Showsight Presents - The Scottish Terrier

TERRIER SCOTTISH

Let’s Talk Breed Education!

KNOWING THE NAME OF SOMETHING IS NOT THE SAME AS KNOWING SOMETHING

FROM A BBC INTERVIEW WITH RICHARD FEYNMAN, NOBEL QUANTUM PHYSICIST

BY KATHI BROWN AND DARLE HECK

T he Guidelines for Writing Breed Standards identifies that the purpose of a standard is to be a guide for breeders and judges. The importance is to “keep in mind those features that make the breed unique,” those qualities the breed must possess to do the job for which it was created. The charge is to be clear and concise; thus the selection of specific vocabulary is essential to convey a clear image of the proper specimen of the breed. As we are aware, the standard format places “General Appearance” at the forefront of each standard, and it is within this paragraph that our breed club spells out the most important criteria of form to function. The history and subsequent development of our Scottish Terrier standard has followed these expectations. Early in the breed history, there were a variety of breeds identified as “Scotch Terriers.” Each was bred by sportsmen for specific purposes and specific terrain. The “Scotch Terrier” began to be shown around 1860 with a diversity of types, among which were a number of what we now know as sepa- rate breeds. It shortly became evident that agreement needed to be reached on which characteristics would define the Scottish Terrier… those that make the breed unique and to be highly valued as a go-to- ground vermin hunter. Emerging was clarification and descriptors for the Hard-Haired Scottish Terrier . It was the form and function of dogs themselves that was the basis for the written word. Standard words have their origins in the actual object, and the standard’s words are the descriptors of excellence in the breed. The selected, concise use of vocabulary and clarity of terms creates a vision of the breed. There needs to be a constant and consistent toggle between terminology and the actual dog. For example, even the word “home” results in a different mental picture from location to location and from person to person. The choice of vocabulary, encapsulated within the all-impor- tant General Appearance section of our standard, contains critical adjectives for judging; small, compact, short-legged, sturdily-built, with a wiry, weather-resistant coat. It also cites a thick-set, “cobby” body and the breed’s very special keen, piercing, “varminty” expres- sion. Understanding the terms “cobby” and “varminty” is based on each reader’s depth of experience. In all learning, the closer the educational experiences are to the desired expectations—in this case, judging—the deeper the learning. We have likely experienced this when stepping into the ring to judge a large entry of a new breed. Having actual dogs to view and exam- ine while learning is critical. These are “concrete” learning experi- ences. Visual depictions, including, drawings, photos, and videos, are opportunities that assist as secondary illustrative opportunities. The written word/words, as in our standards, are the most abstract and are dependent upon our experience.

As we are writing this preface, the term “cobby” continues to be highlighted in red by auto check as not being a word— and few dictionaries have a clear definition. Literacy and read- ing experts have graphic organizers and techniques for deepen- ing our understanding of the written word. Learners are asked to “say it a different way,” provide a personal definition, use illustrations, pictures and drawings, list examples and non- examples, and incorporate the terms in their oral language. Below we will provide additional information on the standard’s wording of “cobby” and “varminty” which are so important in the Scottish Terrier standard. Hopefully, judges and breed- ers alike will utilize the terms frequently in the assessment of our breed and in discussions of the breed. OFFICIAL STANDARD OF THE SCOTTISH TERRIER General Appearance: The Scottish Terrier is a small, com- pact, short-legged, sturdily-built dog of good bone and sub- stance. His head is long in proportion to his size. He has a hard, wiry, weather-resistant coat and a thick-set, cobby body which is hung between short, heavy legs. These characteris- tics, joined with his very special keen, piercing, “varminty” expression, and his erect ears and tail are salient features of the breed. The Scottish Terrier’s bold, confident, dignified aspect exemplifies power in a small package.” COBBY The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/ cobby”>cobby cob·by (k b’ ) adj. cob·bi·er, cob·bi·es Having short legs and a compact body; stocky. Used of animals. Wiki- pedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canine_terminology#Body The body may be described as “cobby” or sometimes by a ratio of height to length. Throughout the early years of breed “development,” Ter- riers were often described by their observable characteristics; long-legged or short-legged, coat length and texture, color, etc. As sportsmen, when describing body type it was natural and easily understood to utilize terminology derived from their familiarity with horses. The term “cobby” as cited in the Scot- tish Terrier has its origins in, and likely harkens to, the original Cob horse. The Cob horse is defined as a horse short of leg, compact of body, with heavier bone, good strength of body, and a stockier build. Below are additional excerpts and descrip- tions of the Cob horse that may deepen our understanding of how the adjective rightly and accurately applies to the Scottish Terrier, differing this breed from others by body type.

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KNOWING THE NAME OF SOMETHING IS NOT THE SAME AS KNOWING SOMETHING

Observe the two photos of horses below. How would you describe the two different body types? How does your view match the horse- man’s adjectives utilized in identifying the Cob horse? What is a Cob? “It can be both a breed and a type of horse.” “A cob is stocky, sturdy & robust with a handsome and noble head.” – Taken From What Really Is a Cob? by Anna Bowen What really is a cob? ( whickr.com ) Where does the word “cob” come from? The etymology of the word “cob” appears to be from late Mid- dle English. It meant a strong man or a strong leader, and it seems the underlying sense of the word was to imply a strong, sturdy, and rounded shape. This is perhaps why a round loaf of bread is also known as a “cob” and where the word “cobblestone” also comes from. What does it mean with respect to horses? “As you might expect from the origin of the word, a cob is ‘strong’ and ‘rounded.’ A cob is simply a type of horse that has a sturdy build, strong bones, large joints, and generally stout appearance. They can be any size, but traditionally, they have been thought of as a small horse; above pony height. This differentiates them from sturdy ponies and larger draft horses with a similar build.” What is a cob? - Good Horse ( good-horse.com ) The Irish Cob - History & Information About the Irish Cob: “The Irish Cob is compact and powerful, ample both in muscle and bone, yet with an ability to perform as a good all-purpose animal. Some Irish Cobs tend to be more “stocky” than others. The Irish Cob is well-balanced and proportioned, standing straight and square, and offering an imposing appearance. General appearance including topline relates to animals in good condition.” Irish Cob, its origin, description and details of the irish cobi ( irishhorsesociety.com ) “The Norman Cob is a breed of mid-sized, light draft horses that hail from the French province of Normandy. Even though it has been selectively bred to produce general subgroups within the breed that are characterized by different heights and weights, it has

left: Cobby; right: Not Cobby; Illustrations by Darle Heck

a great degree of similarity with a Thoroughbred in terms of its conformation. It has an elegant appearance, with a short back and an overall square profile.” Norman Cob Horse Info, Origin, History, Pictures ( horsebreedspictures.com ) Although it is not necessary to compare the cobby Scottish Terrier and the racy Irish Terrier, perhaps we can now clearly dif- ferentiate the cobby dog within the breed itself as preferred in our standard. Above are two illustrations. As a judge, which would you seek in your evaluation as being cobby? The illustrations are of the general outline as first viewed in the judging process. True determination of the cobby dog requires appraisal from the front for proper width as well as from the top of the dog. VARMINTY It has been stated that if all the Terrier breeds were lined up behind a fence, and all you could see were the heads, you should be able to determine which breed is which by the head alone. Given this statement, it is the unique characteristics of the Scot- tish Terrier head that conveys the impression as described in the standard as having a “very special, keen, piercing, varminty, expression” that typifies his bold, confident nature. What are the anatomical specifics that define the unique Scottish Terrier head and how does it differ from other Ter- rier heads? In the paragraphs that follow, the structures that are essential are discussed. We have chosen to infuse this article from our experiences as a breeder, exhibitor, and judge. The accompanying illustration provides an image surrounded by many of the standard and historical descriptors. It is a “look” that is somewhat difficult to find. However, “When you see it, you know it.” It is the dog that looks at—and through—you with all the strength and confidence of his being, and the one that exudes the belief that he is better than you. The Scottish Terrier head is heavily weighted in the stan- dard. While it is only one component of the totality of the dog, it is often one of the first parts viewed after assessing the balance and outline (cobby). The ability of our breed to “look down his nose at you” both figuratively and structurally con- veys the attitude and totality of his indomitable spirit. This does not occur if the underlying structure is not correct. Thus, I will speak of each of the components as well as clarifying some possible misconceptions. Scottish Terrier heads are not narrow . Rather, they are of medium width which gives the impression of narrowness due to the cleanness of skull and length of head in proportion to the overall length and size of the dog. Averages do not work here, as each specimen may vary in size. A bitch head might be more refined than a dog head, yet both are equally correct. A com- mon misconception is that our “Diehard” head is lean or narrow. This is incorrect and certainly could create a commonality with other breeds within our Group, and more importantly, affect the necessary balance and strength the Scot needs to accomplish his

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Top Twenty * BRONZE GRAND CHAMPION BROOKSTONES Vanilla Bean

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*AKC stats as of 1/27/22

SCOTTISH TERRIER

The “BEANS”

Watch for Beanie in the Florida ring with her friend Ernesto Lara or owner Linda Tresvant... ...as she pursues Silver Status Loved by Owner Linda Tresvant, Breeder Jene Anderson

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KNOWING THE NAME OF SOMETHING IS NOT THE SAME AS KNOWING SOMETHING

purpose as a go-to-ground badger hunter. Consider this quote when assessing the head: “His head, accentuated by eyebrows and whiskers, should appear long for the size of body… clean rather than ‘ lean.’” (Penn-Bull 75, 77)) There is a difference. Over many years, “varminty” is a term that we have heard people struggle to define in books and seminars. In our studies of the breed, we’ve come to see it as the result of the correct struc- ture of the head, combined with correct eye shape and placement. Varminty is not just a term defining the eyes. It’s a term that defines the entire expression. In fact, the entire head structure and all of its parts contribute to being “varminty.” Some of these parts include the color, shape, fill under the eye, correct stop, and the planes of the head. When the head planes are parallel, the proportion of muzzle- to-skull is equal. The muzzle is well-filled below the eye, with good strength to the end. The skull is clean and of medium width. The top plane of the skull will run parallel and slightly above the plane of the muzzle. The stop is slight but definite. Either too much or a lack of stop distorts the expression. Any deviation in the planes weakens the leverage and changes the expression. If the head planes are not parallel, if the dog is down-faced with the muzzle dropping away from the skull, the eye orbit is opened up. The eye is no longer under the brow and the eye will appear larger and rounder, and will give a softer, less desirable expression. The correct definition of the stop enables the eyes to be placed nearly at right angles to the general line of the skull. Then the brows project over the eye, more especially at the outer edges. The small, dark, and almond-shaped eye, set deeply under the brow, facing forward, gives the impression that the Scottish Terrier is

left: Varminty; right: Not Varminty; Illustrations by Darle Heck

looking down his nose at the world with a hint of the devil in him. When that dog alerts to a varmint, all of these factors come together to create the perfect structure of the head. This piercing, intense expression can be accentuated by becom- ing almost triangular in shape, with the upper line of the eye lifting and forming an angle, and the lower lid being curved. This is what we define as a varminty expression. It is a breed characteristic that should be highly sought after as a critical component of breed type. It is the look of a Scottish Terrier that is instantaneously identifiable as he peers over the aforementioned fence with his Terrier relations. Above are two illustrations of the Scottish Terrier head. Which one is “varminty?” Can you identify at least four differences that contribute to this expression!

ABOUT THE AUTHORS We first met one another when appointed to the Scottish Terrier Club of America’s committee charged to develop the Illustrated Guide to the Scottish Terrier. True to the temperament of our breed, the five breeder-judges appointed engaged not only in discussions but occasional and intense debate relative to all aspects of the breed. (We guess that those from other Groups might actually refer to this as sparring.) Prior to appointment to the committee, Kathi and Darle had no actual personal contact, as might be expected from a New England breeder outside of Boston and one from the far west Canadian province of Alberta. Repeatedly, we found that we shared many opinions on the Scottish Terrier; structure, functionality, and history. Since that time, we’ve continued to “talk dogs” by phone, email, and in person. Watching each other judge the breed is a pleasure. While we may not always agree, we understand the reasons for the other’s decisions. Our friendship has both deepened our understanding of the breed and changed some previous conceptions. Over the years, we rarely write anything on the breed without sharing it with one another. We have since collaborated on many articles on the Scottish Terrier.

KATHI BROWN Kathi Brown is a breeder, exhibi- tor, and AKC judge of three-plus Groups. She serves as Judges’ Edu- cation Coordinator for the Scottish Terrier Club of America. She has served as a member of the Stan- dard Review Committee as well as the committee that produced the Illustrated Guide to the Scottish

DARLE HECK Darle started showing and grooming her parents’ Scotties as a child, winning her first Group at age 12. She has shown and bred Scotties since then. She worked for a professional handler during her teens, and at that time, she fell in love with Bouviers and brought three into Canada. These were some of the earliest Bouviers brought into Canada and many top-winners have come down from these lines. Since 1995, she has also been breeding and showing Wire

Fox Terriers, all under the Beinnein prefix. Beinnein Kennels has consistently produced dogs that have been Specialty winners as well as dogs that have been nationally ranked at the top of their Breed and Group in Canada and around the world. Darle has been judging since 2000 and has had the honor of judging in Canada, the US, Australia, Chile, China, Columbia, Ecuador, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Slovenia, Uruquay, and New Zealand. She has judged several National Specialties, including the US National at Montgomery for Scottish Terriers. Darle is also well-known for her canine artwork. She has done illustrated guides for several breed clubs and limited edition prints in a number of breeds. Darle is currently on the Breed Standards Committee for the Scottish Terrier Club of America and is a Past President of the Canadian Scottish Terrier Club. She is licensed as an all-breed judge by the Canadian Kennel Club.

Terrier. Kathi has written numerous articles on the Scottish Terrier. She has judged many Specialties and Terrier Group shows, including the Scottish Terrier National Specialty in Canada and in the US. Her limited “Blueberry Hill” breeding program has yielded top-quality Scottish Terriers for forty- five years. Her dogs include many Best in Show and National Specialty winners as well as three years as Number One in the breed. She is Past President of Ladies’ Dog Club, the Scottish Terrier Club of America, New England Terrier Club, and the Scottish Terrier Club of New England. Professionally, Kathi is an education consultant working with states, districts, and colleges, providing professional development on learner- and outcome-based instruction in science and mathematics.

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THE SCOTTISH TERRIER

IN WORD & PICTURE BY KATHI BROWN & DARLE HECK

“Length of head is desirable but if the head is bumpy, weak in foreface or lacks balance it can never be considered a good head.” (Penn-Bull, 79)

“All Terriers need relatively long heads to get the bite out in defense of the dig- ging pads when meeting the varmint.” (Mcdowell Lyon, 258)

Ears: Small, Prick, Pointed, Set Well-Up

“Head: Long for the size of the body, medium width, clean rather than lean.” (Penn-Bull, 75)

“In striving after sheer length at the expense of correct shape, nothing is gained and the characteristic profile and typical expression are lost.” (Casperez, 64)

Parallel & Equal, Slight but Definite Stop

Eyes: Set Wide, Small, Almond, Dark

“One specific feature is the ‘shark nose,’ and the sloping line from the tip of the nose to the chin gives correct finish to the muzzle. A squared-off, ‘blunt’ nose is untypical and mars the appearance of the head.” (Penn-Bull, 75)

“Though the standard does not mention it, there is much talk regarding the fill-in beneath the eyes. Without this, the head takes on an hourglass appearance, which is unpleasant and leads to poor expres- sion, but which, if present, rounds out the balance of skull and muzzle, fusing them into a single unit.” (Kirk, 78)

Nose Black, of Good Size, Projects Over Mouth

Muzzle: Strong, Well- Filled, with Little Taper; Fills an Average Man’s Hands

Jaws: Level & Square; Teeth: Large; Bite: Scissors or Level, Scissored Preferred

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SCOTTISH TERRIER

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THE SCOTTISH TERRIER IN WORDS & PICTURE

ABOUT THE AUTHORS We first met one another when appointed to the Scottish Terrier Club of America’s committee charged to develop the Illustrated Guide to the Scottish Terrier. True to the temperament of our breed, the five breeder-judges appointed engaged not only in discussions but occasional and intense debate relative to all aspects of the breed. (We guess that those from other Groups might actually refer to this as sparring.) Prior to appointment to the committee, Kathi and Darle had no actual personal contact, as might be expected from a New England breeder outside of Boston and one from the far west Canadian province of Alberta. Repeatedly, we found that we shared many opinions on the Scottish Terrier; structure, functionality, and history. Since that time, we’ve continued to “talk dogs” by phone, email, and in person. Watching each other judge the breed is a pleasure. While we may not always agree, we understand the reasons for the other’s decisions. Our friendship has both deepened our understanding of the breed and changed some previous conceptions. Over the years, we rarely write anything on the breed without sharing it with one another. We have since collaborated on many articles on the Scottish Terrier.

KATHI BROWN Kathi Brown is a breeder, exhibitor, and AKC judge of three-plus Groups. She serves as Judges’ Education Coordinator for the Scottish Terrier Club of America. She has served as a member of the Standard Review Committee as well as the committee that produced the Illustrated Guide to the Scottish Terrier. Kathi has written numerous articles on the Scottish Terrier. She has judged many Specialties and Terrier Group shows, including the Scottish Terrier National Specialty in Canada and in the US. Her limited “Blueberry Hill” breeding program has yielded top-quality Scottish Terriers for forty-five years. Her dogs include many Best in Show and National Specialty winners as well as three years as Number One in the breed. She is Past President of Ladies’ Dog Club, the Scottish Terrier Club of America, New England Terrier Club, and the Scottish Terrier Club of New England. Professionally, Kathi is an education consultant working with states, districts, and colleges, providing professional development on learner- and outcome-based instruction in science and mathematics. DARLE HECK Darle started showing and grooming her parents’ Scotties as a child, winning her first Group at age 12. She has shown and bred Scotties since then. She worked for a professional handler during her teens, and at that time, she fell in love with Bouviers and brought three into Canada. These were some of the earliest Bouviers brought into Canada and many top-winners have come down from these lines. Since 1995, she has also been breeding and showing Wire Fox Terriers, all under the Beinnein prefix. Beinnein Kennels has consistently produced dogs that have been Specialty winners as well as dogs that have been nationally ranked at the top of their Breed and Group in Canada and around the world. Darle has been judging since 2000 and has had the honor of judging in Canada, the US, Australia, Chile, China, Columbia, Ecuador, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Slovenia, Uruquay, and New Zealand. She has judged several National Specialties, including the US National at Montgomery for Scottish Terriers. Darle is also well-known for her canine artwork. She has done illustrated guides for several breed clubs and limited edition prints in a number of breeds. Darle is currently on the Breed Standards Committee for the Scottish Terrier Club of America and is a Past President of the Canadian Scottish Terrier Club. She is licensed as an all-breed judge by the Canadian Kennel Club.

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SCOTTISH TERRIER

terrier scottish JUDGING THE SCOTTISH TERRIER “His commanding presence, his un fl inching gaze, his deep rooted conviction that he is his own man; these are the attributes of the adult Scottish Terrier of a proper type. Once witnessed, this attitude is hard to forget.” - Evelyn Kirk 1996

BY KATHI BROWN Illustrations by Darle Heck

T he silhouette of the Scottish Terrier is one of the most recog- nizable in dogdom. As a judge, we go well beyond and are able to recognize, compare, and contrast specimens according to the salient features and disposition of the breed. The Scottish Terrier is in all aspects a small, sturdy dog of serious purpose that will fearlessly go to earth after badger and other prey. Scottish Terriers should enter the ring with con fi dence, owning the ground they stand upon. Many are busybodies and may resist the handlers’ e ff orts to face in the predetermined, proper direction. Each dog should con- vey the belief that he is the best, regardless of your judgment. Stand back and assess each entry. Although many handlers will kneel and stack their dogs, your eye should seek a small, compact, muscular dog of good bone and sub- stance, with a head that is long in proportion to its size. Check for a smooth fl ow of neck into shoulder, level topline, a pronounced forechest, and rump extending beyond the tail—the tail is NOT the end of a Scottish Terrier! Move to the front of the line looking for a varminty expression and also for the proper width of each dog.

Science has been described as ever lurch- ing after exactitude, and every time it appears within our grasp it takes another step away toward in fi nity. In essence, the more closely you examine something, the more you learn about it, but also the more questions emerge. Many years ago, I wrote an article to describe judging my breed. Th is rewrite has been informed by my own experiences and the pertinent questions of other judges, who are lifelong learners, as they engage in judging the “Diehard.” I have also attempted to add more of the “why” in addition to the “ how” of judging the Scottish Terrier. - Kathi Brown

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THE SCOTTISH TERRIER CLUB OF AMERICA invites you to join us in fellowship as we work to preserve our beloved breed. The versatility of the Scottish Terrier is second to none. Whether performing in agility, earthdog, barn hunt, conformation, or obedience these dogs are smart, loyal, and determined. Scottish Terriers own YOU. And that's why we love them! WE HAVEMEMBERS FROMAROUND THEWORLD who are united by their respect and love for the Scottish Terrier. Please check out our website for information on breeding, health, competition events, rescue and ways to get involved in the breed and the club. We have many activities sponsored by our national and regional clubs and would welcome getting to know you. We gather regularly for grooming clinics, health testing and stan- dard seminars, performance and conformation events, and always have fun doing it.

Please visit our website for information on many topics, including breeder listings and upcoming events. WE LOOK FORWARD TOMEETING YOU!

STCA.biz

Twitter.com/STCAScotties

Facebook.com/ScottishTerrierClubofAmerica

JUDGING THE SCOTTISH TERRIER

Th e dog goes around the ring covering ground even with short legs, reaching out with its front feet almost to the point of its nose, and powerfully pushing with its rear, showing good extension of the rear foot. Do not misconstrue lots of quick little steps for e ff ective reach and drive. Ears may fold back while in motion, but the tail is carried up. Recheck for a level topline while on the move. Judges should be sure to avail themselves of two major opportunities to evaluate the Scottish Terrier; table examination and free-standing. Th e fi rst is a breed-speci fi c examination on the table, which can con fi rm or change your initial opinion. Skillful grooming can both enhance the dog and camou fl age problems. Hands on the dog will uncover where hair is fi lling holes. Check the proportion and height of the dog (10" at the withers) with your hands. Th e Scottie at work must be small enough to invade dens and small burrows without being trapped by his own height and bulk. Stand back and take a minute to carefully observe expression. Th e ears con- tribute greatly to proper expression, being “set well up on the skull” forming a straight line up from the side. Th ey are relatively small and mobile, thus you

will want to check these again when on the ground and alert. I often check the ear set both from the front and behind the dog, where it cannot be hidden by grooming. Th e correct expression once seen is hard to miss again. Th e Scot will generally look down his nose at you with a penetrating gaze letting you know that he is in charge. Th is is described as “var- minty” and should NEVER be sweet, appealing or cute. Th e eye set (deep with fi ll under the eye), shape (almond), and color (dark) are critical components of expression. “ Th e head should be long in proportion to the overall length and size of the dog.” Th e length is well-balanced. It should not be achieved by over re fi nement of the skull or by an unbalanced, elon- gated muzzle. Th e standard is clear that the skull is of medium width, giving the impression of narrowness

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JUDGING THE SCOTTISH TERRIER

its strength that fi lls a man’s hand, and for a punishing, strong underjaw. Check for the proper equal proportion of skull to muz- zle, placing your thumb into the stop to determine if the correct “slight but de fi nite stop” is present, rather than cut-in by groom- ing. Feel under the hair to determine that there is true fi ll below the dark, almond, wide-set eyes. Although slightly domed, the skull should appear fl at and the planes, viewed from the side, parallel. While at the front of the dog, I bring my cupped open hand on the chest feeling for the required forechest and prosternum. Th is procedure is stated within the standard. It is important to feel for the forechest as it is often covered by careful grooming. Th en drop your palm straight down between the legs to ascertain the relative straightness and width of the forelegs. Move to the side, running your hand down the strong “mod- erately short” neck, across the shoulders and body to recon fi rm a smooth transition into the “well laid back and moderately well knit” shoulders speci fi ed in the standard. It is important to check for an upper arm approximately the same length as the shoulder blade, bringing the elbow next to the body below the widest point of the rib and well back on the dog. Judges should feel for the chest, which is described as “broad, very deep and well let down between the forelegs.” It is a heart-shaped (not slab-sided or barrel- shaped) chest in cross section, tapering to a point and dropping down BELOW the elbow. Th e standard is clear that the “lowest point of the brisket should be such that an average man’s fi st would fi t under it with little or no overhead clearance.” To properly exam- ine a dog according to the standard, the judge should therefore measure width and depth by actually placing his fi st under the dog. I prefer to do this measure from the side just behind the front leg at the deepest rib. If you are tall enough to do so from the front, make sure that you do not place your face in the dog’s and go back to the lowest point under the brisket. Continue along the ribs which should be “well back into a short, strong loin, deep [in] fl anks…” Th e inverse carrot tail is set-on high and carried proudly. Check behind the tail for the point of ischium and the broad, muscular hindquarters with a well-bent sti fl e allowing for the breed to spring from rock to rock as well as to pull the vermin out of its den. Th e length from hock to heel is short and perpendicular to the ground. A Scot’s coat is critical to the climate of the country of origin and to the work it needs to accomplish. Th is is a double-coated breed with a HARD, wiry topcoat covering its dense, soft under- coat. Check the texture by rubbing the top hair between your thumb and index fi nger, then pick it up, looking for the requisite undercoat. Th e dog’s jacket should blend smoothly into its furnish- ings. Th e furnishings should never resemble a billowy skirt. Th e preparation and presentation of the Scottish Terrier takes skill, dedication, and time on behalf of the owner and should be careful- ly evaluated and respected. Never rake the jacket backward toward the head. Scottish Terriers come in coats of many colors (except white)—all are equal; none preferred. White is allowed ONLY on the chest and chin, and this to a slight extent. Th e dog will most often shake himself out once again, get- ting comfortable before moving. Going away, the rear movement should be straight and true with good fl ex at the hock. Th e pads of the rear feet should turn up toward you. When judging front gait, the forelegs are not exactly parallel to each other; there is a slight turn in as they reach out around the deep chest of the dog. Th e Illustrated Guide to the Scottish Terrier states, “It is important to note that a dog that is higher in leg will appear to move better in a generic sense. Th is is not desirable and is at the expense of

due to its cleanness of skull and overall length. Th is skull should be clean; not cheeky or coarse, which would detract from the neces- sary strong, powerful bite. Th e bite is level or scissors with LARGE teeth capable of encountering and disposing of quarry. When I approach the dog on the table for hands-on examina- tion, I generally speak to the handler, “good morning” or “good afternoon.” Th is is not to be a congenial person, but to elicit a response from the handler which will indicate to the dog that I am an acceptable person about to examine him. Reach out, cupping the head underneath the muzzle at the same time to determine

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JUDGING THE SCOTTISH TERRIER

Scottish Terrier type.” Th e Scottish Terrier is a “short-legged” breed. To infer that he can be too short-legged is far too simplistic. Th e entire harmony of parts is critical on a small dog measuring ten inches at the shoulder, yet a big dog in body. Too many are lacking the essential heart-shaped chest and the desired angulation that are essential to function and movement. From the side, the dog car- ries a level topline. Th e reach from the front and the extension and powerful drive from the rear should be evident. Th e standard states clearly, “No judge should put to Winners or Best of Breed any Scottish Terrier not showing real Terrier charac- ter in the ring.” A Scottie is never timid, and one with its tail down should not be your choice. What then is true Terrier temperament? While structurally the breed is a big dog on short legs, it is a big- ger dog in his mind as well; self-con fi dent, sturdy on the ground which is “all his,” and more than willing and capable of dispatching vermin in its den. Th is is displayed by the carriage of his tail, head and ears. It is helpful that you as a judge view the dog standing on his own rather than being poked and prodded into a predetermined stance. Sparring is useful to have the Scottish Terrier show himself. Judges should use the spar judiciously. You need not spar every dog. When pulling dogs to be sparred, make sure you set speci fi c guide- lines to be followed. Dogs already exhibiting feisty behavior may not be necessary to engage with others. I generally spar two dogs under consideration and am thoughtful regarding those I need to see. It is not necessary to have the dogs cause a ruckus (although this may occur), but only to collect themselves and stand boldly, four-square. I would o ff er all judges a few suggestions: • Always move the Scottish Terrier prior to table examination. Th is is a breed that in temperament needs to “get the kinks out” and assess the ring on his terms. • Never reach down and examine the dog while on “his” ground; if you need to check the dog, request it to be re-tabled. • Remember this breed is digni fi ed, self-con fi dent yet sensitive, and they do not easily tolerate intimacy from strangers. So do NOT baby-talk, grab and hold his beard, pound on him or become nose-to-nose with him. • Provide shade on hot days for this generally dark, double-coated breed. • Control the ring, separating overly feisty dogs, and control the spar.

Th e Illustrated Guide to the Scottish Terrier may be obtained from the Secretary of the STCA and contains a single-page quick check of the key elements of the breed for your judge’s book. Read Lovely Fire by Mrs. Evelyn Kirk as printed in the Septem- ber 1977 AKC Gazette . ABOUT THE AUTHOR Kathi Brown is a breeder, exhibitor and AKC judge. She serves as Judges’ Education Coordinator for the Scottish Terrier Club of America. She is a member of the Standard Review Committee as well as the committee that produced the Illustrated Guide to the Scottish Terrier. Kathi has written numerous articles on the Scottish Terrier. She has judged many Specialties and Terrier Group shows, including the Scottish Terrier National Specialty in Canada and in the US. Her limited “Blueberry Hill” breeding program has yielded top-quality Scottish Terriers for 45 years. Her dogs include many Best in Show and National Specialty winners as well as three years as number one in the Breed. She is Past President of Ladies’ Dog Club, the Scottish Terrier Club of America, New England Terrier Club, and the Scottish Terrier Club of New England. Professionally, Kathi is an education consultant working with states, districts and colleges, providing professional development on learner and outcome-based instruction.

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BY KATHI BROWN & MARIANNE MELUCCI SCOTTISH TERRIER: Coat and Color M ore is often made about color, less so regarding the coat itself. As more judges from other Groups begin to judge our breed, it bears reminding that the coat

identified the variety of Scottish Terrier as, “Steel or iron grey, black brindle, brown brindle, grey brindle, black, sandy and wheaten. White markings are objectionable and can be allowed only on the chest and that to a slight extent only.” The American Standard (1947-1993) con- tinued to recognize coat color as “steel or iron grey, brin- dle or grizzled, black, sandy or wheaten.” In 1993, the color was changed, dropping the grizzle and changing to Black, Wheaten or Brindle of any color. The colors were presumably listed alphabetically. A suggestion would be an additional line be added stating that “no color is preferred.” However, it is critical that the original colors identified in the earlier standard not be penalized in any way, and that colors, though rarer today, still may and do occur and are acceptable. While grizzle is very com- mon, most within the breed refer to it as a brindle, and is most certainly included. Personally, being in the breed as an owner, breeder, exhibitor, and judge for more than 45 years, I revel in the colors that may be seen in the Scottish Terrier and which are glorious in their variety. There are many combinations that can and do occur. The Scottish Terrier can be solid or brindled, darker or lighter, black, sandy, red, rich reddish wheaten or paler. It can have a dark mask visible on the brindles. (The solid black may also have a mask, though it is indistinguish- able on the dog.) Brindles may appear in varying depths of color and shades (red, silver, etc.) Wheaten can appear in any variation from cream through deeper red. As the coat is worked, and the dog ages, shadings may change. Shading on the wheaten is very common as the length and age of the stripped coat and undercoat may influ- ence the color. Even a black dog is not just black, but occurs in many tones. Often a few white hairs may be found on the body coat of a black dog, with no penalty. Some owners will pluck these, whereas others will leave them as evidence for the discerning judge that the dog was not artificially colored. White is still allowable to a slight extent (size of a quarter) on the chest. On the chin, you may find lighter hairs, which breeders refer to as a milk beard. Upon closer examination of these, one will find that the white is often a dilute grizzle. Infrequently, black and tan markings have been known to occur in the breed. Solid reds and sandies are rare.

itself is of greater importance and emphasis. The present standard scale of points adopted in 1993 has removed color and has the highest weight as “coat.” It is important to remember:

“It is seldom a good dog can be a bad color.” –A.G. Cowley-Albourne Kennels What color is a Scottish Terrier? For the novice and the unfamiliar, the color black might be an answer. Longtime breeders and knowledgeable Terrier judges are well aware that the breed has a coat of many colors, textures, and shades. It is critical to the understanding of the Scottish Terrier that the coat, not the color, is of greater importance. Historically, the Scot has always been a multi-colored breed. In the early 1880s, Captain Mackie visited the Highlands to view and record information about Scot- tish Terriers. It was, and is still, a purposeful breed and each regional gamekeeper selected and bred dogs for their gameness and ability to rid the area of vermin. Mackie recorded dogs of many colors; red, brindle, fawn, grizzly, black, and sandy. The reports described coats “as hard as any would want” and specifically “rough-coated.” By the year 1880, a committee was formed to describe the breed characteristics, and the only mention of color was “white marking objectionable.” Reports were made that red brindle with a black mask was highly desirable. The first English Standard (1887) was more detailed and

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SCOTTISH TERRIER: COAT AND COLOR

A top-quality Scottie show coat is the result of good genetics, prop- er grooming, and diligent overall care and conditioning of the dog. Our standard states that the Scottish Terrier should have a broken coat. It is a hard, wiry outer coat with a soft, dense under coat. The coat should be trimmed and blended into the furnish- ings to give a distinct Scottish Terrier outline. The dog should be presented with sufficient coat so that the texture and density may be determined. The longer coat on the beard, legs, and lower body may be slightly softer than the body coat, but should not be or appear fluffy. The importance of a proper coat cannot be overstressed. Both the harsh, wiry jacket and dense undercoat are essentials of Scot- tish Terrier breed type as they contribute to the protection of the dog at work, as well as during harsh weather conditions. The Scottie is a double-coated Terrier with a soft, dense undercoat that is difficult to part sufficiently to see the skin. The dog must be shown in a long enough coat to determine texture. The coat should not be clipped down or blown-out, but should present a generally broken-haired look over the body. The jacket should lie close and tight around a muscular body. Furnishings should appear longer and feel softer, but not so long as to drag on the ground. You should always be able to see daylight under the dog. There are excellent coats in all acceptable colors. There are also, at the other extreme, poor coat qualities in all colors. The better the quality of the coat, the easier it is to work and maintain. Determining what your ideal coat length should be varies on the type of dog you have. Large dogs can carry a shorter coat, whereas smaller dogs might look better carrying a longer coat. Building a coat, or letting it get thicker, gives the smaller dog the impression of more body and size. On the other hand, too much coat on a small dog can create a “fur ball” look—something you should avoid. Planning is an important aspect to consider first when groom- ing and conditioning your show coat. Before you start, ask your- self these questions: 1. When is the dog to be in “top condition” for showing? 2. What kind of coat quality is going to be worked? 3. Is it an adult coat or puppy coat? 4. Will the coat be “rolled?” 5. What is the condition of the furnishings? 6. What kind of time schedule is going to be available? The standard states that the coat should be timed and blended into the furnishings to give a distinct Scottish Terrier outline. The following is excerpted from the Scottish Terrier Club of America‘s award winning “Guide to Grooming The Scottish Terrier.” Judges not familiar with broken coated Terriers should avail themselves of an opportunity to examine the coat first-hand. It would be extreme- ly helpful for those judges as well as owners to personally engage in hand-stripping at least a portion of the jacket. –Kathi Brown Show Coat the

I have encountered some individuals who have expressed preferences on color. This should have no bear- ing on the overall selection of a good Scottish Terrier. Our breed has no disqualifications, nor any penalty for color. One should be aware of a few additional color specif- ics. The nose of the Scottish Terrier is black. A wheaten with dark rims and shading around the eye may appear to have larger eyes. Masking on brindles may or may not occur. Those without masks and/or with lighter shading on the skull and cheek may appear to have a courser head than in fact. The lighter shaded dogs may appear larger. Which color is preferred? No color is preferred over another! An examination of the suggested scale of points clearly conveys the percentage valuing of color in the Scottish Terrier as ZERO. Conversely, the coat itself is a salient feature of the breed. Terrier folk are extremely particular and proud of proper coats. The importance of coat cannot be over- stressed. The harsh, wiry topcoat and dense insulating undercoat are essentials of the Scottish Terrier. Without the coat, the Scot could not be functional for the weather or terrain in which he works. This coat is meticulously conditioned and presented. Owners and handlers spend many months and hours plucking the coat to perfection. Judges should seek the soft, dense undercoat and rub the topcoat between their fingers to determine its hard, wiry, weather-resistant texture, essential for the dog’s original purpose. Judges should spend the time and take proper care in evaluation of coat. It must be double. Nev- er rake against the direction of growth; it is insulting to the dog and the individual who spent time and effort to prepare. Look for, value, and reward the Scot that carries the double coat that insulates his sturdy body. Determin- ing the hard, wiry, weather-resistant texture of the coat is essential for the dog’s original purpose. Now, reward the coat—not the color! The Scottish Terrier has one of the most instanta- neously recognizable silhouettes. It may be easier to see the outline on a solid dog, thinking perhaps it is prefera- ble; not so. Judges should be able to see the outline regard- less of color. Breeders and judges both should select the best Scottish Terrier. Color alone is far too simple. We all need to choose the best dog of ANY color. –Kathi Brown “Judges should seek the soft, dense undercoat and rub the topcoat between their fingers to determine its hard, wiry, weather-resistant texture, essential for the dog’s original purpose.”

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SCOTTISH TERRIER: COAT AND COLOR

With the adult, is the end result of stripping to be a predetermined specialty show, a particular show circuit, or general maintenance? Which- ever your goal, stripping too soon or too late will destroy the entire pur- pose. Make the time to select the date or range of dates in which the dog is to be in top show coat. Obviously, counting back from that selected time will allow an adequate growing period. The fact that coat growing rates vary should also be considered. There are few, if any, shortcuts to good grooming techniques. If used, shortcuts may provide an adequate result for the moment, but they do not hold up over a long period of time and should only be used as a last resort. Always remember, stripping will bring in color and quality whereas clippering or scissoring will eventually take it away. A top-quality coat in excellent condition can only be kept in that manner by the use of proper grooming methods and dedication to the grooming and conditioning pro- cess. Good planning and follow-through are essential. “A top-quality coat in excellent condition can only be kept in that manner by the use of proper grooming methods and dedication to the grooming and conditioning process.”

Wheaten

Brindle

“Guide to Grooming the Scottish Terrier,” published by the Scottish Terrier Club of America c. 2010. Manual Development Committee of M. Melucci, C. Stephens, R. McConnell, and L.A. Warner. Illustrations by Darle Heck.

Black

MARIANNE MELUCCI Marianne found her first pet Scottie in 1992 and trained him for a CD title and therapy dog work. She started learning to groom and show in the conformation ring in 1998. In 2001, she established FireHeart Scottish Terriers and has finished many breeder/owner-handled and owner-handled champions, which include Specialty winners, All-Breed Group and Best-in-Show winners. Invitational Awards include: • 2002 AKC/Eukanuba Best of Breed • 2003 Westminster Kennel Club Best of Opposite • 2005 AKC/Eukanuba Best of Breed/Bred-By Exhibitor Group Third • 2006 Westminster Kennel Club Best of Opposite • 2011 AKC/Eukanuba Best of Opposite Sex/Best Bred-By Exhibitor Marianne was the recipient of the 2003, 2004 and 2005 Deblin Back Talk

Award for a total of 13 Owner-Handled Specialty Best of Breed wins. In 2014, at the MCKC All-Terrier Show, she showed one of her homebred Champions to Best in Show Owner-Handled. She has also earned titles on many of her champions in agility, obedience and earthdog. Marianne judged the 2012 Scottish Terrier Club of New York Match Show, Sweepstakes for the Scottish Terrier Club of Greater Houston 2010 Specialty, and the Scottish Terrier Club of Northern Ohio 2011 Specialty. She mentored the winner of the 2008 STCA Best Junior Showmanship Award. Marianne has given several grooming seminars and was the Chairman for the redesign of the STCA Guide to Grooming the Scottish Terrier that won the Dog Writers Association of America Maxwell Medallion for excellence in National Club Publications. The work on the Grooming Manual also earned her two STCA Service Awards: the 2010 Sterling Silver Medallion and the 2011 Anstaam Achievement Award. Marianne also chaired the creation of the grooming manual video companion piece, which won the Dog Writers Association of America Maxwell Medallion in 2017.

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THE SCOTTISH TERRIER FRONT

by KATHLEEN FERRIS, Illustration by Darle Heck

T he front of the Scottish Terri- er is important to understand and appreciate correctly. The breed is a short-legged dog with a deep chest. Upon examination you will find almost equal dimensions of length of measurement from point of withers to elbow and then elbow to ground. If the shoulder layback and assembly into the upper arm has the correct angulation it will create a pro- nounced prosternum. When added with a proper shelf off the rear it visu- ally creates a rectangular shape in a dog with a compact cobby body. We have a breed specific examina- tion of the front that we like to see our judges perform. As you approach the dog and finish examining the head you drop your hand down the front of the dog and find that a proper chest will fill the cup of your hand. Typically, this will be your left hand as you move your right hand to the point of withers where the shoulder blades join at the base of their moderate neck. You should notice that there is good distance between your hands. You then drop the left hand to the ground to check spacing and straightness of the front legs. With your right hand still on the point of withers you can feel/check the angulation of the shoulder blade to the upper arms which should be “well laid back and moderately well knit.” You will note that the elbow is in line with and under the point of withers. Remember as low as he is, the resultant reach for this low stationed dog can only be achieved by the proper front with equal length of well laid back shoulder and upper arm. In continuing your examination remember that the standard states the “lowest point of the brisket should be such that and average man’s fist would

fit under it with little or no overhead clearance”. In order to determine cor- rect depth of chest you will be making a fist. This continues the breed specific examine to discover that the chest is “broad, very deep and well let down between the forelegs”. The key phrase is an average man’s fist. For myself that means spreading my fingers slightly to adjust for size difference. You then slide your fist from behind the front leg/elbow under the lowest point of the dogs’ chest. In a mature Scottie your fist should barely if at all go under that point. If you have easy clearance than you must re-evaluate the height or structure of the dog. Puppies should be considered for their proportionality, since a well-developed chest may not appear until three-four years of age.

When judging this breed you should always have the impression of a big dog in a little body especially during your examination an adult Scottish Ter- rier. This particular feeling is especially noted when going over their distinctive front. As a final note as much as that prosternum will fill the cup of your hand, so should the rear shelf behind the tail. A favorite saying in the breed is the “the tail should never be the end of this dog.” ABOUT THE AUTHOR Kathleen Ferris is a second generation breeder of Scottish Terriers since 1972. She was also a Professional Handler and now is an AKC licensed Judge. She serves on the STCA Board and is a Parent Club Breed Mentor.

Shoulders: well-knit and laid back. 90° angle Fore Chest: broad, deep, hangs between front legs Ribcage: heart shaped, well-sprung, protruding brisket Legs: thick boned, straight or slightly bent, front paws larger

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