American Eskimo Dog Breed Magazine - Showsight


Let’s Talk Breed Education!

The American Eskimo Dog


vidence has shown that the white Spitz dog was brought over to the US with some of the first settlers. The major- ity of dogs during the early times had


to work for a living. The white Spitz was no exception. It worked the farms as a herder, guardian, vermin catcher, and sometimes it even accompanied hunting trips for the family dinner. Times were lean, and the dog occasion- ally was expected to supply its own source of protein. The larger dogs were kept outside as herders, guardians, and workers. The smaller dogs were brought into the home as companions and vermin catchers; but if asked to, they could perform the jobs that the larger dogs did. The breed was bred to be a multi-purpose working dog of the farm.

Nice Toy, ears well placed, correct eye, nice length of neck. Correct breed type. Would like to see more rear angulation, longer second thigh.

Dog is showing correct sidegate according to the standard. Feet are meeting under the body and are only lifted high enough to clear the ground. Note the same distance between the front two legs as there is between the rear two.

Correct head study, muzzle balances with backskull, eyes are wide set, correct shape, ears conform to head size, bridge of nose is flat, high foreface, nice expression.












Excellent sidegate! Legs are only lifted high enough to clear the ground, same distance between front legs as there is in rear, feet are meeting under the body. Head is dropped slightly to keep with forward momentum of the dog.. Even through the coat you can see that back remains level.

The breed lived in somewhat obscurity until registered with UKC just after the turn of the 20th Century. At first, the breed was just registered as “Spitz” as it was definitely a Nordic/Spitz- type dog. The name went through several changes, from Ameri- can Spitz to American Eskimo Spitz, until finally, in 1926, the name was settled to American Eskimo, denoting its Nordic heri- tage. Populations of “Eskies,” as they were nicknamed, could be found in the Midwest and Texas. Gradually, the breed could be seen in other areas. Over the years, it lived a quiet life, without anyone seeking AKC recognition. More people began to fall in love with the American Eskimo dog that was extremely intel- ligent and versatile, had outstanding beauty, and was noted for its longevity. This was also a time of the rise of the many circuses. They trained many dogs of numerous breeds and mixed-breeds to perform in various performances. The American Eskimo was trained in some circuses along with many other breeds at that time. The Eskie, however, was never “bred” to be a circus dog. It was not used any more or any less than any of the other breeds. Many of the white Spitz that were used were not purebred dogs. There were a number of “stories” of the Eskie and the Circus, but when researched, they were just that—stories. In 1969, UKC closed the stud books. The National American Eskimo Association was formed and the breed was divided into Miniatures and Standards. In 1994, the AKC recognized the American Eskimo Dog, adding “Dog” to its name. The breed was divided into three divisions; Toy, Miniature, and Standard. Today, the traits and instincts that were desired to develop the American Eskimo Dog have produced a very intelligent, versa- tile dog that excels in Agility, Obedience, Tracking, Lure Cours- ing, Barn Hunt, Farm Dog, Therapy and Service Dog work. These are just to name a few of its talents. It is hard to find something that the American Eskimo Dog cannot be taught. When judging the American Eskimo Dog, remember what the breed was originally developed for—a farm dog. The AKC Standard for the breed states that the American Eskimo Dog is “…a picture of strength, agility, alertness and beauty.” The Eskie is a Nordic/Spitz-type dog and should give you the impression of a small-to-medium-sized “Northern” breed.

This dog shows good arch of neck, balanced front and rear. It is out of coat, but quality appears good, nice headpiece, and showing snownose.

Eskies can be excellent herders.

Classic Headpiece! Correct eye, muzzle has good depth, bridge is flat, correct stop, and foreface, ears are correct size., all over, very nice head, and intelligent expression.





The #1 Owner Handled dog in the HISTORY of NOHS 2021 WESTMINSTER BEST OF BREED WINNER #3 Breed* #3 All Breed* #1 Owner Handled American Eskimo* (4 years in a row) TOP 5 Owner Handled Dog Amongst All Breeds*

*AKC stats as of 7/31/21


photo credit: Congleton Dog Show photography AMERICAN ESKIMO DOG



The head is that of a Nordic/Spitz type. It is wedge-shaped, has a high foreface and oval eyes that are medium-to-dark brown. Ears will balance to the size of the head. The expression is keen and intelligent. There will be good underjaw. Bite is scissors or pincer; both are equally correct. A full complement of teeth is preferred, so check the side teeth. The nose is black-to-dark brown. We also have “snownose,” which is common in many of the Nordic breeds. You can tell the difference between snownose and a dog that has a lack of pigment. With snownose, the edges of the dog’s nose are still black. A dog with a lack of pigment will have a pink nose, or a pink and black spotted nose. The pink is very distinct and bright. Do not pass over an excellent specimen of the breed because of snownose. There is good depth to the upper jaw, and it balances with the length of the skull, or may be slightly shorter. The key here is balance. We do not want a muzzle that is too short. The muzzle must be in balance with the skull; reason being, Eskies are a cold weather dog. In very cold weather, when the dog breathes in, the muzzle length will give time for the cold air to be warmed before going to the lungs. If the muzzle is too short, air may be too cold when reaching the lungs, and may damage or freeze them. Shoulders are well-angulated, with good return of upper arm. Front legs are under the body. The dog has good forechest, and the proster- num can be easily felt. The front pasterns are strong and flexible, with a 20-degree slant. Dewclaws are not to be faulted if they have not been removed on the front. There will be no rear dewclaws. The dog will stand solid on its front and the same with the rear. The Eskie foot is oval, and pads are deeply cushioned. We do not have a cat foot. The neck is of medium length and is carried in a graceful arch. Note that when the dog is moving, the head will be dropped slightly to keep with the forward momentum of the dog. The back is strong and firm, loins are short and powerful. There is a 30-degree lay of the pelvis. The hindquarters are well angulated, upper thighs well-developed, and hocks are short and are well let down. The dog will stand with the hocks behind him/her, not underneath the dog. The American Eskimo Dog is a single-tracking breed, and is, thus, clean coming and going. The dog should be able to single track in an easy trot, down and back. The side gait will show excellent reach of the fore- quarters matched by a strong driving rear. The legs will only be lifted high enough to clear the ground; there is no wasted action. There will be the same distance between the front two legs as there is between the rear, and the feet will meet under the body. The American Eskimo Dog is not a square dog. To be able to move as the Standard describes, and to be structured to carry the reach and drive defined, the dog is slightly longer than tall, measured from the point of shoulder to the point of buttocks (1.1 to 1). The girls have a tendency to be slightly longer; easier to whelp. Do not fault a bitch for this. The length comes from the ribcage, rather than the loin. The dog will measure the same distance from the top of the withers to the elbow as it does from the elbow to the ground. When the dog comes into the ring, he/she will give you the impression that it could trot all day without tiring. Movement is effortless, tireless. The back will remain strong and level. There will be no up-and-down movement of the back. There will be spring in the movement. The American Eskimo Dog is white or white with biscuit, or cream. The Eskie has a typical Nordic double coat. It has a short wooly undercoat and a longer guard hair that grows through it. It is a weather-resistant coat. The coat has a distinct pattern. Note that the Standard states that the breeches will come to the hock. The ruff is more noticeable on the dogs than on the bitches. The bitches will also have a somewhat softer coat, but it is still weather-resistant. The guard hair will stand off from the body and will differ in length from dog to dog. Remember, the girls will not carry the coat of the boys, and they should not be penalized for this. The qual- ity of the coat is more important than the quantity. The tail is profusely coated and carried over the back, either to the left, the right, or centered; all are equally correct.

Correct front coming toward you. No wasted action in movement. Dog also shows correct headpiece. Dog is in a good coat, and the dog also has good breed type.

This dog stands well on its front; has good breed type.

This dog is snow-nosed. Do not pass over an excellent specimen of the breed because of snownose. Dog has a balanced head, good eye and ear set.



The American Eskimo Dog has a distinct coat pattern. It is more noticeable on dogs than bitches.

There is to be NO trimming of the body coat, and such trimming WILL be severely penalized. We do not want a sculpted dog. Temperament is important. The American Eskimo Dog is a very intel- ligent, dog. He/she is very willing to

The American Eskimo Dog will single-track when moving away.

Eskies are excellent jumpers!

learn whatever is being taught. They are not a “needy” dog. They, like most Nordic breeds, must have pack order. Some- one must be the pack leader or the dog will assume this posi- tion. They get along well with children, if raised properly with them. They get along with other dogs in their pack. They do have prey drive... so to small running animals or objects they will give chase. They have a natural protective instinct, but will easily learn what is appropriate to sound a warning to—and what is not. Eskie mothers are some of the best mothers in the dog world. They are easy breeders, on the whole, though there are always exceptions to the rule. But, generally, bitches breed very well. They also whelp very well, and prefer to do it all themselves. Even first-time mothers are known to whelp an entire litter of six without issue. Of course, there are always the exceptions, as stated earlier, but on the whole, they are great in the whelping box. They are great, attentive moth- ers, and if left with their puppies, will usually wean puppies themselves by eight weeks. The boys are also easy breeders, even their first time, and it is not unusual for older sires to breed naturally. All in all, the American Eskimo Dog is a breed that is well-balanced, sound-structured, a good trotting dog, intel- ligent, with a strong natural desire to please without being needy. They are a relativity healthy breed, living well into their teens. They are one of the “primitive” breeds, so many natural instincts are keen. There are downsides, however, as there are with all breeds. I would say that their biggest down- side is their desire to have “pack order,” though I feel their good outweighs this shortcoming. They love humans, in general, and are loyal to “their” humans, as their owners are to them...

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Diana Allen has been raising/showing American Eskimo Dogs for over 40 years under the Sierra® kennel name. Eskies has always been her passion. Along the way she have also raised/shown German Shepherd Dogs, Afghans, Basenjis, and a Golden, a Rottweiler, and a Malamute Her breeding program is ongoing, and never ending. Diana’s quest is that elusive, perfect creature, according to our Standard, that lives only in her head. Presently Diana is the President of the National American Eskimo Association, on the BOD for the American Eskimo Dog Club of America, and Judges Education Chairman for the AEDCA. She is an All- Breed UKC Senior Judge, and has judged several Specialty Matches with AKC. Her second passion is Animal Behavior, but limits herself to Dogs and large Cats. She also has a great passion for Canine Nutrition, and works for Nestle Purina, PetCare Co, in the Professional Engagement Breeder Team. Diana wants to see the American Eskimo to continue to improve, according to our breed standard. She feels temperament has improved greatly, and breeders continue to do so .Diana feels that Exhibitor/Breeder Education is as important as Judges Education as we need to educate those that make the dogs as well as those that judge them. They need to be in balance. She looks forward to seeing everyone at the shows!!


HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN ESKIMO DOG BY DIANA ALLEN T he American Eskimo Dog’s country of origin is Germany. It was originally bred as a multipurpose working dog

on the farm. The “Eskie”, as it has been nicknamed, is one of a number of Spitz breeds. The word “Spitz” is a German word and translated as “sharp point”. The dogs were referred to as Spitz as when alerted their ears would quickly come to a sharp point. Spitz breeds are also called “Nordic Breeds”; the two terms are interchangeable. On the whole, Spitz breeds have the same characteristics. They have erect ears, wedge–shaped heads, double weather resistant coats, are trotting breeds, have tails that are well plumed and they all have been used to assist man. They have been used as herders, hunters, haulers, guardians and devot- ed companions. These are just a few of the many services that they are capable of performing. ON THE FARM The Spitz in Germany was used to assist humans in a number of tasks on the farm. Farms in Germany are differ- ent than what we are used to seeing in the US. In Germany, farmers lived in vil- lages and went out each day to the farm. Sheep and cows lived in the village at night and had to be taken out to pasture each day. The dog was an intricate part of the farmer’s life. In an average day, the dog would perform a number of tasks. They went with the farmer to take the sheep out to pasture. They gathered sheep from the pasture and searched for any ani- mals that had strayed. The dogs would


go with the children to watch over sheep that grazed in the unfenced fields and remained on the job even if the children were sidetracked with play. They watched the gates that were left open, rounded up the chickens and put them up at night. The family farm dog would do any number of tasks that may need doing. The dog was also used to serve as a watchdog for the property and family. They were even noted to go with the farmer to hunt on occasion to bring home dinner. The dog would not only keep away predators of animal and human out of its territory, the dog need- ed to know the difference between its own livestock and livestock that was trespassing. The Spitz was an intelligent, thinking dog. It was robust and hardy, with a strong natural desire to please. The Spitz will do its best to accomplish any task that is asked of it. At harvest time, the Spitz could be found riding the vegetable carts into market protect- ing against thievery. COMING TO THE US When the German settlers came to the US, many of their dogs came with them, so came the Spitz. There, the Spitz is found in colors other than white. They are also found in black, chocolate and red, but why the white variety was the most popular color in the US is unclear. Many of the German settlers settled in the Midwest and New England as these areas look very much like the German countryside. German settlers also went to southern Texas and the Spitz became popular in that region.

The Germans used the Spitz very much in the same manner as they did in Ger- many. The breed became a formable watchdog of the farm. CIRCUS LIFE The Spitz’s historical association with the circus began in Germany; however, the German circuses used the Spitz, but no more or less than any other breed or mixed breed. Gypsies were noted to have Spitz traveling with them. The dogs would readily warn of an approaching strang- er, this also included the local law enforcement. Since the breed was eas- ily trained, eye catching and intelligent, the gypsies would train the dogs to do tricks. They would then invite the local townspeople to come and watch the dogs, for a fee of course. Some of the circuses in Europe began to use the Spitz in their acts. In the 1920s, there was a story of the P.T Barnum and Bailey circus using a Spitz in one of its circus acts named “Bido”. (In fact, “Bido”, a dog from the Midwest, can be fold in old pedigrees of that time.) It was said that it was the only dog to be trained to walk a tight rope; however, there is no documenta- tion of the actual dog performing. There was also a story of a dog named “Trixie” that was also said to be used a circus dog; however, documen- tation leads to a children’s book of that time about a circus dog named Trixie. That dog looks to be a Pomeranian and is described as “white and brown”. Whether this was a real dog that was written about or just a child’s storybook is unknown.

The circuses used many dogs in their acts. The American Eskimo Dog was undeniable used in circus acts, but was never developed or bred to be a circus dog. THE SPITZ NAME The UKC (United Kennel Club) regis- tered the breed in 1913. Only the white variety was registered. There was a fire in the early days of UKC and many of the records were lost; therefore, the first recorded registration of the breed isn’t until 1922. There were seven dogs registered under the breed name of “Spitz”—the first recorded bitch was “Patsy Pall” and the first male was “Rob Roy”. In 1923, an additional thirteen were registered as Spitz. By 1924, there was considerable anti- German sentiment in the United States arising. Many of the German breeds were being chastised and discriminat- ed against. UKC changed the name of the breed to “American Spitz”. In 1925, the breed name was changed again to “American Eskimo Spitz”. This name was adopted from the kennel name of Mr. & Mrs. Hall who raised the Spitz along with a number of other breeds. Their kennel name was “American Eski- mo Kennels”. In 1926, the “Spitz” was completely taken off the name; how- ever, the breed was still referred to for many years as “Spitz” or “Eskimo Spitz”. THE STANDARD The first Breed Standard was written in 1958, along with an official “History of the Breed”. By this time, due to the anti–German sentiment from the past, the entire history of the breed had been


erased and the breed was described as a dog that was bred down from large sled dogs, with nothing of its German origin being mentioned. The size of the breed was stated at “15 to 19 inches at the shoulder”. Then, in 1969 the National American Eskimo Dog Association was formed and they divided the breed into two sizes, Standard and Miniature, accord- ing to weight. This was done “for show purposes only”. The breed was divided so there would be more classes, thus more ribbons would be given out. This would hopefully keep exhibitors show- ing longer and make the shows larger. In the 1974 Standard, nothing was written about any history of the breed. Nothing was said where the breed came from, nor what it was bred for. There was a statement in an old Bloodlines magazine that stated, “soon people will forget about the Spitz name, and only know the breed as American Eskimo, they forget everything”. It seemed that the intent was to attempt to hide where the breed actually came from. In 1985, the American Eskimo Dog Club of American was formed. The breed was then divided into three siz- es by height and disqualifying heights were incorporated into the Standard.

They are a resourceful, thinking breed and can be destructive if left without a “job”, or something to do. They are easy to train, love to work and enjoy being with their human pack members. Off lead, they prefer to stay within sight of their human. They have a close bond with humans in general, and enjoy working close with them. They are a versatile breed being able to be used for a number of tasks. Breeders work hard to breed a dog that is sound structured, mentally stable and can do the work the breed was intend- ed to do…which is to be versatile, able to herd, able to be a watchdog as well as a close companion, be intelligent, easy to train, independent and be not needy. These are the traits that are the essence of what makes the breed an American Eskimo Dog. The American Eskimo Dog traces its ancestors to Germany and has many of the same ancestors as a number of the Nordic breeds of today. Today, the American Eskimo Dog stands proud of its German heritage. The American Eskimo Dog is one of the most versa- tile breeds excelling in herding, agil- ity, tracking, obedience, service and therapy work, companion and just an all–around great dog!

In 1995, the AKC officially accepted the American Eskimo Dog for registra- tion. They did not separate the breed into separate varieties or sizes. In Open class only, the breed could be separated into three divisions. Eskies are show in the Non–Sporting group. THE ESKIE TEMPERMANT The American Eskimo is considered a “primitive breed”, in that many of the natural instincts of the breed are still very fixed. The Eskie, as with most Nor- dic breeds, has a strong pack instinct. The Eskie’s natural instincts in breed- ing, whelping and rearing of a litter are unyielding and require little to no outside assistance. The breed is noted for its longevity, with many living until their middle to late teens. For their size, they are strong, powerful dogs. Also, they are a healthy breed when com- pared to many other breeds, but are not without their issues. As with any breed, they are not the breed for everyone. With their strong pack instincts, they must have a pack leader. They are a moderately active breed and do need exercise. They are a double–coated breed with a thick weather resistant coat, and will shed their undercoat usually twice per year.


JUDGING THE AMERICAN ESKIMO DOG P erhaps the first thing peo- ple notice about the Eskie ring is the wide range of sizes shown together. Eskies by RUTH SAMPSON AND DIANA ALLEN

will be almost two inches longer than tall. Thus a 19 inch tall dog would be 21 inches in length. Even the 10 inch toy would be 10 inches at the shoulder and 11 inches in length. Eskies are not to be cobby. Coming to the front of the dog, first notice the alert and intelligent expres- sion. Cradle the head in your hands. The Eskie head should have a soft wedge shape with the widest breadth between the ears, eyes are dark to medium brown, almost oval in shape and symmetrically placed on the head. The standard calls for full dentition and either a scissor or level bite is correct. The muzzle is broad and the length can be shorter, but may not exceed the backskull length. Ears are triangular, erect and conform to size of head. Jaw is strong and well developed. Bridge of the muzzle is flat, foreface is high, stop is well defined. Eye rims, lips and nose are black to dark brown. As with many Nordic breeds, Eskies may snownose (center of nose leather fading) with the winter months, hence the name. This is not to be confused with a total or par- tial lack of pigment of the nose. Disqual- ification: Blue eyes. In examining the remainder of the dog, the neck is medium in length and carries a good arch. Front legs are well under the body. The standard calls for a well angulated dog both front and rear, you may be able to feel the right angle, (one corner of a square) where the shoulder blade meets the upper arm. Both bones lay back 45 degrees from a line through the joint running parallel to the ground. The 45 degree angle is probably more sought after than found, but straight shoulders severely impact

come in small, medium and large size (officially known as toy, miniature and standard). The toy is 9 inches up to and including 12 inches. Miniatures are over 12 inches up to and including 15 inches. The standard Eskie is over 15 inches, up to and including 19 inch- es. All Eskies are shown on the table. Disqualification: Height at withers under 9 inches or over 19 inches. When the dogs come into the ring, the first thing noted is that this is a Nor- dic breed. It is a trotting breed. It will cover the most amount of ground with the least amount of effort. The fastest dog isn’t necessarily the best mover. The best mover will be efficient, tireless and effortless. The dog putting forth a lot of effort to get around the ring will not be your best mover. The legs of the good moving Eskie may not move as fast, but the dog will cover good ground. On the table, note that the top of the withers, the elbow and just behind the front pad are all in a straight line per- pendicular to the ground. The length of the leg should be 50% of the height of the dog, with the body also being 50%. This can sometimes be hard to see because of the abundant Eskie coat. Note also that the front pasterns are angled 20 degrees which acts as a cushion and increases stamina over long distances. Eskies are not a square breed. The standard calls for a ratio of 1 to 1.1 height to length. Thus the length should be 10% more than the height of the dog. A 19 inch dog (measured at the withers)

Eskie Coat Pattern




Snow Nose


the gait. The sternum can be easily felt as the dog has good forechest. Ribs are on the approximate level of the elbow and are well sprung to the elbow. The back is strong and level; loins are well muscled. The standard calls for a 30 degree lay off of the pelvis. To be in balance with the front, the stifle must be well bent and the hocks short (well let down), and straight. There is a very slight slope of the croup. Upper and lower thighs are of the same length. Feet are oval. Toes are arched and pads are tough and deeply cushioned. The Eskie is a single tracking breed. All footprints falling on a single line of travel. When the dog breaks into a trot his body is supported by only two legs at a time, which move as alternating diagonal pairs. To achieve balance, his legs angle inward toward a center line beneath his body, and the greater the speed, the closer they come to track- ing on a single line. (In a small ring, Eskie legs can be seen to converge but may not reach true single tracking in a confined space. The gait is “agile, bold, well bal- anced and frictionless, with good fore- quarter reach and good hindquarter drive”. The head will drop slightly to keep with the forward momentum of the dog. Eskie tails may be down when the dog is at ease but must be car- ried loosely over the back while they are moving. The Eskie is a double coated breed. It is white or white with biscuit cream. The quality of the coat is more impor- tant than the quantity. Dogs will nor- mally carry more coat than the bitch- es. Bitches will have a slightly softer texture to their coat. The coat is weather

resistant and carries the typical pattern to the coat. Pattern is more apparent on dogs than bitches. Disqualification: Any color other than white or biscuit cream. And finally, please remember from the standard: “There is to be no trim- ming of the whiskers or body coat and such trimming will be severely penal- ized. Only permissible trimming is to neaten the feet and the backs of the When judging the American Eskimo Dog it is important to keep in mind the original function of the breed. It was originally bred as a multi-purpose working dog of the farm. The Eskie is one of the most versatile of breeds and is extremely intelligent. The Standard for the breed is very descriptive as to what is desired. The Eskie is a Nordic breed and also displays the charac- teristics of the ancient Spitz line of dogs. Good and balanced angulation is extremely important with shoul- ders well laid back. It is also a trotting breed, so movement is very important, not only written in the standard, but to the breeders that have dedicated their lives to preserving, protecting and improving. rear pasterns.” SUMMARY: The Eskie succeeds in agility, obe- dience, flyball, lure coursing, dock dog diving, herding, therapy and ser- vice dog work. And is a strikingly beau- tiful dog in the conformation ring as well as a loving and loyal companion. Eskies exel at these and other tasks. But it cannot do so if it is not have the structure, temperament and type as according to the standard…so please judge accordingly.

Movement Puppy Sidegate

Movement Agile, bold, well balanced, good reach & drive

Movement Single Tracks as speed increases


General Appearance: The American Eskimo Dog, a loving companion dog, presents a picture of strength and agility, alertness and beauty. It is a small to medi- um-size Nordic type dog, always white, or white with biscuit cream. The American Eskimo Dog is compact- ly built and well balanced, with good substance, and an alert, smooth gait. The face is Nordic type with erect triangular shaped ears, and distinctive black points (lips, nose, and eye rims). The white double coat consists of a short, dense undercoat, with a longer guard hair growing through it forming the outer coat, which is straight with no curl or wave. The coat is thicker and longer around the neck and chest forming a lion-like ruff, which is more notice- OfficialStandard for the A MERICA N ESKIMO DOG COURTESY THE AMERICAN KENNEL CLUB

broad, with length not exceeding the length of the skull, although it may be slightly shorter. Nose pig- ment is black to dark brown. Lips are thin and tight, black to dark brown in color. Faults - pink nose pig- ment or pink lip pigment. The jaw should be strong with a full complement of close fitting teeth. The bite is scissors, or pincer. Neck, Topline, Bod y: The neck is carried proudly erect, well set on, medium in length, and in a strong, graceful arch. The topline is level. The body of the American Eskimo Dog is strong and compact, but not cobby. The chest is deep and broad with well-sprung ribs. Depth of chest extends approximately to point

of elbows. Slight tuck-up of belly just behind the ribs. The back is straight, broad, level, and muscular. The loin is strong and well-muscled. The American Eskimo Dog is nei- ther too long nor too short cou- pled. The tail is set moderately high and reaches approximately to the point of hock when down. It is carried loosely on the back, although it may be dropped when at rest.

able on dogs than on bitches. The rump and hind legs down to the hocks are also covered with thicker, longer hair forming the characteristic breeches. The richly plumed tail is carried loosely on the back. Size, Proportion, Substance: Size - There are three separate size divisions of the American Eskimo Dog (all measurements are heights at withers): Toy, 9 inches to and including 12 inches; Miniature, over 12 inches to and including 15 inches; and Standard, over 15 inches to and including

19 inches. There is no preference for size within each division. Disqualification - Under 9 inches or over 19 inches. Proportion - Length of back from point of shoulder to point of buttocks is slightly greater than height at withers, an approximate 1.1 to 1 ratio. Substance - The American Eskimo Dog is strong and compactly built with adequate bone. Head : Expression is keen, intelligent, and alert. Eyes are not fully round, but slightly oval. They should be set well apart, and not slanted, prominent or bulging. Tear stain, unless severe, is not to be faulted. Presence of tear stain should not outweigh consider- ation of type, structure, or temperament. Dark to medium brown is the preferred eye color. Eye rims are black to dark brown. Eyelashes are white. Faults - amber eye color or pink eye rims. Disqualification - blue eyes. Ears should conform to head size and be triangular, slightly blunt-tipped, held erect, set on high yet well apart, and blend softly with the head. Skull is slightly crowned and softly wedge-shaped, with widest breadth between the ears. The stop is well defined, although not abrupt. The muzzle is

Forequarters: Forequarters are well angulated. The shoulder is firmly set and has adequate muscle but is not overdeveloped. The shoulder blades are well laid back and slant 45 degrees with the horizontal. At the point of shoulder the shoulder blade forms an approximate right angle with the upper arm. The legs are parallel and straight to the pasterns. The pasterns are strong and flexible with a slant of about 20 degrees. Length of leg in proportion to the body. Dewclaws on the front legs may be removed at the owner's discretion;if present, they are not to be fault- ed. Feet are oval, compact, tightly knit and well padded with hair. Toes are well arched. Pads are black to dark brown, tough and deeply cushioned. Toenails are white. Hind quarters: Hindquarters are well angulated. The lay of the pelvis is approximately 30 degrees to the horizontal. The upper thighs are well developed. Stifles are well bent. Hock joints are well let down and firm. The rear pasterns are straight. Legs are par- allel from the rear and turn neither in nor out. Feet


OfficialStandard for the A MERICA N ESKIMO DOG CONTINUED

OfficialStandard for the A MERICA N ESKIMO DOG CONTINUED

are as described for the front legs. Dewclaws are not present on the hind legs. Coat: Color: Pure white is the preferred color, although white with biscuit cream is permissible. Presence of biscuit cream should not outweigh consideration of type, structure, or temperament. The skin of the American Eskimo Dog is pink or gray. Disqualification - any color other than white or biscuit cream.

a e as described for the front legs. Dewclaw are o present on the hind legs. Coat: Color: Pure white is the preferred color, although white with b cuit cream is pe missible. Pre ence of biscuit cream should not outweigh c nsideration of type, structu e, or temperament. The skin of the A erican Eskimo D g is pink or gray. Disqualification - any color o her than white or biscuit cream.

tive. It is never overly shy nor aggressive, and such dogs are to be severely penalized in the show ring. At home it is an excellent watchdog, sounding a warning bark to announce the arrival of any stranger. It is protective of its home and family, although it does not threaten to bite or attack peo- ple. The American Eskimo Dog learns new tasks quickly

tive. It is never overly shy nor aggressive, and such dogs are to be sev rely p nalized in the show ring. At home it is an excellent watchdog, sounding warni g bark to announce the ar ival of any stranger. It is protective of its home and family, although it does not threaten to bit or attack peo- pl . The American Eskimo Dog learns new tasks quickly

Gait: The American Eskimo Dog shall trot, not pace. The gait is agile, bold, well balanced, and frictionless, with good forequarter reach and good hindquarter drive. As speed increases, the American Eskimo Dog will single track with the legs converging toward the center line of gravity while the back remains firm, strong, and level. Temperament: The American Eskimo Dog is intelli- gent, alert, and friendly, although slightly conserva-

Gait: The A erican Eskimo Dog sh ll trot, ot pace. The gait is agile, bold, well balanced, and frictionless, with good forequarter reac and good hind rter drive. As peed increases, the A erican Eskimo Dog will s ngle track with the le s converging toward the center line of gravity whil the back remains firm, strong, and level. Temp ra nt: The A erican Eskimo Dog is intelli- gent, alert, and friendly, although slightly conserva-

and is eager to please.

and is eager to please.

Disqualifications: Any color other than white or bis- cuit cream. Blue eyes. Height under 9 inches or over 19 inches.

Disqualificati ns: Any color oth r than white or bis- c it cr am. Blue eyes. He ght under 9 inches or over 19 inches.

Approved:October 11, 1994 Effective:November 30, 1994

Approved:October 11, 1994 Effective:November 30, 1994

Pangraf Photo courtesy Karen Scholz

Pangraf Photo courtesy Karen Scholz



1. Where do you live? What do you do “outside” of dogs? 2. In popularity, The American Eskimo is currently ranked #122 out of 192 AKC-recognized breeds. Do you hope this will change or are you comfortable with his placement? Do these numbers help or hurt the breed? 3. Does the average person on the street recognize him for what he is? 4. Are there any misconceptions about the breed you’ d like to dispel? 5. What special challenges do breeders face in our current eco- nomic and social climate? 6. At what age do you start to see definite signs of show-worthi- ness (or lack thereof)? 7. What is the most important thing about the breed for a new judge to keep in mind? 8. What’s the best way to attract newcomers to your breed and to the sport? 9. What is your ultimate goal for the breed? 10. What is your favorite dog show memory? 11. Is there anything else you’ d like to share about the breed? Please elaborate. BARBARA BEYNON In 2019, I moved to Thatcher, Arizona, in the southeastern portion of the state. Previously I lived in my hometown of Corpus Christi, Texas. I am a geologist by degrees and retired from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality where I worked as an Environmental Investigator. I now pursue personal interests and do occasional environmental consulting work. Do I hope the breed’s popularity will change or am I comfort- able with the placement? Today’s rankings of breed popularity are a shadow of what the breeds were 20 years ago when registrations of all breeds was much higher. I am not as interested in rankings as much as I am in the overall numbers of AED registrations. In order to increase the actual numbers and move the breed up in the rankings, I constantly work to bring new breeders into the world of American Eskimo Dogs. I don’t want to see the breed become so popular that the breed suffers from too many mediocre individuals. Nor do I want to see the breed made up of so few breeders that the breed loses its vitality and diversity. Does the average person on the street recognize the breed? Most people in larger cities are aware of the American Eskimo Dog. I now live in a small community, so many people believe that my Minis and Toys are Pomeranians, but they are not sure and they ask. I tell them that the Eskie is a cousin breed to the Pom, although serious fanciers know that they are different. Twenty to thirty years ago in Texas, I was asked if my dogs were Spitz, especially in areas with large German populations. Again, I said that they are descended from white Spitz, but that they were AEDs. I have not heard the Spitz reference since 2000. Are there any misconceptions about the breed I’d like to dispel? My pet peeve is that some breeders say that the sizes are different in temperament, with the Toys and Minis being “hyper” and the Standards being “calmer”. I believe that puppies and young dogs are far more energetic than older dogs. Eskies are like people—we seem to slow down as we age.

Also some breeders do not believe in crossing the sizes—Stan- dards to Toy and Miniatures. They are the same breed, and if the mating is a good one, then cross. What special challenges do breeders face in our current eco- nomic and social climate? Breeders face two common problems. Animal-rights’ and “Rescue shelter dogs”: Because of these move- ments, the average person believes that breeding purebred dogs is “wrong” and that they should adopt unwanted dogs from shelters. This reminds me of the movement a few years ago which encour- aged by shaming people to drive small cars instead of “gas-guzzling SUVs” in order to save the planet. Apparently car manufacturers managed to save the planet because Americans today love and drive their big SUVs and trucks. However, these same Americans are not allowed to get the dog they want because it comes from “a breeder”. I carefully watch the words I use when talking about puppies going to their new homes: I do not “sell” a puppy, I “place” puppies. I make very clear that simply because someone wants one of my pup- pies that they must demonstrate that they know how to take care of the puppy and raise it with proper care. The cost of quality veterinary care: Yes, everyone must have the money to properly take care of their dog(s). However, responsible breeders face costs involved in health clearances (required tests for the Eskie are OFA Hip and Eye exams and a DNA test for PRA- prcd). Breeders face additional costs of showing, stud fees, and other vet care (emergency C-sections, puppy care, etc.). I am not picking on veterinarians because they are medical professionals and deserve their fees, BUT the costs add up quickly for new breeders, who have work and family obligations. At what age do I start to see definite signs of show-worthiness? I start critiquing my puppies at birth. I watched my dog Smoke being born and knew he was special! He did not disappoint! I watch the way the puppies look and move through those short weeks before they start going to new homes. My top show dogs must have the fighting spirit to demand that people look at them. Once I decide that a puppy isn’t destined for the Conformation ring, I am happy to place it in a loving home. Obviously, many show-quality puppies go to homes where they will never be shown. What is the most important thing about the breed for a new judge to keep in mind? Provided the entry is large enough, judges should not be afraid to use Eskies of different sizes, as long as they are the best. I have seen judges start awarding the first classes to one particular size and then continue using the same Eskies of that size even though they were not the best, because they started with a certain size and felt they had to continue with that size throughout. When you examine their winners, they are the same size, but of all variations of type. Just find the Eskie which best fits your mental picture of the breed and place it, and do not worry which size it is. What’s the best way to attract newcomers to my breed and to the sport? Make everything fun! If it isn’t fun, why on earth would anyone want to compete? We must also remember that not everyone wants to show in Conformation. Maybe they want to show in Agil- ity or Obedience, or they just want to meet other owners and have fun with their Eskies. The key is not to push them. If they see that showing dogs is fun, they may change their minds over time and start showing. Other owners could teach grooming and training and then show their Eskie for them to get them started. The biggest turn-off for newcomers is exhibitors who are not only unfriendly, but they are downright mean. We all like to win, but running down the competition (whether you win or lose) will cause 99% of newcomers to decide to never show their dog.



“The most important thing about the breed for a new judge to keep in mind? The three sizes can make it diffi - cult to evaluate gaits when they are all shown together.”

My ultimate goal for the breed? My goal is to leave the breed a little better than I found it, and to do no harm to the breed. So far, I have been successful. I only hope that I can continue. Oh, and when this is no longer fun, I’m getting out! JACKIE BLACKBURN I’ve shown dogs since the mid 70s. I started with Samoyeds and slowly graduated to handling all breeds. About 13-14 years ago, I saw an American Eskimo that took my heart. I started showing Chill for Carolyn Jester and fell completely in love. Beautiful, intel- ligent and bred to be in conformation—Julian—was my first AE. As I got older, I stopped showing the Samoyeds and started with AE’s. I’m getting slower, so I figured I’d better get a smaller breed. I’ve been very happy with the American Eskimos and have done many, many shows with many, many great wins! I live just south of Granbury, Texas on an acre. I live with my four footed fuzzies and three cats. I retired in February 2020 after working for 25 years at the Brazos River Authority. My time is free to work with my dogs and assist others who would like to learn more about the sport. Do I hope the breed’s popularity will change or am I comfort- able with the placement? I actually prefer that the American Eskimo is not one of the top popular dogs. I want them to be popular, but not as common as the top breeds. I remember when Lady and the Tramp came out and everyone wanted a Cocker Spaniel. The breed is unique with its intelligence, coloring and three sizes. They are great with children and fun to train in all sorts of dog sports—con- formation, agility, obedience, etc. Does the average person on the street recognize the breed? Most people say, “What a nice Pomeranian”, but a few have identified them correctly. Are there any misconceptions about the breed I’d like to dis- pel? Properly socialized and trained, the American Eskimo is not a snippy, ill-tempered breed. What special challenges do breeders face in our current eco- nomic and social climate? You definitely have to keep up with all the vet exams and tests and certifications. Most people (I believe) don’t understand the high prices for puppies also reflect the health checkups of the bloodlines. At what age do I start to see definite signs of show-worthiness? I start watching and evaluating when they start getting on their feet and moving. I’ve been handling them and loving on them since day two. I hold them on their backs and make lovey noises so they can identify me from the beginning. When they start walking I start watching the fronts and rears; when they are steadier on their feet, side movement starts being watched. The puppy develops fairly quickly and you will be able to start seeing desired qualities. The most important thing about the breed for a new judge to keep in mind? Eye stain does not disqualify the dog. It is preferable to not have any, but it does happen. The best way to attract newcomers to my breed and to the sport? Take the dogs out to socialize them. Let people see them and inter- act with them. It’s good for both parties—the people and the dogs. My ultimate goal for the breed? Keeping with the standard and producing healthier, longer lived dogs. Using them in all types of sports and tasks—herding, scent discrimination, etc.

My favorite dog show memory? Winning a BIS—but everyone had left and I had to load all by myself—wasn’t so fun then, but when you’re on cloud 9, it’s doable. Now I just smile and laugh. They make the most loving companions—they can tell when I’m upset, they learn quickly on hand movements making it easy to communicate, they snuggle really well in bed for sleeping. LAURIE BOLES

I grew up in Houston, Texas, and have always loved animals, especially dogs and horses. I have previously res- cued Shetland Sheepdogs and owned Pekingese, a Great Dane, a Siberian Husky, and Labrador Retrievers. I live in Central Texas, between Austin, Houston, and San Antonio. Outside of my dogs, I enjoy garden- ing. I am also a real estate broker, and

semi-retired RN. Do I hope the breed’s popularity will change or am I comfort- able with the placement? Although I would like to see the American Eskimo breed become a bit more popular, I do not want them to become so desirable that quality is sacrificed for quantity. Do these numbers help or hurt the breed? As far as breeding goes, low num- bers can make it more challenging, although not impossible, to find a suitable mate. Does the average person on the street recognize the breed? Many people do, but I still have people ask me about my “Sami” or “white Pom”. I just smile and tell them the dog is an American Eskimo, then explain that it used to be called a “Spitz” if they are unfamiliar with the name. At that point, they often exclaim “Oh, my grand- mother had one of those!” Are there any misconceptions about the breed I’d like to dispel? Some people think that these dogs tend to be biters, but mine treat strangers like new best friends! What special challenges do breeders face in our current econom- ic and social climate? Although I wholeheartedly support canine rescue, some people believe that any intentionally bred dog equals a “puppy-mill”. As breeders, we need to get our health clearances and carefully select our sire and dams for desired traits, and to rule out as many undesirable traits, as possible. At what age do I start to see definite signs of show-worthiness? I start evaluating my puppies at birth, then thoroughly at eight weeks. Bites are checked until permanent teeth arrive. The most important thing about the breed for a new judge to keep in mind? The three sizes can make it difficult to evaluate gaits when they are all shown together. The best way to attract newcomers to my breed and to the sport? I think to let newcomers see and meet the breed while being educat- ed on all of the fun facts about these dogs definitely attracts people. For instance, describing all of the sporting events that they excel at, their herding ability, and their innate intelligence; I don’t have to mention their beauty; people meeting them for the first time tell me about that! My ultimate goal for the breed? I would love for the breed to become better understood as a good, multi-talented companion. My favorite dog show memory? I was at a dog show in Mis- souri, and another breed was holding a seminar on the Trick Dog


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