so with a little training they are a very happy fun to show dog. At what age do I start to see definite signs of show-worthiness? I make my first cut around three months. I keep most of my promis- ing puppies to between six months and one year. (Sometimes I still let the great one get away). What is it that makes showing dogs all worthwhile? Showing dogs is my escape from reality. You do have to have thick skin because some people like to feel good by talking bad about others. What makes it worthwhile—I have to say because of a little small dog I have friends all over the world! What is the most important thing about the breed for a nov- ice to keep in mind when judging? The Cavalier should be a small sound little dog—moving like a sporting breed and when you take the head in your hands you should feel “Ahh” or “WOW”. Every judge should strive to put up not only type but sound specimens of the breed. What is my ultimate goal for the breed? For the Breed as a whole is for established breeders to continue to share knowledge about type, soundness and health. The hearts have improved so much over the past 25 years we don’t need to become complacent. My favorite dog show memory has to be when GCH Brookhaven Believe It Or Not was in the UK and I traveled over to see him show in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Club Show to watch him win RBIS was truly a dream come true. To know you have bred a dog that can compete and in their country of origin.

Paula Ayers always enjoyed the companionship of dogs growing up, including several mixed breed dogs, a German Shepherd and a Toy Poodle. After marrying in 1979, she and her husband shared their household with a Cockapoo for 15 wonderful years. In 1992, a Boston Terrier was added to the family which was feisty as ever. We lost Hogan (the Boston Ter- rier) at the ripe old age of 16.

In 1994, Paula’s sister, Brenda Martz, was dogless after the loss of her beloved elderly Keeshond. She attended a local fun match and there, also watching in the stands, was a couple with two ador- able dogs. After inquiring, Brenda discovered they were Cava- lier King Charles Spaniels and she knew she had found the dog for her! Paula became hooked as well when she joined in Brenda’s search for a breeder. In 1995, Brookhaven Cavaliers was born with the addition of “Luxxar Joyride”, a sweet tri-color female from Paula Campanozzi. Joy became the foundation of Brookhaven Cavaliers. To date, as a breeder-owner, Paula has finished over 60 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels in the AKC, and has bred several Best in Show winning AKC and CKCSC, USA Champions. In 2015 it was a Dream Come True to gain an English Title on Eng, CKCSC USA CH and AKC GCH Brookhaven Believe It Or Not “Ripley”. Ripley has been the top Stud Dog in the UK for the past three years and the top Toy Stud dog for the past two years in the UK. In 2018 GCHG Brookhaven Here Comes Hogan checked another box by getting four all-breed best in shows (a very hard accomplishment for a Cavalier). One of the highest honors to come to Brookhaven Cavaliers was achieving a Legion of Merit (LOM) on Ch Pascavale Enchanted,

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Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Q& A

SUSAN BARRETT

involved with any health issues and always ready with advice, and will take a puppy back if there is any concern. So finding the right family that is open to do this with a breeder is a challenge. This has to be done in order to protect this breed from unscrupulous people who want a Cavalier to sell for a higher price or or to breed just for money. These types of people are the cause of all the problems with any breed, including puppy mills, health issues and too many pup- pies leading to a need for rescue. Our breed clubs work hard to help protect this breed and we have strong rescue groups. I am not surprised that Cavaliers are a popular breed. They are the ideal household companion in my opinion. They are a com- panion breed with a friendly and outgoing temperament. As a toy spaniel they love to play and walk like a sporting breed. They have a moderate coat and are easy to care for, shed very little, and require no extensive grooming. They are 13-18 pounds by our standard and easy to travel with, including air travel in the cabin. They are also very cute and because they are a toy, they are puppies for life! Cavaliers were bred to be companions to the kings of England and to keep them warm. They are mild mannered, calm, and not typically barkers in the home environment. They will bark to warn owners of danger. Cavaliers are easily trained and love to please and play games. So they love the show ring and it is all about fun for them! Cavaliers should have always have an outgoing, friendly tem- perament with a lot of confidence and a tail constantly in motion. They are fun to show. As soon as they are born I start watching them for signs of show worthiness. Markings are important on the puppies in my opinion. I prefer white with well broken deep, rich color and about equal in those. Markings on head should be even and i always love the Blenheim spot on top of the head. I watch for which puppies thrive and are vigorous and seem inquisitive at an early age. I continue to watch the temperament and then the bite becomes important. In the boys, we need those testicles down. Sometimes one may not be all the way down until eight months. We want a scissor bite and under bites can occur since the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was derived from the King Charles with the short nose. The Cavalier King Charles was bred to be the opposite in many ways of the King Charles, including preferably no under bite. Bites can change and correct up to one to two years I have found, so I don’t place a nice puppy with a slight under bite too soon. Eight weeks is when some people like to see how they look, but I find that doesn’t always work with Cavaliers. Some who looked good may turn out too big or I don’t like the head for show or breeding as an example. A testicle may not drop on the most wonderful boy. Five to six months I can usually predict which puppies are going to do well in the ring, as well as spot those I love everything about for my breeding program. I sometimes finish a championship and place young champions in a pet home with great success. I have placed some with juniors who wanted to show as well as some as therapy dogs. I cannot keep them all as much as I love them. That is the hardest thing for me as a breeder—letting them go as I am so attached to them. A successful breeder with great lines has a lot of “show dogs”. Occasionally, we have one we can’t take our eyes off of—the one who may be able to be ranked which is another ballgame. Many can be championed, but few can be ranked to number one or achieve the grand cham- pion gold or platinum. It is a lot of time, effort and expense to do that. As for breeding, we can finish them if we wish, but we have to look at what we already have that is better for breeding and con- tinuing a type we love. Sometimes we have nice dogs that for some reason might not finish, ie one flaw, but we can breed them with the right dog without that flaw and get wonderful puppies. It is a game of chess in many cases or checks and balances. I usually start plac- ing five month old pups on the table and putting on a lead just fun. I begin taking them to conformation classes at about six to seven months and start showing eight to ten months. I have had such nice puppies they started right at six months in the show ring and

Dr. Susan Barrett graduated from Oklahoma State University with a BS in Zoology Phi Kappa Phi in 1976 and the Oklahoma State University College of Vet- erinary Medicine in 1980. She received the Barber-Lundgerg Scholarship by the vote of the fac- ulty as the top student in her grad- uating class for scholarship, lead- ership, and clinical proficiency. She also received a the Oklahoma

City Kennel Club scholarship as the student most likely to succeed in small animal practice. Dr. Barrett was awarded a post doctoral Fellowship in physiology and anatomy and conducted research on reproduction before entering private practice for a year in Okla- homa. She moved to Sacramento in 1981 and opened Crossroads Animal Hospital, followed by Sunrise-Cirby Animal Hospital, Elk- horn-Walerga Animal Hospital and then sold them before opening Watt Avenue Pet Hospital in the Arden-Arcade area in 1995. She has a special interest in internal medicine, dermatology, preventa- tive care, dental preventative care, behavioral counseling and obedi- ence training and cosmetic surgery. Her passion is teaching owners how to care for their pets. Dr. Barrett is an AKC Breeder of Merit under her WynDancer Cavalier King Charles Spaniel banner for the past ten years. She got her first Cavalier in 2001 and began showing Cavaliers in 2005. In the past ten years she began a breeding program for showing dogs & has finished over 20 AKC Champion Cavaliers, many home bred. She has gone on finish many Grand Champions and has top ranked dogs who compete at Westminster and Eukanuba dog shows. Dr. Barrett has two grown children and grand children. She enjoys volunteering to help others and is a member of Rotary Inter- national, the American Veterinary Medical Association, the Cali- fornia Veterinary Medical Association, the American Animal Hos- pital Association, the California Veterinary Medical Rescue Corps, and is a docent at the Folsom City Zoo Sanctuary, She has trained several of her dogs for the Canine Good Citizen certificate and had a therapy dog in Lend A Hart for five years. Dr. Barrett is always available to help you with any medical, behavioral, or training concerns about your pet. Dr. Barrett would like to welcome you to Watt Avenue Pet Hospital. She prides herself on going beyond what is expected during the care of your pet. I live in Sacramento, California, and am a small animal veteri- narian in practice for 38 years. I graduated in 1980 from Oklahoma State University College of Veterinary Medicine with honors. Besides breeding and showing Cavaliers, I am a Rotarian and enjoy volunteering in my community and helping others. I also attend 30 to 40 hours of veterinary seminars a year in order to keep current in medicine and surgery. Most people do not know that I am a true crime sleuth and a published author of true crime. I also enjoy spending time with my grandchildren. I think it is a given that Cavalier King Charles Spaniels are popular. I don’t see a problem with their popularity at this point. It is easy to find good breeding stock if one breeds to show to our standard and to improve the breed. If one is known as a reputable breeder who exhibits their dogs, is a preservation breeder, does rec- ommended health testing and joins in with fellow breeders at shows and events , there is no problem working with other like-minded breeders who are respected in our breed. I get at least 20 inquiries a week from people looking for a puppy. There is no problem selling a Cavalier puppy. Placing a puppy in a loving, forever home is always a challenge. Reputable breeders place a puppy with an agreement or contract, stay in contact with the owners for the life of the puppy, are

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Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Q& A took off and did well. The bonding and love with my dog is what makes training and showing so worthwhile. Nothing is more fun or satisfying than training a dog for show and obedience, groom- ing the dog to make it beautiful and then going out and doing our best in the ring. It is a show. The dog must love it. I must love it—I enjoy going back to the hotel room if I am on the road and it’s just me and my or dogs and we cuddle in on the bed, take walks around the hotel and have people stop and greet us or chat. It is the greatest fun—just me and my beautiful and very happy dog. Novices should keep in mind that no one can predict with cer- tainly whether a puppy will be a show dog. Besides conformation and elements of our standard (which a novice should know by heart) the dog must like to show and have the temperament for the show ring. One can have the most beautiful dog, but if it doesn’t like the ring, is timid, won’t wag, it will not be a show dog. Novices should study the standard, go to shows and watch dogs and which ones the judges like, and go to breed club seminars when possible about structure and function. Join a breed club. Start with a pet Cavalier first. Novices should find out or ask about each element of judging. What is the judge looking for on the table? It is like an interview. Looking at the eyes—should be round, not bulging, and no white showing as Cavaliers should have pigmentation of the white of the eyes. The head should not be domed but have the appearance of almost flat with ears up high on the head. Judges will examine the bite and look for the scissor bite and novices need to know what that means. Judges put their hands on the dog and can tell structure of front and rear, top line, and tail set for example. What is a judge looking for on the down and back and the go around? Novices should know that type, temperament, our standard, and structure are the mainstays of a show dog and that even then it may not do well in the ring as it is difficult to get all perfect. Finally, there is no perfect dog. Our breed has a come a long way in type, beauty and structure since 1926 when the breeders in England where chal- lenged to create the breed from the King Charles Spaniel. My goal is to keep the breed to our original standard. I feel it is getting too big and well over 18 pounds. I see 25 pound Cavaliers in the ring and rewarded. I also feel they are too heavily marked. Even though markings are not placed of much importance, they are still in the standard. The pearly white and well broken with deep, rich color is what iI think we should strive for and is what should be rewarded. We are getting too much coat and big, poofy ears. Although pretty to look at, the Cavaliers should be moderate in coat. Coat should be silky and not fuzzy. Finally, the long body and short in leg is a huge problem in the breed and a fault in my opinion. I feel judges need more training for Cavalier judging. It is getting to be where there are fewer and fewer Cavaliers to our original standard. My goal is to breed type and to the standard as well as for health. My favorite dog show memory is winning Best in Show twice at our Cavalier breed club shows. I have been able to meet so many wonderful people from many countries by attending shows all over the country. The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is the most wonderful dog I could ever imagine. They are pure sweetness, always playful and happy, and forever loyal and loving. The best thing i have ever done in my life is to be able to share it with Cavaliers. My greatest joy has been to birth and nurture Cavalier puppies and then see a puppy grow up to be my companion in the ring. The bonding i have with new mothers who trust me as we both care for their babies is pre- cious to me. I am the luckiest person in the world to have them in my life. ANNE ECKERSLEY Like many exhibitors, I did not grow up showing dogs so it was not until I was an adult that I purchased my first Cavalier and embarked upon learning how to show a dog. I purchased my first Susan Barrett continued

Cavalier in 1976 while I was living in England. My first choice would have been an English Pointer or Labrador but living in an apartment in Central London I did not think I could do the dog justice in terms of exercise. With all the many public parks in Lon- don I believe I was wrong in my opinion but ultimately it was for- tunate I did get a small breed when we were transferred back to the USA and then travelled back and forth to both coasts in the USA. I knew about Cavaliers and how their temperament was similar to large breed dogs but they were a more portable size—all of these attributes attracted me to the breed. I learned so much from my first two Cavaliers and my first foray into dog shows was in obedience. I came into dogs in the era of BC—before computers! There was no Google, no mentors, telephone service was extortionately expen- sive so the only place one could learn about showing and breeding dogs was at shows and seminars. I attended every seminar I could locate and in those days there were many. Basically, breeders learned solely from each other. I have judged Cavaliers since 1984 and attended numerous Judges’ Seminars, International Breed Conventions, the AKC Judges Institutes, the ACEF in Conformation Judging Courses, Chaired/Presented CNE’s Breeder/Judges Symposium for two years and wrote two in depth handbooks for these Symposiums. More recently, I have presented to AKC Judges on a few occasions to instruct those who judge the breed. The instruction I have been privileged to be exposed to, in han- dling, breed type, structure/movement and obedience and agil- ity, have come from the very best individuals in their field—as an example the late, great Annie Rogers Clark. Despite all of this education and the usefulness of the Internet, I expect to learn something new at every dog event I attend. If not, then I consider it a wasted day. I live in Connecticut and I am solely focused on all aspects of the sport of dogs. I enjoy traveling and since I am originally from Scotland, I do tend to return to the UK annually. Is the breed’s huge popularity good or bad? Popularity of any breed is never a good thing. With popularity comes higher prices which in turn attracts those interested purely in making money off the dogs without considering the myriad of health issues we see in Cavaliers. The AKC parent club for Cavaliers has identified four important health clearances that all breeders should perform and these are listed on OFA www.ofa.org. The recent surge in rankings for the Cavalier demonstrates the demand for the breed and there- fore placing puppies is not usually difficult. As far as finding breed- ing stock, it is vital for anyone wishing to get started in Cavaliers to attend Cavalier specialties and locate a mentor with whom they have a rapport and whose dogs they admire. They should choose a mentor who seriously considers health and temperament as primary in their breeding program. Unlike years ago when breeders kept large numbers of dogs, today many breeders choose only to keep a few dogs and tend not to keep stud dogs and thus it can be a chal- lenge to find superior quality males to breed. When a breeder has bred only the best quality of Cavalier, the bar is set so high that those breeders do have difficulty settling for anything less. Is the Cavalier the ideal household companion? Cavaliers are perfect in any situation. From lounging on velvet pillows to a romp in the fields chasing bunny rabbits. Cavaliers just want to be with their owners and are game for anything the owners want to do. They get along equally well with children as well as seniors and live well alongside other species as long as they are socialized with them from the beginning. What about the breed serves them well in the living room and in the show ring? One must always remember that a dog whose personality is ideal for both the living room and the show ring are trained to be that way. They are not born to be show dogs. They must be trained to behave appropriately in different situations. Their inherent relaxed, snuggle-type attitude allows them to be a

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